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Sökning: WFRF:(Rider Jennifer R)

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1.
  • Richards, Stephen, et al. (författare)
  • Genome sequence of the pea aphid Acyrthosiphon pisum
  • 2010
  • Ingår i: PLoS Biology. - Public Library of Science. - 1544-9173. ; 8:2, s. 1-24
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Aphids are important agricultural pests and also biological models for studies of insect-plant interactions, symbiosis, virus vectoring, and the developmental causes of extreme phenotypic plasticity. Here we present the 464 Mb draft genome assembly of the pea aphid Acyrthosiphon pisum. This first published whole genome sequence of a basal hemimetabolous insect provides an outgroup to the multiple published genomes of holometabolous insects. Pea aphids are host-plant specialists, they can reproduce both sexually and asexually, and they have coevolved with an obligate bacterial symbiont. Here we highlight findings from whole genome analysis that may be related to these unusual biological features. These findings include discovery of extensive gene duplication in more than 2000 gene families as well as loss of evolutionarily conserved genes. Gene family expansions relative to other published genomes include genes involved in chromatin modification, miRNA synthesis, and sugar transport. Gene losses include genes central to the IMD immune pathway, selenoprotein utilization, purine salvage, and the entire urea cycle. The pea aphid genome reveals that only a limited number of genes have been acquired from bacteria; thus the reduced gene count of Buchnera does not reflect gene transfer to the host genome. The inventory of metabolic genes in the pea aphid genome suggests that there is extensive metabolite exchange between the aphid and Buchnera, including sharing of amino acid biosynthesis between the aphid and Buchnera. The pea aphid genome provides a foundation for post-genomic studies of fundamental biological questions and applied agricultural problems.
2.
  • Stopsack, Konrad H., et al. (författare)
  • Cholesterol Metabolism and Prostate Cancer Lethality
  • 2016
  • Ingår i: Cancer Research. - American Association for Cancer Research Inc.. - 0008-5472. ; 76:16, s. 4785-4790
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Cholesterol metabolism has been implicated in prostate cancer pathogenesis. Here, we assessed the association of intratumoral mRNA expression of cholesterol synthesis enzymes, transporters, and regulators in tumor specimen at diagnosis and lethal prostate cancer, defined as mortality or metastases from prostate cancer in contrast to nonlethal disease without evidence of metastases after at least 8 years of follow-up. We analyzed the prospective prostate cancer cohorts within the Health Professionals Follow-up Study (n = 249) and the Physicians' Health Study (n = 153) as well as expectantly managed patients in the Swedish Watchful Waiting Study (n = 338). The expression of squalene monooxygenase (SQLE) was associated with lethal cancer in all three cohorts. Men with high SQLE expression (>1 standard deviation above the mean) were 8.3 times (95% confidence interval, 3.5 to 19.7) more likely to have lethal cancer despite therapy compared with men with the mean level of SQLE expression. Absolute SQLE expression was associated with lethal cancer independently from Gleason grade and stage, as was a SQLE expression ratio in tumor versus surrounding benign prostate tissue. Higher SQLE expression was tightly associated with increased histologic markers of angiogenesis. Collectively, this study establishes the prognostic value of intratumoral cholesterol synthesis as measured via SQLE, its second rate-limiting enzyme. SQLE expression at cancer diagnosis is prognostic for lethal prostate cancer both after curative-intent prostatectomy and in a watchful waiting setting, possibly by facilitating micrometastatic disease.
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3.
  • Flavin, Richard, et al. (författare)
  • SPINK1 protein expression and prostate cancer progression
  • 2014
  • Ingår i: Clinical Cancer Research. - Philadelphia, USA : American Association for Cancer Research. - 1078-0432. ; 20:18, s. 4904-11
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Purpose: SPINK1 overexpression has been described in prostate cancer and is linked with poor prognosis in many cancers. The objective of this study was to characterize the association between SPINK1 overexpression and prostate cancer-specific survival.Experimental design: The study included 879 participants in the U.S. Physicians' Health Study and Health Professionals Follow-Up Study, diagnosed with prostate cancer (1983-2004) and treated by radical prostatectomy. Protein tumor expression of SPINK1 was evaluated by immunohistochemistry on tumor tissue microarrays.Results: Seventy-four of 879 (8%) prostate cancer tumors were SPINK1 positive. Immunohistochemical data were available for PTEN, p-Akt, pS6, stathmin, androgen receptor (AR), and ERG (as a measure of the TMPRSS2:ERG translocation). Compared with SPINK1-negative tumors, SPINK1-positive tumors showed higher PTEN and stathmin expression, and lower expression of AR (P < 0.01). SPINK1 overexpression was seen in 47 of 427 (11%) ERG-negative samples and in 19 of 427 (4%) ERG-positive cases (P = 0.0003). We found no significant associations between SPINK1 status and Gleason grade or tumor stage. There was no association between SPINK1 expression and biochemical recurrence (P = 0.56). Moreover, there was no association between SPINK1 expression and prostate cancer mortality (there were 75 lethal cases of prostate cancer during a mean of 13.5 years follow-up; HR = 0.71; 95% confidence interval, 0.29-1.76).Conclusions: Our results suggest that SPINK1 protein expression may not be a predictor of recurrence or lethal prostate cancer amongst men treated by radical prostatectomy. SPINK1 and ERG protein expression do not seem to be entirely mutually exclusive, as some previous studies have suggested.
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4.
  • Forsberg, Lars A., et al. (författare)
  • Age-related somatic structural changes in the nuclear genome of human blood cells
  • 2012
  • Ingår i: American Journal of Human Genetics. - 0002-9297 .- 1537-6605. ; 90:2, s. 217-228
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Structural variations are among the most frequent interindividual genetic differences in the human genome. The frequency and distribution of de novo somatic structural variants in normal cells is, however, poorly explored. Using age-stratified cohorts of 318 monozygotic (MZ) twins and 296 single-born subjects, we describe age-related accumulation of copy-number variation in the nuclear genomes in vivo and frequency changes for both megabase- and kilobase-range variants. Megabase-range aberrations were found in 3.4% (9 of 264) of subjects ≥60 years old; these subjects included 78 MZ twin pairs and 108 single-born individuals. No such findings were observed in 81 MZ pairs or 180 single-born subjects who were ≤55 years old. Recurrent region- and gene-specific mutations, mostly deletions, were observed. Longitudinal analyses of 43 subjects whose data were collected 7-19 years apart suggest considerable variation in the rate of accumulation of clones carrying structural changes. Furthermore, the longitudinal analysis of individuals with structural aberrations suggests that there is a natural self-removal of aberrant cell clones from peripheral blood. In three healthy subjects, we detected somatic aberrations characteristic of patients with myelodysplastic syndrome. The recurrent rearrangements uncovered here are candidates for common age-related defects in human blood cells. We anticipate that extension of these results will allow determination of the genetic age of different somatic-cell lineages and estimation of possible individual differences between genetic and chronological age. Our work might also help to explain the cause of an age-related reduction in the number of cell clones in the blood; such a reduction is one of the hallmarks of immunosenescence.
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5.
  • Markt, Sarah C., et al. (författare)
  • Genetic Variation Across C-Reactive Protein and Risk of Prostate Cancer
  • 2014
  • Ingår i: The Prostate. - Wiley-Blackwell. - 0270-4137. ; 74:10, s. 1034-1042
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • BACKGROUND. Inflammation has been hypothesized to play an important etiological role in the initiation or progression of prostate cancer. Circulating levels of the systemic inflammation marker C-reactive protein (CRP) have been associated with increased risk of prostate cancer. We investigated the role of genetic variation in CRP and prostate cancer, under the hypothesis that variants may alter risk of disease.METHODS. We undertook a case-control study nested within the prospective Physicians' Health Study among 1,286 men with incident prostate cancer and 1,264 controls. Four single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were selected to capture the common genetic variation across CRP (r(2) > 0.8). We used unconditional logistic regression to assess the association between each SNP and risk of prostate cancer. Linear regression models explored associations between each genotype and plasma CRP levels.RESULTS. None of the CRP SNPs were associated with prostate cancer overall. Individuals with one copy of the minor allele (C) in rs1800947 had an increased risk of high-grade prostate cancer (OR: 1.7; 95% CI: 1.1-2.8), and significantly lower mean CRP levels (P-value < 0.001), however, we found no significant association with lethal disease. Mean CRP levels were significantly elevated in men with one or two copies of the minor allele in rs3093075 and rs1417939, but these were unrelated to prostate cancer risk.CONCLUSION. Our findings suggest that SNPs in the CRP gene are not associated with risk of overall or lethal prostate cancer. Polymorphisms in CRP rs1800947 may be associated with higher grade disease, but our results require replication in other cohorts.
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6.
  • Markt, Sarah C., et al. (författare)
  • Sniffing out significant "Pee values" genome wide association study of asparagus anosmia
  • 2016
  • Ingår i: BMJ-BRITISH MEDICAL JOURNAL. - London, United Kingdom : B M J Group. ; 355
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Objective: To determine the inherited factors associated with the ability to smell asparagus metabolites in urine.Design: Genome wide association study.Sstting: Nurses' Health Study and Health Professionals Follow-up Study cohorts.Participants: 6909 men and women of European-American descent with available genetic data from genome wide association studies.Main outcome measure: Participants were characterized as asparagus smellers if they strongly agreed with the prompt "after eating asparagus, you notice a strong characteristic odor in your urine," and anosmic if otherwise. We calculated per-allele estimates of asparagus anosmia for about nine million single nucleotide polymorphisms using logistic regression. P values <5×10(-8) were considered as genome wide significant.Results: 58.0% of men (n=1449/2500) and 61.5% of women (n=2712/4409) had anosmia. 871 single nucleotide polymorphisms reached genome wide significance for asparagus anosmia, all in a region on chromosome 1 (1q44: 248139851-248595299) containing multiple genes in the olfactory receptor 2 (OR2) family. Conditional analyses revealed three independent markers associated with asparagus anosmia: rs13373863, rs71538191, and rs6689553.Conclusion: A large proportion of people have asparagus anosmia. Genetic variation near multiple olfactory receptor genes is associated with the ability of an individual to smell the metabolites of asparagus in urine. Future replication studies are necessary before considering targeted therapies to help anosmic people discover what they are missing.
7.
  • Sinnott, Jennifer A., et al. (författare)
  • Molecular differences in transition zone and peripheral zone prostate tumors
  • 2015
  • Ingår i: Carcinogenesis. - Oxford, United Kingdom : Oxford University Press. - 0143-3334. ; 36:6, s. 632-638
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Prostate tumors arise primarily in the peripheral zone (PZ) of the prostate, but 20-30% arise in the transition zone (TZ). Zone of origin may have prognostic value or reflect distinct molecular subtypes; however, it can be difficult to determine in practice. Using whole-genome gene expression, we built a signature of zone using normal tissue from five individuals and found that it successfully classified nine tumors of known zone. Hypothesizing that this signature captures tumor zone of origin, we assessed its relationship with clinical factors among 369 tumors of unknown zone from radical prostatectomies (RPs) and found that tumors that molecularly resembled TZ tumors showed lower mortality (P = 0.09) that was explained by lower Gleason scores (P = 0.009). We further applied the signature to an earlier study of 88 RP and 333 transurethral resection of the prostate (TURP) tumor samples, also of unknown zone, with gene expression on ~6000 genes. We had observed previously substantial expression differences between RP and TURP specimens, and hypothesized that this might be because RPs capture primarily PZ tumors, whereas TURPs capture more TZ tumors. Our signature distinguished these two groups, with an area under the receiver operating characteristic curve of 87% (P < 0.0001). Our findings that zonal differences in normal tissue persist in tumor tissue and that these differences are associated with Gleason score and sample type suggest that subtypes potentially resulting from different etiologic pathways might arise in these zones. Zone of origin may be important to consider in prostate tumor biomarker research.
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8.
  • Bill-Axelson, Anna, et al. (författare)
  • Long-term Distress After Radical Prostatectomy Versus Watchful Waiting in Prostate Cancer : A Longitudinal Study from the Scandinavian Prostate Cancer Group-4 Randomized Clinical Trial
  • 2013
  • Ingår i: European Urology. - 0302-2838 .- 1873-7560. ; 64:6, s. 920-928
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • BACKGROUND:Studies enumerating the dynamics of physical and emotional symptoms following prostate cancer (PCa) treatment are needed to guide therapeutic strategy. Yet, overcoming patient selection forces is a formidable challenge for observational studies comparing treatment groups.OBJECTIVE:To compare patterns of symptom burden and distress in men with localized PCa randomized to radical prostatectomy (RP) or watchful waiting (WW) and followed up longitudinally.DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS:The three largest, Swedish, randomization centers for the Scandinavian Prostate Cancer Group-4 trial conducted a longitudinal study to assess symptoms and distress from several psychological and physical domains by mailed questionnaire every 6 mo for 2 yr and then yearly through 8 yr of follow-up.INTERVENTION:RP compared with WW.OUTCOME MEASUREMENTS AND STATISTICAL ANALYSIS:A questionnaire was mailed at baseline and then repeatedly during follow-up with questions concerning physical and mental symptoms. Each analysis of quality of life was based on a dichotomization of the outcome (yes vs no) studied in a binomial response, generalized linear mixed model.RESULTS AND LIMITATIONS:Of 347 randomized men, 272 completed at least five questionnaires during an 8-yr follow-up period. Almost all men reported that PCa negatively influenced daily activities and relationships. Health-related distress, worry, feeling low, and insomnia were consistently reported by approximately 30-40% in both groups. Men in the RP group consistently reported more leakage, impaired erection and libido, and fewer obstructive voiding symptoms. For men in the WW group, distress related to erectile symptoms increased gradually over time. Symptom burden and distress at baseline was predictive of long-term outlook.CONCLUSIONS:Cancer negatively influenced daily activities among almost all men in both treatment groups; health-related distress was common. Trade-offs exist between physiologic symptoms, highlighting the importance of tailored treatment decision-making. Men who are likely to experience profound long-term distress can be identified early in disease management.
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9.
  • Bill-Axelson, Anna, et al. (författare)
  • Radical Prostatectomy or Watchful Waiting in Early Prostate Cancer
  • 2014
  • Ingår i: New England Journal of Medicine. - Massachusetts Medical Society. - 0028-4793. ; 370:10, s. 932-942
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • BackgroundRadical prostatectomy reduces mortality among men with localized prostate cancer; however, important questions regarding long-term benefit remain. MethodsBetween 1989 and 1999, we randomly assigned 695 men with early prostate cancer to watchful waiting or radical prostatectomy and followed them through the end of 2012. The primary end points in the Scandinavian Prostate Cancer Group Study Number 4 (SPCG-4) were death from any cause, death from prostate cancer, and the risk of metastases. Secondary end points included the initiation of androgen-deprivation therapy. ResultsDuring 23.2 years of follow-up, 200 of 347 men in the surgery group and 247 of the 348 men in the watchful-waiting group died. Of the deaths, 63 in the surgery group and 99 in the watchful-waiting group were due to prostate cancer; the relative risk was 0.56 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.41 to 0.77; P=0.001), and the absolute difference was 11.0 percentage points (95% CI, 4.5 to 17.5). The number needed to treat to prevent one death was 8. One man died after surgery in the radical-prostatectomy group. Androgen-deprivation therapy was used in fewer patients who underwent prostatectomy (a difference of 25.0 percentage points; 95% CI, 17.7 to 32.3). The benefit of surgery with respect to death from prostate cancer was largest in men younger than 65 years of age (relative risk, 0.45) and in those with intermediate-risk prostate cancer (relative risk, 0.38). However, radical prostatectomy was associated with a reduced risk of metastases among older men (relative risk, 0.68; P=0.04). ConclusionsExtended follow-up confirmed a substantial reduction in mortality after radical prostatectomy; the number needed to treat to prevent one death continued to decrease when the treatment was modified according to age at diagnosis and tumor risk. A large proportion of long-term survivors in the watchful-waiting group have not required any palliative treatment. (Funded by the Swedish Cancer Society and others.) The randomized Swedish trial of prostatectomy versus watchful waiting in disease detected mainly clinically (not by PSA screening) continues to show a benefit for early prostatectomy. The number of men younger than 65 needed to treat to prevent one death is now four. The Scandinavian Prostate Cancer Group Study Number 4 (SPCG-4), a randomized trial of radical prostatectomy versus watchful waiting in men with localized prostate cancer diagnosed before the era of prostate-specific antigen (PSA) testing, showed a survival benefit of radical prostatectomy as compared with observation at 15 years of follow-up.(1) By contrast, the Prostate Cancer Intervention versus Observation Trial (PIVOT), initiated in the early era of PSA testing, showed that radical prostatectomy did not significantly reduce prostate cancer-specific or overall mortality after 12 years.(2) PSA screening profoundly changes the clinical domain of study. Among other considerations, the substantial additional lead time ...
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10.
  • Davidsson, Sabina, et al. (författare)
  • CD4 helper T cells, CD8 cytotoxic T cells, and FOXP3(+) regulatory T cells with respect to lethal prostate cancer
  • 2013
  • Ingår i: Modern Pathology. - Nature Publishing Group. - 0893-3952. ; 26:3, s. 448-455
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Prostate cancer represents a major contributor to cancer mortality, but the majority of men with prostate cancer will die of other causes. Thus, a challenge is identifying potentially lethal disease at diagnosis. Conflicting results have been reported when investigating the relationship between infiltration of lymphocytes and survival in prostate cancer. One of the mechanisms suggested is the recruitment of regulatory T cells (T(regs)), a subpopulation of T cells that have a role in promoting tumor growth. T(regs) counteract tumor rejection through suppressive functions on the anti-immune response but their prognostic significance is still unknown. We report here the results of a conducted case-control study nested in a cohort of men treated with transurethral resection of the prostate and diagnosed incidentally with prostate cancer. Cases are men who died of prostate cancer (n=261) and controls are men who survived >10 years after their diagnosis (n=474). Infiltration of both T(helper) and T(cytotoxic) cells was frequently observed and the majority of the T(regs) were CD4(+). T(helper) or T(cytotoxic) cells were not associated with lethal prostate cancer. However, we found a nearly twofold increased risk of lethal prostate cancer when comparing the highest with the lowest quartile of CD4(+) T(reg) cells (95% confidence interval: 1.3-2.9). Our conclusion is that men with greater numbers of CD4(+) T(regs) in their prostate tumor environment have an increased risk of dying of prostate cancer. Identification of CD4(+) T(regs) in tumor tissue may predict clinically relevant disease at time of diagnosis independently of other clinical factors.Modern Pathology advance online publication, 5 October 2012; doi:10.1038/modpathol.2012.164.
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