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Sökning: WFRF:(Ribel Madsen Rasmus)

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1.
  • Nilsson, E., et al. (författare)
  • Altered DNA Methylation and Differential Expression of Genes Influencing Metabolism and Inflammation in Adipose Tissue From Subjects With Type 2 Diabetes
  • 2014
  • Ingår i: Diabetes. - : American Diabetes Association Inc.. - 0012-1797 .- 1939-327X. ; 63:9, s. 2962-2976
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Genetics, epigenetics, and environment may together affect the susceptibility for type 2 diabetes (T2D). Our aim was to dissect molecular mechanisms underlying T2D using genome-wide expression and DNA methylation data in adipose tissue from monozygotic twin pairs discordant for T2D and independent case-control cohorts. In adipose tissue from diabetic twins, we found decreased expression of genes involved in oxidative phosphorylation; carbohydrate, amino acid, and lipid metabolism; and increased expression of genes involved in inflammation and glycan degradation. The most differentially expressed genes included ELOVL6, GYS2, FADS1, SPP1 (OPN), CCL18, and IL1RN. We replicated these results in adipose tissue from an independent case-control cohort. Several candidate genes for obesity and T2D (e.g., IRS1 and VEGFA) were differentially expressed in discordant twins. We found a heritable contribution to the genome-wide DNA methylation variability in twins. Differences in methylation between monozygotic twin pairs discordant for T2D were subsequently modest. However, 15,627 sites, representing 7,046 genes including PPARG, KCNQ1, TCF7L2, and IRS1, showed differential DNA methylation in adipose tissue from unrelated subjects with T2D compared with control subjects. A total of 1,410 of these sites also showed differential DNA methylation in the twins discordant for T2D. For the differentially methylated sites, the heritability estimate was 0.28. We also identified copy number variants (CNVs) in monozygotic twin pairs discordant for T2D. Taken together, subjects with T2D exhibit multiple transcriptional and epigenetic changes in adipose tissue relevant to the development of the disease.
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2.
  • Ried, Janina S, et al. (författare)
  • A principal component meta-analysis on multiple anthropometric traits identifies novel loci for body shape.
  • 2016
  • Ingår i: Nature communications. - : Nature Publishing Group. - 2041-1723. ; 7
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Large consortia have revealed hundreds of genetic loci associated with anthropometric traits, one trait at a time. We examined whether genetic variants affect body shape as a composite phenotype that is represented by a combination of anthropometric traits. We developed an approach that calculates averaged PCs (AvPCs) representing body shape derived from six anthropometric traits (body mass index, height, weight, waist and hip circumference, waist-to-hip ratio). The first four AvPCs explain >99% of the variability, are heritable, and associate with cardiometabolic outcomes. We performed genome-wide association analyses for each body shape composite phenotype across 65 studies and meta-analysed summary statistics. We identify six novel loci: LEMD2 and CD47 for AvPC1, RPS6KA5/C14orf159 and GANAB for AvPC3, and ARL15 and ANP32 for AvPC4. Our findings highlight the value of using multiple traits to define complex phenotypes for discovery, which are not captured by single-trait analyses, and may shed light onto new pathways.
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3.
  • Winkler, Thomas W, et al. (författare)
  • The Influence of Age and Sex on Genetic Associations with Adult Body Size and Shape: A Large-Scale Genome-Wide Interaction Study.
  • 2015
  • Ingår i: PLoS Genetics. - : Public Library of Science. - 1553-7404 .- 1553-7390. ; 11:10
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have identified more than 100 genetic variants contributing to BMI, a measure of body size, or waist-to-hip ratio (adjusted for BMI, WHRadjBMI), a measure of body shape. Body size and shape change as people grow older and these changes differ substantially between men and women. To systematically screen for age- and/or sex-specific effects of genetic variants on BMI and WHRadjBMI, we performed meta-analyses of 114 studies (up to 320,485 individuals of European descent) with genome-wide chip and/or Metabochip data by the Genetic Investigation of Anthropometric Traits (GIANT) Consortium. Each study tested the association of up to ~2.8M SNPs with BMI and WHRadjBMI in four strata (men ≤50y, men >50y, women ≤50y, women >50y) and summary statistics were combined in stratum-specific meta-analyses. We then screened for variants that showed age-specific effects (G x AGE), sex-specific effects (G x SEX) or age-specific effects that differed between men and women (G x AGE x SEX). For BMI, we identified 15 loci (11 previously established for main effects, four novel) that showed significant (FDR<5%) age-specific effects, of which 11 had larger effects in younger (<50y) than in older adults (≥50y). No sex-dependent effects were identified for BMI. For WHRadjBMI, we identified 44 loci (27 previously established for main effects, 17 novel) with sex-specific effects, of which 28 showed larger effects in women than in men, five showed larger effects in men than in women, and 11 showed opposite effects between sexes. No age-dependent effects were identified for WHRadjBMI. This is the first genome-wide interaction meta-analysis to report convincing evidence of age-dependent genetic effects on BMI. In addition, we confirm the sex-specificity of genetic effects on WHRadjBMI. These results may provide further insights into the biology that underlies weight change with age or the sexually dimorphism of body shape.
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4.
  • Banasik, Karina, et al. (författare)
  • The FOXO3A rs2802292 G-Allele Associates with Improved Peripheral and Hepatic Insulin Sensitivity and Increased Skeletal Muscle-FOXO3A mRNA Expression in Twins.
  • 2011
  • Ingår i: The Journal of clinical endocrinology and metabolism. - : Oxford University Press. - 1945-7197. ; 96, s. 119-124
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Objective: The minor G allele of FOXO3A rs2802292 has been associated with longevity. We aimed to investigate whether a phenotype related to healthy metabolic aging could be identified in individuals carrying the longevity-associated FOXO3A rs2802292 G allele. Research Design and Methods: rs2802292 was genotyped in a phenotypically well-characterized population of young and elderly twins (n = 190) and in the population-based Inter99 cohort (n = 5768). All participants underwent oral glucose tolerance tests, and the twin population was additionally examined with an iv glucose tolerance test and a hyperinsulinemic, euglycemic clamp. Basal and insulin-stimulated FOXO3A mRNA expression was assessed in skeletal muscle biopsies from the twin population. Results: In the twin sample, carriers of the minor G allele of rs2802292 showed reduced fasting plasma insulin [per allele effect (β) = -13% (-24; -1) (95% confidence interval), P = 0.03] and lower incremental area under the curve 0-120 min for insulin after an oral glucose load [β = -14% (-23; -), P = 0.005]. The G allele was associated with increased peripheral insulin action [glucose disposal rate clamp, β = 0.85 mg·kgfat-free mass(-1) · min(-1) (0.049; 1.64), P = 0.04] and lower hepatic insulin resistance index [β = -13% (-25; -1), P = 0.03]. Furthermore, carriers of the G allele had increased basal FOXO3A mRNA expression in skeletal muscle compared with T-allele carriers [β = 16% (0; 33), P = 0.047]. In the Inter99 sample, we found an association with reduced incremental area under the curve 0-120 min for insulin after an oral glucose load [β = -3% (-5; -0.07), P = 0.04], but this association was not significant after adjustment for body mass index. Conclusion: Our data indicate that the minor G allele of FOXO3A rs2802292 is associated with enhanced peripheral and hepatic insulin sensitivity in our small twin cohort, which may be mediated through increased FOXO3A mRNA expression, although no major metabolic impact of rs2802292 was found in the large Inter99 cohort.
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5.
  • Broholm, Christa, et al. (författare)
  • Epigenetic programming of adipose-derived stem cells in low birthweight individuals
  • 2016
  • Ingår i: Diabetologia. - : Springer. - 0012-186X. ; 59:12, s. 2664-2673
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Aims/hypothesis: Low birthweight (LBW) is associated with dysfunctions of adipose tissue and metabolic disease in adult life. We hypothesised that altered epigenetic and transcriptional regulation of adipose-derived stem cells (ADSCs) could play a role in programming adipose tissue dysfunction in LBW individuals. Methods: ADSCs were isolated from the subcutaneous adipose tissue of 13 normal birthweight (NBW) and 13 LBW adult men. The adipocytes were cultured in vitro, and genome-wide differences in RNA expression and DNA methylation profiles were analysed in ADSCs and differentiated adipocytes. Results: We demonstrated that ADSCs from LBW individuals exhibit multiple expression changes as well as genome-wide alterations in methylation pattern. Reduced expression of the transcription factor cyclin T2 encoded by CCNT2 may play a key role in orchestrating several of the gene expression changes in ADSCs from LBW individuals. Indeed, silencing of CCNT2 in human adipocytes decreased leptin secretion as well as the mRNA expression of several genes involved in adipogenesis, including MGLL, LIPE, PPARG, LEP and ADIPOQ. Only subtle genome-wide mRNA expression and DNA methylation changes were seen in mature cultured adipocytes from LBW individuals. Conclusions/interpretation: Epigenetic and transcriptional changes in LBW individuals are most pronounced in immature ADSCs that in turn may programme physiological characteristics of the mature adipocytes that influence the risk of metabolic diseases. Reduced expression of CCNT2 may play a key role in the developmental programming of adipose tissue.
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6.
  • Broholm, Christa, et al. (författare)
  • Epigenome- and Transcriptome-wide Changes in Muscle Stem Cells from Low Birth Weight Men
  • 2020
  • Ingår i: Endocrine Research. - : Taylor & Francis. - 0743-5800. ; 45:1, s. 58-71
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background: Being born with low birth weight (LBW) is a risk factor for muscle insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes (T2D), which may be mediated by epigenetic mechanisms programmed by the intrauterine environment. Epigenetic mechanisms exert their prime effects in developing cells. We hypothesized that muscle insulin resistance in LBW subjects may be due to early differential epigenomic and transcriptomic alterations in their immature muscle progenitor cells. Results: Muscle progenitor cells were obtained from 23 healthy young adult men born at term with LBW, and 15 BMI-matched normal birth weight (NBW) controls. The cells were subsequently cultured and differentiated into myotubes. DNA and RNA were harvested before and after differentiation for genome-wide DNA methylation and RNA expression measurements. After correcting for multiple comparisons (q ≤ 0.05), 56 CpG sites were found to be significantly, differentially methylated in myoblasts from LBW compared with NBW men, of which the top five gene-annotated CpG sites (SKI, ARMCX3, NR5A2, NEUROG, ESRRG) previously have been associated to regulation of cholesterol, fatty acid and glucose metabolism and muscle development or hypertrophy. LBW men displayed markedly decreased myotube gene expression levels of the AMPK-repressing tyrosine kinase gene FYN and the histone deacetylase gene HDAC7. Silencing of FYN and HDAC7 was associated with impaired myotube formation, which for HDAC7 reduced muscle glucose uptake. Conclusions: The data provides evidence of impaired muscle development predisposing LBW individuals to T2D is linked to and potentially caused by distinct DNA methylation and transcriptional changes including down regulation of HDAC7 and FYN in their immature myoblast stem cells.
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7.
  • Flannick, Jason, et al. (författare)
  • Loss-of-function mutations in SLC30A8 protect against type 2 diabetes.
  • 2014
  • Ingår i: Nature Genetics. - : Nature Publishing Group. - 1546-1718 .- 1061-4036. ; 46:4, s. 357-357
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Loss-of-function mutations protective against human disease provide in vivo validation of therapeutic targets, but none have yet been described for type 2 diabetes (T2D). Through sequencing or genotyping of ∼150,000 individuals across 5 ancestry groups, we identified 12 rare protein-truncating variants in SLC30A8, which encodes an islet zinc transporter (ZnT8) and harbors a common variant (p.Trp325Arg) associated with T2D risk and glucose and proinsulin levels. Collectively, carriers of protein-truncating variants had 65% reduced T2D risk (P = 1.7 × 10(-6)), and non-diabetic Icelandic carriers of a frameshift variant (p.Lys34Serfs*50) demonstrated reduced glucose levels (-0.17 s.d., P = 4.6 × 10(-4)). The two most common protein-truncating variants (p.Arg138* and p.Lys34Serfs*50) individually associate with T2D protection and encode unstable ZnT8 proteins. Previous functional study of SLC30A8 suggested that reduced zinc transport increases T2D risk, and phenotypic heterogeneity was observed in mouse Slc30a8 knockouts. In contrast, loss-of-function mutations in humans provide strong evidence that SLC30A8 haploinsufficiency protects against T2D, suggesting ZnT8 inhibition as a therapeutic strategy in T2D prevention.
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8.
  • Friedrichsen, Martin, et al. (författare)
  • Dissociation between Skeletal Muscle Inhibitor-{kappa}B Kinase/Nuclear Factor-{kappa}B Pathway Activity and Insulin Sensitivity in Nondiabetic Twins.
  • 2010
  • Ingår i: Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism. - : Oxford University Press. - 1945-7197. ; 95:1, s. 414-421
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Context: Several studies suggest a link between increased activity of the inflammatory inhibitor-kappaB kinase/nuclear factor-kappaB (IKK/NF-kappaB) pathway in skeletal muscle and insulin resistance. Objective: We aimed to study the regulation of skeletal muscle IKK/NF-kappaB pathway activity as well as the association with glucose metabolism and skeletal muscle insulin signaling. Methods: The study population included a metabolically well-characterized cohort of young and elderly predominantly nondiabetic twins (n = 181). Inhibitor-kappaBbeta (IkappaBbeta) protein levels are negatively associated with IKK/NF-kappaB pathway activity and were used to evaluate pathway activity with p65 levels included as loading control. This indirect measure for IKK/NF-kappaB pathway activity was validated by a p65 binding assay. Results: Evaluating the effects of heritability, age, sex, obesity, aerobic capacity, and several hormonal factors (eg insulin and TNF-alpha), only sex and age were significant predictors of IkappaBbeta to p65 ratio (28% decreased ratio in the elderly, P < 0.01, and 49% increased in males P < 0.01). IkappaBbeta to p65 ratio was unrelated to peripheral insulin sensitivity (P = 0.51) and in accordance with this also unrelated to proximal insulin signaling (P = 0.81). Although no association was seen with plasma glucose after oral glucose challenge, there was a tendency for lower IkappaBbeta to p65 ratio (adjusted for age and sex) in subjects with impaired as opposed to normal glucose tolerance (P = 0.055). Conclusions: Altogether the subtle elevated IKK/NF-kappaB pathway activity seen in glucose-intolerant subjects suggests that IKK/NF-kappaB pathway activation may be secondary to impaired glucose tolerance and that skeletal muscle IKK/NF-kappaB pathway activity is unlikely to play any major role in the control of skeletal muscle insulin action in nondiabetic subjects.
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9.
  • Gillberg, Linn, et al. (författare)
  • Does DNA Methylation of PPARGC1A Influence Insulin Action in First Degree Relatives of Patients with Type 2 Diabetes?
  • 2013
  • Ingår i: PLoS ONE. - : Public Library of Science. - 1932-6203. ; 8:3
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Epigenetics may play a role in the pathophysiology of type 2 diabetes (T2D), and increased DNA methylation of the metabolic master regulator peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator 1 alpha (PPARGC1A) has been reported in muscle and pancreatic islets from T2D patients and in muscle from individuals at risk of T2D. This study aimed to investigate DNA promoter methylation and gene expression of PPARGC1A in skeletal muscle from first degree relatives (FDR) of T2D patients, and to determine the association with insulin action as well as the influence of family relation. We included 124 Danish FDR of T2D patients from 46 different families. Skeletal muscle biopsies were excised from vastus lateralis and insulin action was assessed by oral glucose tolerance tests. DNA methylation and mRNA expression levels were measured using bisulfite sequencing and quantitative real-time PCR, respectively. The average PPARGC1A methylation at four CpG sites situated 867-624 bp from the transcription start was associated with whole-body insulin sensitivity in a paradoxical positive manner (beta = 0.12, P = 0.03), supported by a borderline significant inverse correlation with fasting insulin levels (beta = -0.88, P = 0.06). Excluding individuals with prediabetes and overt diabetes did not affect the overall result. DNA promoter methylation was not associated with PPARGC1A gene expression. The familiality estimate of PPARGC1A gene expression was high (h(2) = 79 +/- 27% (h(2) +/- SE), P = 0.002), suggesting genetic regulation to play a role. No significant effect of familiality on DNA methylation was found. Taken together, increased DNA methylation of the PPARGC1A promoter is unlikely to play a major causal role for the development of insulin resistance in FDR of patients with T2D.
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10.
  • Graae, Anne-Sofie, et al. (författare)
  • ADAMTS9 Regulates Skeletal Muscle Insulin Sensitivity Through Extracellular Matrix Alterations
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: Diabetes. - 0012-1797 .- 1939-327X. ; 68:3, s. 502-514
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The ADAMTS9 rs4607103 C allele is one of the few gene variants proposed to increase the risk of type 2 diabetes through an impairment of insulin sensitivity. We show that the variant is associated with increased expression of the secreted ADAMTS9 and decreased insulin sensitivity and signaling in human skeletal muscle. In line with this, mice lacking Adamts9 selectively in skeletal muscle have improved insulin sensitivity. The molecular link between ADAMTS9 and insulin signaling was characterized further in a model where ADAMTS9 was overexpressed in skeletal muscle. This selective over expression resulted in decreased insulin signaling presumably mediated through alterations of the integrin 131 signaling pathway and disruption of the intracellular cytoskeletal organization. Furthermore, this led to impaired mitochondria! function in mouse muscle-an observation found to be of translational character because humans carrying the ADAMTS9 risk allele have decreased expression of mitochondrial markers. Finally, we found that the link between ADAMTS9 overexpression and impaired insulin signaling could be due to accumulation of harmful lipid intermediates. Our findings contribute to the understanding of the molecular mechanisms underlying insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes and point to inhibition of ADAMTS9 as a potential novel mode of treating insulin resistance.
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