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Sökning: WFRF:(Richiardi Lorenzo)

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  • [1]2Nästa
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1.
  • Carlsson, Jessica, 1984-, et al. (författare)
  • Quantity and quality of nucleic acids extracted from archival formalin fixed paraffin embedded prostate biopsies
  • 2018
  • Ingår i: ; 18:1
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • BACKGROUND: In Sweden, human tissue samples obtained from diagnostic and surgical procedures have for decades been routinely stored in a formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded, form. Through linkage with nationwide registers, these samples are available for molecular studies to identify biomarkers predicting mortality even in slow-progressing prostate cancer. However, tissue fixation causes modifications of nucleic acids, making it challenging to extract high-quality nucleic acids from formalin fixated tissues.METHODS: In this study, the efficiency of five commercial nucleic acid extraction kits was compared on 30 prostate biopsies with normal histology, and the quantity and quality of the products were compared using spectrophotometry and Agilent's BioAnalyzer. Student's t-test's and Bland-Altman analyses were performed in order to investigate differences in nucleic acid quantity and quality between the five kits. The best performing extraction kits were subsequently tested on an additional 84 prostate tumor tissues. A Spearman's correlation test and linear regression analyses were performed in order to investigate the impact of tissue age and amount of tissue on nucleic acid quantity and quality.RESULTS: Nucleic acids extracted with RNeasy® FFPE and QIAamp® DNA FFPE Tissue kit had the highest quantity and quality, and was used for extraction from 84 tumor tissues. Nucleic acids were successfully extracted from all biopsies, and the amount of tumor (in millimeter) was found to have the strongest association with quantity and quality of nucleic acids.CONCLUSIONS: To conclude, this study shows that the choice of nucleic acid extraction kit affects the quantity and quality of extracted products. Furthermore, we show that extraction of nucleic acids from archival formalin-fixed prostate biopsies is possible, allowing molecular studies to be performed on this valuable sample collection.
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  • Laouali, Nasser, et al. (författare)
  • Occupational exposure to organic solvents and risk of male breast cancer : A European multicenter case-control study
  • Ingår i: Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment and Health. - : Finnish Institute of Occupational Health. - 0355-3140 .- 1795-990X. ; 44:3, s. 312-322
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Objectives The etiology of male breast cancer (MBC) is largely unknown but a causal role of exposure to organic solvents has been suggested. Previous studies on occupational risk factors of breast cancer were often restricted to women who are frequently exposed to lower levels and at a lower frequency than men. We investigated the association between MBC and occupational exposure to petroleum and oxygenated and chlorinated solvents in a multicenter case-control study of rare cancers in Europe. Methods The study included 104 MBC cases and 1901 controls. Detailed lifetime work history was obtained during interviews, together with sociodemographic characteristics, medical history and lifestyle factors. Occupational exposures to solvents were estimated from a job-exposure matrix. Odds ratios (OR) and their 95% confidence intervals (CI) were calculated using unconditional logistic regression models. Results Lifetime cumulative exposure to trichloroethylene >23.9 ppm years was associated with an increased MBC risk, compared to non-exposure [OR (95% CI): 2.1 (1.2-4.0); P trend <0.01). This increase in risk persisted when only exposures that occurred ≥10 years before diagnosis were considered. In addition, a possible role for benzene and ethylene glycol in MBC risk was suggested, but no exposure-response trend was observed. Conclusions These findings add to the evidence of an increased risk of breast cancer among men professionally exposed to trichloroethylene and possibly to benzene or ethylene glycol. Further studies should be conducted in populations with high level of exposure to confirm our results.
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  • Ludvigsson, Jonas F., et al. (författare)
  • Influenza H1N1 vaccination and adverse pregnancy outcome
  • 2013
  • Ingår i: European Journal of Epidemiology. - 0393-2990 .- 1573-7284. ; 28:7, s. 579-588
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Although vaccines against influenza can reduce maternal morbidity and mortality, large-scale data on adverse effects in the offspring are scarce. Historical cohort study in Stockholm County, Sweden. We linked H1N1 vaccination data (Pandemrix(A (R)), a mono-valent AS03 adjuvanted H1N1 vaccine) with pregnancy and birth data from 21,087 women with singleton offspring conceived between February 2009 and January 2010 (vaccinated during pregnancy: n = 13,297 vs. unvaccinated: n = 7,790). Data were analysed by conceptualizing the observational cohort as a series of nested cohorts defined at each week of gestation. Logistic regression estimated odds ratios (ORs) for low birth weight (LBW, < 2,500 g), preterm birth (< 37 completed weeks), small-for-gestational age (SGA, < 10th percentile of the gestational age-specific birth weight within the cohort), low 5-min Apgar score (< 7), and caesarean section. Data were adjusted for potential confounders, including maternal age, body mass index, smoking, parity, civil status and comorbidities. Compared with infants of non-vaccinated women, infants of vaccinated women had similar adjusted ORs (95 % CI) for LBW (0.91; 0.79-1.04), preterm birth (0.99; 0.89-1.10), SGA (0.97; 0.90-1.05), low Apgar score (1.05, 0.84-1.31), and a marginal risk reduction for caesarean section (0.94, 0.89-0.99). H1N1 vaccination during pregnancy, using an AS03-adjuvanted vaccine, does not appear to adversely influence offspring risks of LBW, preterm birth, SGA, or low Apgar score. Our results suggest that this vaccine is safe for the offspring when used in different stages of pregnancy.
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  • McKay, James D., et al. (författare)
  • A Genome-Wide Association Study of Upper Aerodigestive Tract Cancers Conducted within the INHANCE Consortium
  • 2011
  • Ingår i: PLOS Genetics. - 1553-7390 .- 1553-7404. ; 7:3
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have been successful in identifying common genetic variation involved in susceptibility to etiologically complex disease. We conducted a GWAS to identify common genetic variation involved in susceptibility to upper aero-digestive tract (UADT) cancers. Genome-wide genotyping was carried out using the Illumina HumanHap300 beadchips in 2,091 UADT cancer cases and 3,513 controls from two large European multi-centre UADT cancer studies, as well as 4,821 generic controls. The 19 top-ranked variants were investigated further in an additional 6,514 UADT cancer cases and 7,892 controls of European descent from an additional 13 UADT cancer studies participating in the INHANCE consortium. Five common variants presented evidence for significant association in the combined analysis (p <= 5 x 10(-7)). Two novel variants were identified, a 4q21 variant (rs1494961, p = 1 x 10(-8)) located near DNA repair related genes HEL308 and FAM175A (or Abraxas) and a 12q24 variant (rs4767364, p = 2 x 10(-8)) located in an extended linkage disequilibrium region that contains multiple genes including the aldehyde dehydrogenase 2 (ALDH2) gene. Three remaining variants are located in the ADH gene cluster and were identified previously in a candidate gene study involving some of these samples. The association between these three variants and UADT cancers was independently replicated in 5,092 UADT cancer cases and 6,794 controls non-overlapping samples presented here (rs1573496-ADH7, p = 5 x 10(-8); rs1229984-ADH1B, p = 7 x 10(-9); and rs698-ADH1C, p = 0.02). These results implicate two variants at 4q21 and 12q24 and further highlight three ADH variants in UADT cancer susceptibility.
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  • Stemann Larsen, Pernille, et al. (författare)
  • Pregnancy and Birth Cohort Resources in Europe: a Large Opportunity for Aetiological Child Health Research
  • 2013
  • Ingår i: Paediatric and Perinatal Epidemiology. - : Wiley-Blackwell. - 0269-5022 .- 1365-3016. ; 27:4, s. 393-414
  • Forskningsöversikt (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background During the past 25 years, many pregnancy and birth cohorts have been established. Each cohort provides unique opportunities for examining associations of early-life exposures with child development and health. However, to fully exploit the large amount of available resources and to facilitate cross-cohort collaboration, it is necessary to have accessible information on each cohort and its individual characteristics. The aim of this work was to provide an overview of European pregnancy and birth cohorts registered in a freely accessible database located at http://www.birthcohorts.net. Methods European pregnancy and birth cohorts initiated in 1980 or later with at least 300 mother-child pairs enrolled during pregnancy or at birth, and with postnatal data, were eligible for inclusion. Eligible cohorts were invited to provide information on the data and biological samples collected, as well as the timing of data collection. Results In total, 70 cohorts were identified. Of these, 56 fulfilled the inclusion criteria encompassing a total of more than 500000 live-born European children. The cohorts represented 19 countries with the majority of cohorts located in Northern and Western Europe. Some cohorts were general with multiple aims, whilst others focused on specific health or exposure-related research questions. Conclusion This work demonstrates a great potential for cross-cohort collaboration addressing important aspects of child health. The web site, http://www.birthcohorts.net, proved to be a useful tool for accessing information on European pregnancy and birth cohorts and their characteristics.
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8.
  • Zelic, Renata, et al. (författare)
  • Estimation of Relative and Absolute Risks in a Competing-Risks Setting Using a Nested Case-Control Study Design : Example From the ProMort Study
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: ; 188:6, s. 1165-1173
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • In this paper, we describe the Prognostic Factors for Mortality in Prostate Cancer (ProMort) study and use it to demonstrate how the weighted likelihood method can be used in nested case-control studies to estimate both relative and absolute risks in the competing-risks setting. ProMort is a case-control study nested within the National Prostate Cancer Register (NPCR) of Sweden, comprising 1,710 men diagnosed with low- or intermediate-risk prostate cancer between 1998 and 2011 who died from prostate cancer (cases) and 1,710 matched controls. Cause-specific hazard ratios and cumulative incidence functions (CIFs) for prostate cancer death were estimated in ProMort using weighted flexible parametric models and compared with the corresponding estimates from the NPCR cohort. We further drew 1,500 random nested case-control subsamples of the NPCR cohort and quantified the bias in the hazard ratio and CIF estimates. Finally, we compared the ProMort estimates with those obtained by augmenting competing-risks cases and by augmenting both competing-risks cases and controls. The hazard ratios for prostate cancer death estimated in ProMort were comparable to those in the NPCR. The hazard ratios for dying from other causes were biased, which introduced bias in the CIFs estimated in the competing-risks setting. When augmenting both competing-risks cases and controls, the bias was reduced.
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9.
  • Zelic, Renata, et al. (författare)
  • Predicting Prostate Cancer Death with Different Pretreatment Risk Stratification Tools : A Head-to-head Comparison in a Nationwide Cohort Study
  • 2020
  • Ingår i: ; 77:2, s. 180-188
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background: Numerous pretreatment risk classification tools are available for prostate cancer. Which tool is best in predicting prostate cancer death is unclear.Objective: To systematically compare the prognostic performance of the most commonly used pretreatment risk stratification tools for prostate cancer.Design, setting, and participants: A nationwide cohort study was conducted, including 154 811 men in Prostate Cancer data Base Sweden (PCBaSe) 4.0 diagnosed with nonmetastatic prostate cancer during 1998-2016 and followed through 2016.Outcome measurements and statistical analysis: We compared the D'Amico, National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE), European Association of Urology (EAU), Genito-Urinary Radiation Oncologists of Canada (GUROC), American Urological Association (AUA), National Comprehensive Cancer Network (NCCN), and Cambridge Prognostic Groups (CPG) risk group systems; the Cancer of the Prostate Risk Assessment (CAPRA) score; and the Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center (MSKCC) nomogram in predicting prostate cancer death by estimating the concordance index (C-index) and the observed versus predicted cumulative incidences at different follow-up times.Results and limitations: A total of 139 515 men were included in the main analysis, of whom 15 961 died from prostate cancer during follow-up. The C-index at 10 yr of follow-up ranged from 0.73 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.72-0.73) to 0.81 (95% CI: 0.80-0.81) across the compared tools. The MSKCC nomogram (C-index: 0.81, 95% CI: 0.80-0.81), CAPRA score (C-index: 0.80, 95% CI: 0.79-0.81), and CPG system (C-index: 0.78, 95% CI: 0.78-0.79) performed the best. The order of performance between the tools remained in analyses stratified by primary treatment and year of diagnosis. The predicted cumulative incidences were close to the observed ones, with some underestimation at 5 yr. It is a limitation that the study was conducted solely in a Swedish setting (ie, case mix).Conclusions: The MSKCC nomogram, CAPRA score, and CPG risk grouping system performed better in discriminating prostate cancer death than the D'Amico and D'Amico-derived systems (NICE, GUROC, EAU, AUA, and NCCN). Use of these tools may improve clinical decision making.Patient summary: There are numerous pretreatment risk classification tools that can aid treatment decision for prostate cancer. We systematically compared the prognostic performance of the most commonly used tools in a large cohort of Swedish men with prostate cancer. The Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center nomogram, Cancer of the Prostate Risk Assessment score, and Cambridge Prognostic Groups performed best in predicting prostate cancer death. The use of these tools may improve treatment decisions. 
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  • Zugna, Daniela, et al. (författare)
  • Mortality Rate in Children Born to Mothers and Fathers With Celiac Disease : A Nationwide Cohort Study
  • 2013
  • Ingår i: American Journal of Epidemiology. - : Oxford University Press. - 0002-9262 .- 1476-6256. ; 177:12, s. 1348-1355
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Celiac disease (CD) is associated with increased mortality rate and adverse pregnancy outcome, but little is known about offspring mortality rate. In this nationwide retrospective cohort study, we identified persons whose biopsy-verified CD was diagnosed in Sweden in 19692008. We compared mortality rates in children born to mothers with and without CD (n 16,121 vs. n 61,782) and children born to fathers with and without CD (n 9,289 vs. n 32,984). Median age of offspring at end of follow-up was 28.7 (range, 16.739.7) years. We also examined mortality rates in children born to mothers with undiagnosed CD (later CD diagnosis; n 12,919) and diagnosed CD (n 3,202) to determine if intrauterine exposures associated with CD could affect offspring mortality rate. We estimated hazard ratios for death by using Cox regression. Death rates were independent of maternal CD (60 deaths per 100,000 person-years in children of mothers with CD, vs. 54 in controls) and paternal CD (53 deaths per 100,000 person-years in children of fathers with CD, vs. 53 in controls). Corresponding adjusted hazard ratios were 1.09 (95 confidence interval: 0.95, 1.26) for maternal CD and 1.02 (95 confidence interval: 0.85, 1.23) for paternal CD. Death rates were similar in children born to mothers with undiagnosed CD and in children whose mothers had diagnosed CD during pregnancy. Parental CD does not seem to influence mortality rate in offspring, which suggests that neither genetic influences of CD nor intrauterine conditions have adverse effects on offspring mortality rate.
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