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Träfflista för sökning "WFRF:(Ribel Madsen R.) "

Sökning: WFRF:(Ribel Madsen R.)

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1.
  • Winkler, Thomas W, et al. (författare)
  • The Influence of Age and Sex on Genetic Associations with Adult Body Size and Shape: A Large-Scale Genome-Wide Interaction Study.
  • 2015
  • Ingår i: PLoS Genetics. - : Public Library of Science. - 1553-7404 .- 1553-7390. ; 11:10
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have identified more than 100 genetic variants contributing to BMI, a measure of body size, or waist-to-hip ratio (adjusted for BMI, WHRadjBMI), a measure of body shape. Body size and shape change as people grow older and these changes differ substantially between men and women. To systematically screen for age- and/or sex-specific effects of genetic variants on BMI and WHRadjBMI, we performed meta-analyses of 114 studies (up to 320,485 individuals of European descent) with genome-wide chip and/or Metabochip data by the Genetic Investigation of Anthropometric Traits (GIANT) Consortium. Each study tested the association of up to ~2.8M SNPs with BMI and WHRadjBMI in four strata (men ≤50y, men >50y, women ≤50y, women >50y) and summary statistics were combined in stratum-specific meta-analyses. We then screened for variants that showed age-specific effects (G x AGE), sex-specific effects (G x SEX) or age-specific effects that differed between men and women (G x AGE x SEX). For BMI, we identified 15 loci (11 previously established for main effects, four novel) that showed significant (FDR<5%) age-specific effects, of which 11 had larger effects in younger (<50y) than in older adults (≥50y). No sex-dependent effects were identified for BMI. For WHRadjBMI, we identified 44 loci (27 previously established for main effects, 17 novel) with sex-specific effects, of which 28 showed larger effects in women than in men, five showed larger effects in men than in women, and 11 showed opposite effects between sexes. No age-dependent effects were identified for WHRadjBMI. This is the first genome-wide interaction meta-analysis to report convincing evidence of age-dependent genetic effects on BMI. In addition, we confirm the sex-specificity of genetic effects on WHRadjBMI. These results may provide further insights into the biology that underlies weight change with age or the sexually dimorphism of body shape.
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2.
  • Ried, Janina S, et al. (författare)
  • A principal component meta-analysis on multiple anthropometric traits identifies novel loci for body shape.
  • 2016
  • Ingår i: Nature communications. - : Nature Publishing Group. - 2041-1723. ; 7
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Large consortia have revealed hundreds of genetic loci associated with anthropometric traits, one trait at a time. We examined whether genetic variants affect body shape as a composite phenotype that is represented by a combination of anthropometric traits. We developed an approach that calculates averaged PCs (AvPCs) representing body shape derived from six anthropometric traits (body mass index, height, weight, waist and hip circumference, waist-to-hip ratio). The first four AvPCs explain >99% of the variability, are heritable, and associate with cardiometabolic outcomes. We performed genome-wide association analyses for each body shape composite phenotype across 65 studies and meta-analysed summary statistics. We identify six novel loci: LEMD2 and CD47 for AvPC1, RPS6KA5/C14orf159 and GANAB for AvPC3, and ARL15 and ANP32 for AvPC4. Our findings highlight the value of using multiple traits to define complex phenotypes for discovery, which are not captured by single-trait analyses, and may shed light onto new pathways.
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3.
  • Nilsson, E., et al. (författare)
  • Altered DNA Methylation and Differential Expression of Genes Influencing Metabolism and Inflammation in Adipose Tissue From Subjects With Type 2 Diabetes
  • 2014
  • Ingår i: Diabetes. - : American Diabetes Association Inc.. - 0012-1797 .- 1939-327X. ; 63:9, s. 2962-2976
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Genetics, epigenetics, and environment may together affect the susceptibility for type 2 diabetes (T2D). Our aim was to dissect molecular mechanisms underlying T2D using genome-wide expression and DNA methylation data in adipose tissue from monozygotic twin pairs discordant for T2D and independent case-control cohorts. In adipose tissue from diabetic twins, we found decreased expression of genes involved in oxidative phosphorylation; carbohydrate, amino acid, and lipid metabolism; and increased expression of genes involved in inflammation and glycan degradation. The most differentially expressed genes included ELOVL6, GYS2, FADS1, SPP1 (OPN), CCL18, and IL1RN. We replicated these results in adipose tissue from an independent case-control cohort. Several candidate genes for obesity and T2D (e.g., IRS1 and VEGFA) were differentially expressed in discordant twins. We found a heritable contribution to the genome-wide DNA methylation variability in twins. Differences in methylation between monozygotic twin pairs discordant for T2D were subsequently modest. However, 15,627 sites, representing 7,046 genes including PPARG, KCNQ1, TCF7L2, and IRS1, showed differential DNA methylation in adipose tissue from unrelated subjects with T2D compared with control subjects. A total of 1,410 of these sites also showed differential DNA methylation in the twins discordant for T2D. For the differentially methylated sites, the heritability estimate was 0.28. We also identified copy number variants (CNVs) in monozygotic twin pairs discordant for T2D. Taken together, subjects with T2D exhibit multiple transcriptional and epigenetic changes in adipose tissue relevant to the development of the disease.
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  • Albrechtsen, A., et al. (författare)
  • Exome sequencing-driven discovery of coding polymorphisms associated with common metabolic phenotypes
  • 2013
  • Ingår i: Diabetologia. - : Springer. - 1432-0428 .- 0012-186X. ; 56:2, s. 298-310
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Human complex metabolic traits are in part regulated by genetic determinants. Here we applied exome sequencing to identify novel associations of coding polymorphisms at minor allele frequencies (MAFs) > 1% with common metabolic phenotypes. The study comprised three stages. We performed medium-depth (8x) whole exome sequencing in 1,000 cases with type 2 diabetes, BMI > 27.5 kg/m(2) and hypertension and in 1,000 controls (stage 1). We selected 16,192 polymorphisms nominally associated (p < 0.05) with case-control status, from four selected annotation categories or from loci reported to associate with metabolic traits. These variants were genotyped in 15,989 Danes to search for association with 12 metabolic phenotypes (stage 2). In stage 3, polymorphisms showing potential associations were genotyped in a further 63,896 Europeans. Exome sequencing identified 70,182 polymorphisms with MAF > 1%. In stage 2 we identified 51 potential associations with one or more of eight metabolic phenotypes covered by 45 unique polymorphisms. In meta-analyses of stage 2 and stage 3 results, we demonstrated robust associations for coding polymorphisms in CD300LG (fasting HDL-cholesterol: MAF 3.5%, p = 8.5 x 10(-14)), COBLL1 (type 2 diabetes: MAF 12.5%, OR 0.88, p = 1.2 x 10(-11)) and MACF1 (type 2 diabetes: MAF 23.4%, OR 1.10, p = 8.2 x 10(-10)). We applied exome sequencing as a basis for finding genetic determinants of metabolic traits and show the existence of low-frequency and common coding polymorphisms with impact on common metabolic traits. Based on our study, coding polymorphisms with MAF above 1% do not seem to have particularly high effect sizes on the measured metabolic traits.
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6.
  • Banasik, Karina, et al. (författare)
  • The FOXO3A rs2802292 G-Allele Associates with Improved Peripheral and Hepatic Insulin Sensitivity and Increased Skeletal Muscle-FOXO3A mRNA Expression in Twins.
  • 2011
  • Ingår i: The Journal of clinical endocrinology and metabolism. - : Oxford University Press. - 1945-7197. ; 96, s. 119-124
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Objective: The minor G allele of FOXO3A rs2802292 has been associated with longevity. We aimed to investigate whether a phenotype related to healthy metabolic aging could be identified in individuals carrying the longevity-associated FOXO3A rs2802292 G allele. Research Design and Methods: rs2802292 was genotyped in a phenotypically well-characterized population of young and elderly twins (n = 190) and in the population-based Inter99 cohort (n = 5768). All participants underwent oral glucose tolerance tests, and the twin population was additionally examined with an iv glucose tolerance test and a hyperinsulinemic, euglycemic clamp. Basal and insulin-stimulated FOXO3A mRNA expression was assessed in skeletal muscle biopsies from the twin population. Results: In the twin sample, carriers of the minor G allele of rs2802292 showed reduced fasting plasma insulin [per allele effect (β) = -13% (-24; -1) (95% confidence interval), P = 0.03] and lower incremental area under the curve 0-120 min for insulin after an oral glucose load [β = -14% (-23; -), P = 0.005]. The G allele was associated with increased peripheral insulin action [glucose disposal rate clamp, β = 0.85 mg·kgfat-free mass(-1) · min(-1) (0.049; 1.64), P = 0.04] and lower hepatic insulin resistance index [β = -13% (-25; -1), P = 0.03]. Furthermore, carriers of the G allele had increased basal FOXO3A mRNA expression in skeletal muscle compared with T-allele carriers [β = 16% (0; 33), P = 0.047]. In the Inter99 sample, we found an association with reduced incremental area under the curve 0-120 min for insulin after an oral glucose load [β = -3% (-5; -0.07), P = 0.04], but this association was not significant after adjustment for body mass index. Conclusion: Our data indicate that the minor G allele of FOXO3A rs2802292 is associated with enhanced peripheral and hepatic insulin sensitivity in our small twin cohort, which may be mediated through increased FOXO3A mRNA expression, although no major metabolic impact of rs2802292 was found in the large Inter99 cohort.
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  • Jacobsen, S. C., et al. (författare)
  • Effects of short-term high-fat overfeeding on genome-wide DNA methylation in the skeletal muscle of healthy young men
  • 2012
  • Ingår i: Diabetologia. - : Springer. - 1432-0428. ; 55:12, s. 3341-3349
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Energy-dense diets that are high in fat are associated with a risk of metabolic diseases. The underlying molecular mechanisms could involve epigenetics, as recent data show altered DNA methylation of putative type 2 diabetes candidate genes in response to high-fat diets. We examined the effect of a short-term high-fat overfeeding (HFO) diet on genome-wide DNA methylation patterns in human skeletal muscle. Skeletal muscle biopsies were obtained from 21 healthy young men after ingestion of a short-term HFO diet and a control diet, in a randomised crossover setting. DNA methylation was measured in 27,578 CpG sites/14,475 genes using Illumina's Infinium Bead Array. Candidate gene expression was determined by quantitative real-time PCR. HFO introduced widespread DNA methylation changes affecting 6,508 genes (45%), with a maximum methylation change of 13.0 percentage points. The HFO-induced methylation changes were only partly and non-significantly reversed after 6-8 weeks. Alterations in DNA methylation levels primarily affected genes involved in inflammation, the reproductive system and cancer. Few gene expression changes were observed and these had poor correlation to DNA methylation. The genome-wide DNA methylation changes induced by the short-term HFO diet could have implications for our understanding of transient epigenetic regulation in humans and its contribution to the development of metabolic diseases. The slow reversibility suggests a methylation build-up with HFO, which over time may influence gene expression levels.
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