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Sökning: WFRF:(Rein Guillermo)

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  • Abbott, Benjamin W., et al. (författare)
  • Biomass offsets little or none of permafrost carbon release from soils, streams, and wildfire : an expert assessment
  • 2016
  • Ingår i: Environmental Research Letters. - : IOP Publishing: Open Access Journals / IOP Publishing. - 1748-9326 .- 1748-9326. ; 11:3
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • As the permafrost region warms, its large organic carbon pool will be increasingly vulnerable to decomposition, combustion, and hydrologic export. Models predict that some portion of this release will be offset by increased production of Arctic and boreal biomass; however, the lack of robust estimates of net carbon balance increases the risk of further overshooting international emissions targets. Precise empirical or model-based assessments of the critical factors driving carbon balance are unlikely in the near future, so to address this gap, we present estimates from 98 permafrost-region experts of the response of biomass, wildfire, and hydrologic carbon flux to climate change. Results suggest that contrary to model projections, total permafrost-region biomass could decrease due to water stress and disturbance, factors that are not adequately incorporated in current models. Assessments indicate that end-of-the-century organic carbon release from Arctic rivers and collapsing coastlines could increase by 75% while carbon loss via burning could increase four-fold. Experts identified water balance, shifts in vegetation community, and permafrost degradation as the key sources of uncertainty in predicting future system response. In combination with previous findings, results suggest the permafrost region will become a carbon source to the atmosphere by 2100 regardless of warming scenario but that 65%-85% of permafrost carbon release can still be avoided if human emissions are actively reduced.
  • Bal, Nicolas, et al. (författare)
  • Experimental study of radiative heat transfer in a translucent fuel sample exposed to different spectral sources
  • 2013
  • Ingår i: International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer. - 0017-9310 .- 1879-2189. ; 61:1, s. 742-748
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Radiative heat transfer to a solid is a key mechanism in fire dynamics, and in-depth absorption is especially of importance for translucent fuels. The sample-heater interaction for radiative heat transfer is experimentally investigated in this study with two different heaters (electric resistance and tungsten lamp) using clear PolyMethylMethAcrylate (PMMA) samples from two different formulations (Plexiglass and Lucite). First, the significant effects of the heater type and operating temperature on the radiative heat transfer are revealed with broadband measurements of transmittance on samples of different thicknesses. Then, the attenuation coefficient in Beer-Lambert's law has been calculated from detailed spectral measurements over the full wavelength range encountered in real fires. The measurements present large spectral heterogeneity. These experimental results and calculation of in-depth absorption are used to explain the reason behind the apparent variation of the fuel absorbance with the sample thickness observed in past studies. The measurement of the spectral intensity emitted by the heaters verifies that the common assumption of blackbody behavior is correct for the electric resistance, whereas the tungsten lamp does not even behave as a greybody. This investigation proofs the necessity of a multi-band radiation model to calculate accurately the fire radiative heat transfer which affects directly the in-depth temperature profiles and hence the pyrolysis process for translucent fuel.
  • Boulet, Pascual, et al. (författare)
  • Radiation emission from a heating coil or a halogen lamp on a semitransparent sample
  • 2014
  • Ingår i: International Journal of Thermal Sciences. ; 77:March, s. 223-232
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The radiation emission of the heating coil of a Cone Calorimeter and the one of the halogen lamp of a Fire Propagation Apparatus have been studied experimentally for varying power settings. These are two standard apparatuses used for fire calorimetry. The objective is to characterize and compare the radiative flux spectrum received by a fuel sample during pyrolysis experiments. The deviation from the standard assumption of black or gray emission is discussed. It is observed that the emission of the heating coil can be approximated well to an ideal blackbody, especially in the infrared range. On the contrary, the halogen lamp emission is more complex, non gray, with an important contribution in the visible and in the near infrared ranges. The flux received by a sample exposed to these emitters is predicted using ray tracing simulations. This shows that the irradiation flux and spectrum from the cone can be accurately calculated if the coil temperature is known. The non Lambertian irradiation flux from the lamp is modeled with a combination of diffuse and collimated intensities, representing the direct emission from the lamp itself and the reflection by the mirror at the rear side. For both emitters, the irradiation is confirmed to be approximately uniform over the surface of a sample 5 cm large (maximum deviation of ±2% on the incident flux). The uniformity decreases for larger samples, but the ratio of the flux at the center to average flux is still 1.04 for standard 10 cm × 10 cm samples under the cone. For illustration purposes, the influence of the spectral characteristics of the emitter is studied in the case of a sample of PMMA, a non gray translucent medium. Using recently published measurements of PMMA absorptivity, the absorbed flux by a 3 cm thick sample is predicted. In the case of an incident flux of 20 kW/m2, the calculated average absorptivity of the sample is 0.91 under the cone, while it is 0.32 under the FPA lamp. These calculations involve absorption data of a virgin sample at room temperature and consequently the numerical results only hold for the initial instants of irradiation. However, the very large differences in radiative behavior show that important discrepancies in the pyrolysis behavior are expected between the two emitters. This might have consequences for fire testing and inter comparisons of flammability results worth further investigation.
  • Boustras, Georgios, et al. (författare)
  • Fires: fund research for citizen safety
  • Ingår i: Nature. - : Nature Publishing Group. - 0028-0836. ; 551:7680, s. 300-300
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)
  • Heidari, Mohammad, et al. (författare)
  • Probabilistic Study of the Resistance of a Simply-Supported Reinforced Concrete Slab According to Eurocode Parametric Fire
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: Fire technology. - 0015-2684 .- 1572-8099. ; 55:4, s. 1377-1404
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • We present the application of a simple probabilistic methodology to determine the reliability of a structural element exposed to fire when designed following Eurocode 1-1-2 (EC1). Eurocodes are being used extensively within the European Union in the design of many buildings and structures. Here, the methodology is applied to a simply-supported, reinforced concrete slab 180 mm thick, with a standard load bearing fire resistance of 90 min. The slab is subjected to a fire in an office compartment of 420 m2 floor area and 4 m height. Temperature time curves are produced using the EC1 parametric fire curve, which assumes uniform temperature and a uniform burning condition for the fire. Heat transfer calculations identify the plausible worst case scenarios in terms of maximum rebar temperature. We found that a ventilation-controlled fire with opening factor 0.02 m1/2 results in a maximum rebar temperature of 448°C after 102 min of fire exposure. Sensitivity analyses to the main parameters in the EC1 fire curves and in the EC1 heat transfer calculations are performed using a one-at-a-time (OAT) method. The failure probability is then calculated for a series of input parameters using the Monte Carlo method. The results show that this slab has a 0.3% probability of failure when the compartment is designed with all layers of safety in place (detection and sprinkler systems, safe access route, and fire fighting devices are available). Unavailability of sprinkler systems results in a 1% probability of failure. When both sprinkler system and detection are not available in the building, the probability of failure is 8%. This novel study conducts for the first time a probabilistic calculation using the EC1 parametric curve, helping engineers to identify the most critical design fires and the probabilistic resistance assumed in EC1. 
  • Kinateder, Max, et al. (författare)
  • Virtual Reality for Fire Evacuation Research
  • 2014
  • Ingår i: Federated Conference on Computer Science and Information Systems. 1st Complex Events and Information Modelling (CEIM'14),2014-09-07. - : IEEE - Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Inc.. ; 2, s. 313-321
  • Konferensbidrag (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Virtual reality (VR) has become a popular approach to study human behavior in fire. The present position paper analyses Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities, and Threats (SWOT) of VR as a research tool for human behavior in fire. Virtual environments provide a maximum of experimental control, are easy to replicate, have relatively high ecological validity, and allow safe study of occupant behavior in scenarios that otherwise would be too dangerous. Lower ecological validity compared to field studies, ergonomic aspects, and technical limitations are the main weaknesses of the method. Increasingly realistic simulations and other technological advances provide new opportunities for this relatively young method. In this position paper, we argue that VR is a promising complementary laboratory tool in the quest to understand human behavior in fire and to improve fire safety.
  • McNamee, Margaret, et al. (författare)
  • IAFSS agenda 2030 for a fire safe world
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: Fire Safety Journal. - : Elsevier. - 0379-7112. ; 110
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The International Association of Fire Safety Science (IAFSS) is comprised of members from some 40 countries. This paper presents the Association's thinking, developed by the Management Committee, concerning pressing research needs for the coming 10 years presented as the IAFSS Agenda 2030 for a Fire Safe World. The research needs are couched in terms of two broad Societal Grand Challenges: (1) climate change, resiliency and sustainability and (2) population growth, urbanization and globalization. The two Societal Grand Challenges include significant fire safety components, that lead both individually and collectively to the need for a number of fire safety and engineering research activities and actions. The IAFSS has identified a list of areas of research and actions in response to these challenges. The list is not exhaustive, and actions within actions could be defined, but this paper does not attempt to cover all future needs.
  • Ronchi, Enrico, et al. (författare)
  • An open multi-physics framework for modelling wildland-urban interface fire evacuations
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: Safety Science. - : Elsevier. - 0925-7535. ; 118, s. 868-880
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Fire evacuations at wildland-urban interfaces (WUI) pose a serious challenge to the emergency services, and are a global issue affecting thousands of communities around the world. This paper presents a multi-physics framework for the simulation of evacuation in WUI wildfire incidents, including three main modelling layers: wildfire, pedestrians, and traffic. Currently, these layers have been mostly modelled in isolation and there is no comprehensive model which accounts for their integration. The key features needed for system integration are identified, namely: consistent level of refinement of each layer (i.e. spatial and temporal scales) and their application (e.g. evacuation planning or emergency response), and complete data exchange. Timelines of WUI fire events are analysed using an approach similar to building fire engineering (available vs. required safe egress times for WUI fires, i.e. WASET/WRSET). The proposed framework allows for a paradigm shift from current wildfire risk assessment and mapping tools towards dynamic fire vulnerability mapping. This is the assessment of spatial and temporal vulnerabilities based on the wildfire threat evolution along with variables related to the infrastructure, population and network characteristics. This framework allows for the integration of the three main modelling layers affecting WUI fire evacuation and aims at improving the safety of WUI communities by minimising the consequences of wildfire evacuations.
  • Ronchi, Enrico, et al. (författare)
  • e-Sanctuary: open multi-physics framework for modelling wildfire urban evacuation
  • 2017
  • Rapport (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • The number of evacuees worldwide during wildfire keep rising, year after year. Fire evacuations at the wildland-urban interfaces (WUI) pose a serious challenge to fire and emergency services and are a global issue affecting thousands of communities around the world. But to date, there is a lack of comprehensive tools able to inform, train or aid the evacuation response and the decision making in case of wildfire. The present work describes a novel framework for modelling wildfire urban evacuations. The framework is based on multi-physics simulations that can quantify the evacuation performance. The work argues that an integrated approached requires considering and integrating all three important components of WUI evacuation, namely: fire spread, pedestrian movement, and traffic movement. The report includes a systematic review of each model component, and the key features needed for the integration into a comprehensive toolkit.
  • Ronchi, Enrico, et al. (författare)
  • Framework for an integrated simulation system for Wildland-Urban Interface fire evacuation
  • Ingår i: Fire Safety 2017,Cantabria, Spain,2017-10-20 - 2017-10-21. ; , s. 119-134
  • Konferensbidrag (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • The negative consequences of fires in case of evacuation in wildland-urban interfaces (WUI) are a global issue that affect many communities around the world. To date, there is a lack of a comprehensive tool able to aid decision making in case of WUI fire evacuation. To address this issue, this paper presents a design specification for a simulation system for the quantification of evacuation performance in case of Wildland-Urban Interface fire incidents. This includes three main modelling components, namely 1) fire spread, 2) pedestrian movement and 3) traffic. To date, the development and use of modelling tools for disaster assessment have mostly been performed in isolation (i.e., with limited coupling between fire models, pedestrian models and traffic models). This paper presents the results of the review of these three core modelling components and the requirements for their integration into an integrated toolkit. A systematic approach for the review has been developed and applied with the goal of identifying the key features needed for the integration. This framework aims at assessing evacuation performance for both evacuation planning as well as decision support applications. Such a framework might be used to predict how the evacuation develops based on different fire conditions and according to different evacuation decisions. This paper presents some of the key findings of the modelling framework specification, namely: 1) the level of granularity of each type of model in relation to the scenario (i.e. spatial and temporal scale) and their applications (for all layers under consideration) and 2) the required data exchange among different models.
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