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Sökning: WFRF:(Rengefors Karin)

  • Resultat 1-10 av 76
  • [1]234567...8Nästa
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1.
  • Johansson, Karin S L, et al. (författare)
  • Development of a quantitative PCR method to explore the historical occurrence of a nuisance microalga under expansion
  • 2016
  • Ingår i: Harmful Algae. - : Elsevier. - 1568-9883 .- 1878-1470. ; 56, s. 67-76
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • A number of marine and freshwater harmful algal bloom (HAB) species have colonized new areas and expanded their habitat range in recent years. Nevertheless it is notoriously difficult to establish when colonization first occurred, what the dispersal routes are, and to separate recent invasion from increases in existent but small populations. The freshwater raphidophyte Gonyostomum semen is a nuisance species that has expanded its habitat range and increased in abundance in northern Europe during the past decades. To evaluate to what extent sediments can be used for determining historic occurrence of G. semen, a quantitative real-time PCR method for detecting cysts of this algae was developed. This paper presents a qPCR protocol with a set of primers that are specific to Gonyostomum and with PCR conditions optimized for sediment samples from humic lakes, which are the common habitat of G. semen. With this sensitive method as few as 1.6 cysts per PCR reaction could be reliably quantified, corresponding to 320 cysts per g wet weight sediment. Cysts were present in sediments with ages ranging from years to decades and their persistence allows detection of historic populations up to at least 50 years old. With this qPCR assay it will be possible to trace the presence of G. semen in environments prior to the onset of algae-specific monitoring programs as well as for quantification in water column samples. © 2016 The Authors.
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2.
  • Ahlberg, Erik, et al. (författare)
  • "Vi klimatforskare stödjer Greta och skolungdomarna"
  • Ingår i: Dagens nyheter (DN debatt). - 1101-2447.
  • Tidskriftsartikel (populärvet., debatt m.m.)abstract
    • DN DEBATT 15/3. Sedan industrialiseringens början har vi använt omkring fyra femtedelar av den mängd fossilt kol som får förbrännas för att vi ska klara Parisavtalet. Vi har bara en femtedel kvar och det är bråttom att kraftigt reducera utsläppen. Det har Greta Thunberg och de strejkande ungdomarna förstått. Därför stödjer vi deras krav, skriver 270 klimatforskare.
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4.
  • Logares, R., et al. (författare)
  • Contrasting prevalence of selection and drift in the community structuring of bacteria and microbial eukaryotes
  • 2018
  • Ingår i: Environmental Microbiology. - : Wiley-Blackwell. - 1462-2912 .- 1462-2920. ; 20:6, s. 2231-2240
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Whether or not communities of microbial eukaryotes are structured in the same way as bacteria is a general and poorly explored question in ecology. Here, we investigated this question in a set of planktonic lake microbiotas in Eastern Antarctica that represent a natural community ecology experiment. Most of the analysed lakes emerged from the sea during the last 6000 years, giving rise to waterbodies that originally contained marine microbiotas and that subsequently evolved into habitats ranging from freshwater to hypersaline. We show that habitat diversification has promoted selection driven by the salinity gradient in bacterial communities (explaining approximate to 72% of taxa turnover), while microeukaryotic counterparts were predominantly structured by ecological drift (approximate to 72% of the turnover). Nevertheless, we also detected a number of microeukaryotes with specific responses to salinity, indicating that albeit minor, selection has had a role in the structuring of specific members of their communities. In sum, we conclude that microeukaryotes and bacteria inhabiting the same communities can be structured predominantly by different processes. This should be considered in future studies aiming to understand the mechanisms that shape microbial assemblages.
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5.
  • Sassenhagen, I., et al. (författare)
  • Phenotypic plasticity and differentiation in an invasive freshwater microalga
  • 2015
  • Ingår i: Harmful Algae. - : Elsevier. - 1568-9883 .- 1878-1470. ; 41, s. 38-45
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Recent studies show that both marine and limnic microalgal species often consist of several genetically distinct populations. This is also valid for the nuisance freshwater algae Gonyostomum semen, which originates from acidic, brown water swamp lakes, but can nowadays also be found in clearer lakes with close to neutral pH. We hypothesized that the observed genetic differentiation among G. semen lake populations, reported in earlier studies, is connected to adaptation to local environmental conditions. In the present study we performed controlled laboratory experiments to test whether 12 strains originating from five lakes varied in their response to five to six different pHs, light intensities and DOC concentrations. Overall, growth (0.01-0.37 day(-1)) was observed over a wide range of light intensities and pHs, demonstrating high potential for photoacclimation and extensive plasticity of individual strains. Moreover, we found similar growth rates and consistent growth optima for specific pHs by strains from the same lake, suggesting genetic differentiation of populations into distinct phenotypes. However, observed strain specific preferences did not always reflect environmental conditions in the lakes of origin and provided limited evidence for the hypothesized local adaptation. Instead, the observed phenotypic differentiation may indicate resilient effects of founder events. We suggest that the wide phenotypic plasticity in this species enables it to thrive in fluctuating and variable environments, and may play a role in its ability to colonize new habitats.
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6.
  • Sefbom, Josefin, et al. (författare)
  • A planktonic diatom displays genetic structure over small spatial scales
  • 2018
  • Ingår i: Environmental Microbiology. - : Wiley-Blackwell. - 1462-2912. ; 20:8, s. 2783-2795
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Marine planktonic microalgae have potentially global dispersal, yet reduced gene flow has been confirmed repeatedly for several species. Over larger distances (>200 km) geographic isolation and restricted oceanographic connectivity have been recognized as instrumental in driving population divergence. Here we investigated whether similar patterns, that is, structured populations governed by geographic isolation and/or oceanographic connectivity, can be observed at smaller (6-152 km) geographic scales. To test this we established 425 clonal cultures of the planktonic diatom Skeletonema marinoi collected from 11 locations in the Archipelago Sea (northern Baltic Sea). The region is characterized by a complex topography, entailing several mixing regions of which four were included in the sampling area. Using eight microsatellite markers and conventional F-statistics, significant genetic differentiation was observed between several sites. Moreover, Bayesian cluster analysis revealed the co-occurrence of two genetic groups spread throughout the area. However, geographic isolation and oceanographic connectivity could not explain the genetic patterns observed. Our data reveal hierarchical genetic structuring whereby despite high dispersal potential, significantly diverged populations have developed over small spatial scales. Our results suggest that biological characteristics and historical events may be more important in generating barriers to gene flow than physical barriers at small spatial scales.
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7.
  • Sefbom, Josefin, et al. (författare)
  • Priority effects in a planktonic bloom-forming marine diatom
  • 2015
  • Ingår i: Biology Letters. - : Royal Society. - 1744-9561. ; 11
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Priority effects occur when a species or genotype with earlier arrival has an advantage such that its relative abundance in the community or population is increased compared with later-arriving species. Few studies have dealt with this concept in the context of within-species competition. Skeletonema marinoi is a marine diatom that shows a high degree of genetic differentiation between populations over small geographical distances. To test whether historical events such as priority effects may have been important in inducing these patterns of population differentiation, we performed microcosm experiments with successive inoculation of different S. marinoi strains. Our results show that even in the absence of a numerical advantage, significant priority effects were evident. We propose that priority effects may be an important mechanism in initiating population genetic differentiation.
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8.
  • Anderson, D M, et al. (författare)
  • Community assembly and seasonal succession of marine dinoflagellates in a temperate estuary: The importance of life cycle events
  • 2006
  • Ingår i: Limnology and Oceanography. - : ASLO. - 1939-5590. ; 51:2, s. 860-873
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Dinoflagellate successional strategies and community structure were investigated in Perch Pond, a temperate estuary on the North American east coast by field surveys as well as laboratory investigations on growth rates, cyst maturation period, and cyst germination temperature thresholds. The dominant species were those predicted by the Smayda and Reynolds Rules of Assembly life form model. Three successional strategies were characterized: (1) holoplanktonic, (2) meroplanktonic (i.e., germinated from cysts), and (3) introduced by advection. The seasonal succession of the meroplanktonic dinoflagellates that were studied reflects the differential lengths of their mandatory dormancy periods as well as differences in their temperature thresholds or "windows" for germination. The holoplanktonic species present at low densities year-round in Perch Pond had a wide temperature tolerance for growth and thus did not need a cyst stage to survive seasonal extremes. Another non-cyst-forming species relied solely on advection to inoculate the salt pond; thus, blooms in successive years would be expected to be more stochastic in nature than for the other two strategies. The timing of cyst formation and population decline for meroplanktonic species corresponded on several occasions to an increase in grazers, suggesting that grazing might have contributed to bloom decline from cyst formation. This timing also suggests the possibility of encystment as a predator avoidance strategy. We suggest that seasonal succession of cyst-forming dinoflagellates is not stochastic. Instead, the appearance of these species in the plankton is predictable on the basis of measurable physiological responses to both endogenous and exogenous factors that they experience during dormancy and quiescence.
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9.
  • Andersson, Björn, 1985, et al. (författare)
  • Differences in metal tolerance among strains, populations, and species of marine diatoms – Importance of exponential growth for quantification
  • 2020
  • Ingår i: Aquatic Toxicology. - : Elsevier. - 0166-445X .- 1879-1514. ; 226
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • © 2020 The Author(s) Strains of microalgae vary in traits between species and populations due to adaptation or stochastic processes. Traits of individual strains may also vary depending on the acclimatization state and external forces, such as abiotic stress. In this study we tested how metal tolerance differs among marine diatoms at three organizational levels: species, populations, and strains. At the species level we compared two pelagic Baltic Sea diatoms (Skeletonema marinoi and Thalassiosira baltica). We found that the between-species differences in tolerance (EC50) to the biologically active metals (Cu, Co, Ni, and Zn) was similar to that within-species. In contrast, the two species differed significantly in tolerance towards the non-essential metals, Ag (three-fold higher in T. baltica), Pb and Cd (two and three-fold higher in S. marinoi). At the population level, we found evidence that increased tolerance against Cu and Co (17 and 41 % higher EC50 on average, respectively) had evolved in a S. marinoi population subjected to historical mining activity. On a strain level we demonstrate how the growth phase of cultures (i.e., cellular densities above exponential growth) modulated dose-response relationships to Ag, Cd, Co, Cu, and Zn. Specifically, the EC50's were reduced by 10–60 % in non-exponentially growing S. marinoi (strain RO5AC), depending on metal. For the essential metals these differences were often larger than the average differences between the two species and populations. Consequently, without careful experimental design, interactions between nutrient limitation and metal stress may interfere with detection of small, but evolutionary and ecologically important, differences in tolerance between microalgae. To avoid such artifacts, we outline a semi-continuous cultivation approach that maintains, and empirically tests, that exponential growth is achieved. We argue that such an approach is essential to enable comparison of population or strain differences in tolerance using dose-response tests on cultures of microalgae.
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10.
  • Annenkova, Nataliia, et al. (författare)
  • Recent radiation in a marine and freshwater dinoflagellate species flock.
  • 2015
  • Ingår i: The Isme Journal. - : Nature Publishing Group. - 1751-7362. ; 9:8, s. 1821-1834
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Processes of rapid radiation among unicellular eukaryotes are much less studied than among multicellular organisms. We have investigated a lineage of cold-water microeukaryotes (protists) that appear to have diverged recently. This lineage stands in stark contrast to known examples of phylogenetically closely related protists, in which genetic difference is typically larger than morphological differences. We found that the group not only consists of the marine-brackish dinoflagellate species Scrippsiella hangoei and the freshwater species Peridinium aciculiferum as discovered previously but also of a whole species flock. The additional species include Peridinium euryceps and Peridinium baicalense, which are restricted to a few lakes, in particular to the ancient Lake Baikal, Russia, and freshwater S. hangoei from Lake Baikal. These species are characterized by relatively large conspicuous morphological differences, which have given rise to the different species descriptions. However, our scanning electron microscopic studies indicate that they belong to a single genus according to traditional morphological characterization of dinoflagellates (thecal plate patterns). Moreover, we found that they have identical SSU (small subunit) rDNA fragments and distinct but very small differences in the DNA markers LSU (large subunit) rDNA, ITS2 (internal transcribed spacer 2) and COB (cytochrome b) gene, which are used to delineate dinoflagellates species. As some of the species co-occur, and all four have small but species-specific sequence differences, we suggest that these taxa are not a case of phenotypic plasticity but originated via recent adaptive radiation. We propose that this is the first clear example among free-living microeukaryotes of recent rapid diversification into several species followed by dispersion to environments with different ecological conditions.The ISME Journal advance online publication, 20 January 2015; doi:10.1038/ismej.2014.267.
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