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Sökning: WFRF:(Reinisch Walter)

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1.
  • Sjöberg, Mats, 1965-, et al. (författare)
  • Infliximab or cyclosporine as rescue therapy in hospitalized patients with steroid-refractory ulcerative colitis : a retrospective observational study
  • 2012
  • Ingår i: Inflammatory Bowel Diseases. - : John Wiley & Sons. - 1078-0998 .- 1536-4844. ; 18:2, s. 212-218
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background: Cyclosporine (CsA) or infliximab (IFX) are used as rescue therapies in steroid-refractory, severe attacks of ulcerative colitis (UC). There are no data comparing the efficacy of these two alternatives. Methods: Outcome of rescue therapy was retrospectively studied in two cohorts of patients hospitalized due to steroid-refractory moderate to severe UC: 1) a Swedish-Danish cohort (n 49) treated with a single infusion of IFX; 2) an Austrian cohort (n 43) treated with intravenous CsA. After successful rescue therapy, maintenance immunomodulator treatment was given to 27/33 (82%) of IFX patients and to 31/40 (78%) of CsA patients. Endpoints were colectomy-free survival at 3 and 12 months. Kaplan-Meier and Cox regression models were used to evaluate the association between treatment groups and colectomy. Results: At 15 days, colectomy-free survival in the IFX cohort was 36/49 (73%) versus 41/43 (95%) in the CsA cohort (P = 0.005), at 3 months 33/49 (67%) versus 40/43 (93%) (P = 0.002), and at 12 months 28/49 (57%) versus 33/43 (77%) (P = 0.034). After adjusting for potential confounding factors, Cox regression analysis yielded adjusted hazard ratios for risk of colectomy in IFX-treated patients of 11.2 (95% confidence interval [CI] 2.4-53.1, P = 0.002) at 3 months and of 3.0 (95% CI 1.1-8.2, P = 0.030) at 12 months in comparison with CsA-treated patients. There were no opportunistic infections or mortality. Conclusions: Colectomy frequencies were significantly lower after rescue therapy with CsA than with a single infusion of IFX both at 3 and 12 months' follow-up. The superiority of CsA was seen principally during the first 15 days.
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2.
  • Ademuyiwa, Adesoji O., et al. (författare)
  • Determinants of morbidity and mortality following emergency abdominal surgery in children in low-income and middle-income countries
  • 2016
  • Ingår i: BMJ Global Health. - : BMJ Publishing Group Ltd. - 2059-7908. ; 1:4
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background: Child health is a key priority on the global health agenda, yet the provision of essential and emergency surgery in children is patchy in resource-poor regions. This study was aimed to determine the mortality risk for emergency abdominal paediatric surgery in low-income countries globally.Methods: Multicentre, international, prospective, cohort study. Self-selected surgical units performing emergency abdominal surgery submitted prespecified data for consecutive children aged <16 years during a 2-week period between July and December 2014. The United Nation's Human Development Index (HDI) was used to stratify countries. The main outcome measure was 30-day postoperative mortality, analysed by multilevel logistic regression.Results: This study included 1409 patients from 253 centres in 43 countries; 282 children were under 2 years of age. Among them, 265 (18.8%) were from low-HDI, 450 (31.9%) from middle-HDI and 694 (49.3%) from high-HDI countries. The most common operations performed were appendectomy, small bowel resection, pyloromyotomy and correction of intussusception. After adjustment for patient and hospital risk factors, child mortality at 30 days was significantly higher in low-HDI (adjusted OR 7.14 (95% CI 2.52 to 20.23), p<0.001) and middle-HDI (4.42 (1.44 to 13.56), p=0.009) countries compared with high-HDI countries, translating to 40 excess deaths per 1000 procedures performed.Conclusions: Adjusted mortality in children following emergency abdominal surgery may be as high as 7 times greater in low-HDI and middle-HDI countries compared with high-HDI countries. Effective provision of emergency essential surgery should be a key priority for global child health agendas.
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3.
  • Reinisch, Walter, et al. (författare)
  • Clinical Practice of Adalimumab and Infliximab Biosimilar Treatment in Adult Patients With Crohn's Disease
  • 2020
  • Ingår i: Inflammatory Bowel Diseases. - : Lippincott-Raven Publishers. - 1078-0998 .- 1536-4844.
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The introduction of tumor necrosis factor (TNF) inhibitors has significantly changed the treatment landscape in Crohn's disease (CD). The overall therapeutic achievements with TNF inhibitors such as infliximab, adalimumab, and certolizumab pegol paved the way to push the boundaries of treatment goals beyond symptomatic relief and toward cessation of objective signs of inflammation, including endoscopic remission. Even though these agents are widely used for the treatment of moderate to severe CD, heterogeneity still exists in translating evidence-based guidelines on the use of anti-TNF agents into actual treatment algorithms in CD. This might be due to several reasons including disparities in health expenditure policies; lack of harmonization between countries; and variations in assessment of disease severity, use of disease monitoring tools, or application of treatment targets by physicians. With the advent of biosimilars, patent-free versions of reference biologics are now available to minimize health inequalities in drug availability. In this context, this article aims to provide practical clinical guidance for the use of infliximab and adalimumab biosimilars in patients with moderate to severe CD by outlining different clinical scenarios that patients may encounter during their treatment journey.
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4.
  • Siegel, Corey A., et al. (författare)
  • Development of an index to define overall disease severity in IBD
  • 2018
  • Ingår i: Gut. - London, United Kingdom : BMJ Publishing Group Ltd. - 0017-5749 .- 1468-3288. ; 67:2, s. 244-254
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background and aim: Disease activity for Crohn's disease (CD) and UC is typically defined based on symptoms at a moment in time, and ignores the long-term burden of disease. The aims of this study were to select the attributes determining overall disease severity, to rank the importance of and to score these individual attributes for both CD and UC.Methods: Using a modified Delphi panel, 14 members of the International Organization for the Study of Inflammatory Bowel Diseases (IOIBD) selected the most important attributes related to IBD. Eighteen IOIBD members then completed a statistical exercise (conjoint analysis) to create a relative ranking of these attributes. Adjusted utilities were developed by creating proportions for each level within an attribute.Results: For CD, 15.8% of overall disease severity was attributed to the presence of mucosal lesions, 10.9% to history of a fistula, 9.7% to history of abscess and 7.4% to history of intestinal resection. For UC, 18.1% of overall disease severity was attributed to mucosal lesions, followed by 14.0% for impact on daily activities, 11.2% C reactive protein and 10.1% for prior experience with biologics. Overall disease severity indices were created on a 100-point scale by applying each attribute's average importance to the adjusted utilities.Conclusions: Based on specialist opinion, overall CD severity was associated more with intestinal damage, in contrast to overall UC disease severity, which was more dependent on symptoms and impact on daily life. Once validated, disease severity indices may provide a useful tool for consistent assessment of overall disease severity in patients with IBD.
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5.
  • Teml, Alexander, et al. (författare)
  • A systematic survey evaluating 6-thioguanine-related hepatotoxicity in patients with inflammatory bowel disease
  • 2007
  • Ingår i: Wiener Klinische Wochenschrift. - 0043-5325 .- 1613-7671. ; 119:17-18, s. 519-526
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • OBJECTIVE: Drug-induced liver injury was recently reported as a major complication leading to hepatic nodular regenerative hyperplasia (NRH) in patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) and 6-thioguanine (6-TG) therapy. The aim of the study was to evaluate the prevalence of 6-TG-related hepatotoxicity in a large multi-centered IBD population by means of a systematic online survey. METHODS: Clinical and laboratory data, imaging techniques (sonography, CT, MRI) and histology of liver biopsies were surveyed in IBD patients treated with 6-TG. The decision on whether liver imaging and/or liver biopsy were performed was exclusively at the discretion of the investigator. RESULTS: 6-TG use was fully documented in 296 patients (median treatment duration 56 weeks, range < 1-207). Laboratory signs of drug-induced liver injury were found in 43 patients (14.5%). Liver imaging revealed pathologic results in 68/176 patients (38.6%). Liver biopsy was performed in a subset of 60 patients, using silver-reticulin staining (n = 59), NRH was considered in 16 patients (27.1%). Age was the only independent, albeit weak, risk factor for development of NRH. CONCLUSION: This large online survey confirms the strong association between 6-TG treatment and the significant risk of development of NRH in patients with IBD. The definitive diagnosis of NRH depends solely upon liver biopsy. © 2007 Springer-Verlag.
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6.
  • Ungaro, Ryan C., et al. (författare)
  • Deep Remission at 1 Year Prevents Progression of Early Crohn's Disease
  • 2020
  • Ingår i: ; 159:1, s. 139-147
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • BACKGROUND & AIMS: We investigated the effects of inducing deep remission in patients with early Crohn's disease (CD).METHODS: We collected follow-up data from 122 patients (mean age, 31.2 ± 11.3 y) with early, moderate to severe CD (median duration, 0.2 years; interquartile range, 0.1-0.5) who participated in the Effect of Tight Control Management on CD (CALM) study, at 31 sites, representing 50% of the original CALM patient population. Fifty percent of patients (n = 61) were randomly assigned to a tight control strategy (increased therapy based on fecal level of calprotectin, serum level of C-reactive protein, and symptoms), and 50% were assigned to conventional management. We categorized patients as those who were vs were not in deep remission (CD endoscopic index of severity scores below 4, with no deep ulcerations or steroid treatment, for 8 or more weeks) at the end of the follow-up period (median, 3.02 years; range, 0.05-6.26 years). The primary outcome was a composite of major adverse outcomes that indicate CD progression during the follow-up period: new internal fistulas or abscesses, strictures, perianal fistulas or abscesses, or hospitalization or surgery for CD. Kaplan-Meier and penalized Cox regression with bootstrapping were used to compare composite rates between patients who achieved or did not achieve remission at the end of the follow-up period.RESULTS: Major adverse outcomes were reported for 34 patients (27.9%) during the follow-up period. Significantly fewer patients in deep remission at the end of the CALM study had major adverse outcomes during the follow-up period (P = .01). When we adjusted for potential confounders, deep remission (adjusted hazard ratio, 0.19; 95% confidence interval, 0.07-0.31) was significantly associated with a lower risk of major adverse outcome.CONCLUSIONS: In an analysis of follow-up data from the CALM study, we associated induction of deep remission in early, moderate to severe CD with decreased risk of disease progression over a median time of 3 years, regardless of tight control or conventional management strategy.
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