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  • Neumann, J. T., et al. (författare)
  • Application of High-Sensitivity Troponin in Suspected Myocardial Infarction
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: New England Journal of Medicine. - : MASSACHUSETTS MEDICAL SOC. - 0028-4793 .- 1533-4406. ; 380:26, s. 2529-2540
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • BackgroundData regarding high-sensitivity troponin concentrations in patients presenting to the emergency department with symptoms suggestive of myocardial infarction may be useful in determining the probability of myocardial infarction and subsequent 30-day outcomes. MethodsIn 15 international cohorts of patients presenting to the emergency department with symptoms suggestive of myocardial infarction, we determined the concentrations of high-sensitivity troponin I or high-sensitivity troponin T at presentation and after early or late serial sampling. The diagnostic and prognostic performance of multiple high-sensitivity troponin cutoff combinations was assessed with the use of a derivation-validation design. A risk-assessment tool that was based on these data was developed to estimate the risk of index myocardial infarction and of subsequent myocardial infarction or death at 30 days. ResultsAmong 22,651 patients (9604 in the derivation data set and 13,047 in the validation data set), the prevalence of myocardial infarction was 15.3%. Lower high-sensitivity troponin concentrations at presentation and smaller absolute changes during serial sampling were associated with a lower likelihood of myocardial infarction and a lower short-term risk of cardiovascular events. For example, high-sensitivity troponin I concentrations of less than 6 ng per liter and an absolute change of less than 4 ng per liter after 45 to 120 minutes (early serial sampling) resulted in a negative predictive value of 99.5% for myocardial infarction, with an associated 30-day risk of subsequent myocardial infarction or death of 0.2%; a total of 56.5% of the patients would be classified as being at low risk. These findings were confirmed in an external validation data set. ConclusionsA risk-assessment tool, which we developed to integrate the high-sensitivity troponin I or troponin T concentration at emergency department presentation, its dynamic change during serial sampling, and the time between the obtaining of samples, was used to estimate the probability of myocardial infarction on emergency department presentation and 30-day outcomes.
  • Butler, L. M., et al. (författare)
  • Analysis of Body-wide Unfractionated Tissue Data to Identify a Core Human Endothelial Transcriptome
  • 2016
  • Ingår i: Cell Systems. - : Cell Press. - 2405-4712. ; 3:3, s. 287-301.e3
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Endothelial cells line blood vessels and regulate hemostasis, inflammation, and blood pressure. Proteins critical for these specialized functions tend to be predominantly expressed in endothelial cells across vascular beds. Here, we present a systems approach to identify a panel of human endothelial-enriched genes using global, body-wide transcriptomics data from 124 tissue samples from 32 organs. We identified known and unknown endothelial-enriched gene transcripts and used antibody-based profiling to confirm expression across vascular beds. The majority of identified transcripts could be detected in cultured endothelial cells from various vascular beds, and we observed maintenance of relative expression in early passage cells. In summary, we describe a widely applicable method to determine cell-type-specific transcriptome profiles in a whole-organism context, based on differential abundance across tissues. We identify potential vascular drug targets or endothelial biomarkers and highlight candidates for functional studies to increase understanding of the endothelium in health and disease.
  • Kilinç, E, et al. (författare)
  • Factor XII activation is essential to sustain the procoagulant effects of particulate matter
  • 2011
  • Ingår i: Journal of Thrombosis and Haemostasis. - 1538-7933 .- 1538-7836. ; 9:7, s. 1359-1367
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • BACKGROUND: Particulate matter (PM) is a key component of ambient air pollution and has been associated with an increased risk of thrombotic events and mortality. The underlying mechanisms remain unclear. OBJECTIVES:  To study the mechanisms of PM-driven procoagulant activity in human plasma and to investigate mainly, the coagulation driven by ultrafine particles (UFPs; < 0.1 μm) in genetically modified mice. METHODS: Thrombin generation in response to PM of different sizes was assessed in normal human platelet-poor plasma, as well as in plasmas deficient in the intrinsic pathway proteases factors XII (FXII) or XI (FXI). In addition, UFPs were intratracheally instilled in wild-type (WT) and FXII-deficient (FXII(-/-) ) mice and plasma thrombin generation was analyzed in plasma from treated mice at 4 and 20 h post-exposure. RESULTS: In normal human plasma, thrombin generation was enhanced in the presence of PM, whereas PM-driven thrombin formation was completely abolished in FXII- and FXI-deficient plasma. UFPs induced a transient increase in tissue factor (TF)-driven thrombin formation at 4 h post-instillation in WT mice compared with saline instillation. Intratracheal instillation of UFPs resulted in a procoagulant response in WT mice plasma at 20 h, whereas it was entirely suppressed in FXII(-/-) mice. CONCLUSIONS:  Overall, the data suggest that PM promotes its early procoagulant actions mostly through the TF-driven extrinsic pathway of coagulation, whereas PM-driven long lasting thrombogenic effects are predominantly mediated via formation of activated FXII. Hence, FXII-driven thrombin formation may be relevant to an enhanced thrombotic susceptibility upon chronic exposure to PM in humans.
  • Spronk, H. M. H., et al. (författare)
  • Atherothrombosis and Thromboembolism : Position Paper from the Second Maastricht Consensus Conference on Thrombosis
  • 2018
  • Ingår i: Thrombosis and Haemostasis. - : SCHATTAUER GMBH-VERLAG MEDIZIN NATURWISSENSCHAFTEN. - 0340-6245. ; 118:2, s. 229-250
  • Forskningsöversikt (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Atherothrombosis is a leading cause of cardiovascular mortality and long-term morbidity. Platelets and coagulation proteases, interacting with circulating cells and in different vascular beds, modify several complex pathologies including atherosclerosis. In the second Maastricht Consensus Conference on Thrombosis, this theme was addressed by diverse scientists from bench to bedside. All presentations were discussed with audience members and the results of these discussions were incorporated in the final document that presents a state-of-the-art reflection of expert opinions and consensus recommendations regarding the following five topics:1. Risk factors, biomarkers and plaque instability: In atherothrombosis research, more focus on the contribution of specific risk factors like ectopic fat needs to be considered; definitions of atherothrombosis are important distinguishing different phases of disease, including plaque (in) stability; proteomic and metabolomics data are to be added to genetic information.2. Circulating cells including platelets and atherothrombosis: Mechanisms of leukocyte and macrophage plasticity, migration, and transformation in murine atherosclerosis need to be considered; diseasemechanism-based biomarkers need to be identified; experimental systems are needed that incorporatewhole-blood flow to understand how red blood cells influence thrombus formation and stability; knowledge on platelet heterogeneity and priming conditions needs to be translated toward the in vivo situation.3. Coagulation proteases, fibrin(ogen) and thrombus formation: The role of factor (F) XI in thrombosis including the lower margins of this factor related to safe and effective antithrombotic therapy needs to be established; FXI is a key regulator in linking platelets, thrombin generation, and inflammatory mechanisms in a renin-angiotensin dependent manner; however, the impact on thrombin-dependent PAR signaling needs further study; the fundamental mechanisms in FXIII biology and biochemistry and its impact on thrombus biophysical characteristics need to be explored; the interactions of red cells and fibrin formation and its consequences for thrombus formation and lysis need to be addressed. Platelet-fibrin interactions are pivotal determinants of clot formation and stability with potential therapeutic consequences.4. Preventive and acute treatment of atherothrombosis and arterial embolism; novel ways and tailoring? The role of protease-activated receptor (PAR)-4 vis a vis PAR-1 as target for antithrombotic therapy merits study; ongoing trials on platelet function test-based antiplatelet therapy adjustment support development of practically feasible tests; risk scores for patients with atrial fibrillation need refinement, taking new biomarkers including coagulation into account; risk scores that consider organ system differences in bleeding may have added value; all forms of oral anticoagulant treatment require better organization, including education and emergency access; laboratory testing still needs rapidly available sensitive tests with short turnaround time.5. Pleiotropy of coagulation proteases, thrombus resolution and ischaemia-reperfusion: Biobanks specifically for thrombus storage and analysis are needed; further studies on novelmodified activated protein C-based agents are required including its cytoprotective properties; new avenues for optimizing treatment of patients with ischaemic stroke are needed, also including novel agents that modify fibrinolytic activity (aimed at plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 and thrombin activatable fibrinolysis inhibitor.
  • Dusart, Philip, et al. (författare)
  • A systems-approach reveals human nestin is an endothelial-enriched, angiogenesis-independent intermediate filament protein
  • 2018
  • Ingår i: Scientific Reports. - : Nature Publishing Group. - 2045-2322 .- 2045-2322. ; 8:1
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The intermediate filament protein nestin is expressed during embryonic development, but considered largely restricted to areas of regeneration in the adult. Here, we perform a body-wide transcriptome and protein-profiling analysis to reveal that nestin is constitutively, and highly-selectively, expressed in adult human endothelial cells (EC), independent of proliferative status. Correspondingly, we demonstrate that it is not a marker for tumour EC in multiple malignancy types. Imaging of EC from different vascular beds reveals nestin subcellular distribution is shear-modulated. siRNA inhibition of nestin increases EC proliferation, and nestin expression is reduced in atherosclerotic plaque neovessels. eQTL analysis reveals an association between SNPs linked to cardiovascular disease and reduced aortic EC nestin mRNA expression. Our study challenges the dogma that nestin is a marker of proliferation, and provides insight into its regulation and function in EC. Furthermore, our systems-based approach can be applied to investigate body-wide expression profiles of any candidate protein. 
  • Gustafsson, K. L.R., et al. (författare)
  • Human cytomegalovirus replication induces endothelial cell interleukin-11
  • 2018
  • Ingår i: Cytokine. - : ACADEMIC PRESS LTD- ELSEVIER SCIENCE LTD. - 1043-4666 .- 1096-0023. ; 111, s. 563-566
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Endothelial cells (EC) are critical sites of human cytomegalovirus (hCMV) infection in vivo. Infection can induce the production of various EC cytokines, such as interleukin (IL-)6, which can have autocrine and/or paracrine effector functions. Here, we report that hCMV induces the production of EC IL-11, a relatively understudied member of the IL-6-type cytokine family. We detail temporal EC IL-11 translation and protein secretion dynamics in response to hCMV infection, and reveal distinct differences compared to EC IL-6. Viral replication had markedly opposing effects on the regulation of these closely related cytokines, representing a major driving force behind IL-11 production, whilst concurrently suppressing IL-6 expression. This is the first report of any biological agent that stimulates EC IL-11 production.
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