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Träfflista för sökning "WFRF:(Riemann K.) "

Sökning: WFRF:(Riemann K.)

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  • Schofield, James P. R., et al. (författare)
  • Stratification of asthma phenotypes by airway proteomic signatures
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology. - Elsevier. - 0091-6749 .- 1097-6825. ; 144:1, s. 70-82
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background: Stratification by eosinophil and neutrophil counts increases our understanding of asthma and helps target therapy, but there is room for improvement in our accuracy in prediction of treatment responses and a need for better understanding of the underlying mechanisms. Objective: We sought to identify molecular subphenotypes of asthma defined by proteomic signatures for improved stratification. Methods: Unbiased label-free quantitative mass spectrometry and topological data analysis were used to analyze the proteomes of sputum supernatants from 246 participants (206 asthmatic patients) as a novel means of asthma stratification. Microarray analysis of sputum cells provided transcriptomics data additionally to inform on underlying mechanisms. Results: Analysis of the sputum proteome resulted in 10 clusters (ie, proteotypes) based on similarity in proteomic features, representing discrete molecular subphenotypes of asthma. Overlaying granulocyte counts onto the 10 clusters as metadata further defined 3 of these as highly eosinophilic, 3 as highly neutrophilic, and 2 as highly atopic with relatively low granulocytic inflammation. For each of these 3 phenotypes, logistic regression analysis identified candidate protein biomarkers, and matched transcriptomic data pointed to differentially activated underlying mechanisms. Conclusion: This study provides further stratification of asthma currently classified based on quantification of granulocytic inflammation and provided additional insight into their underlying mechanisms, which could become targets for novel therapies.
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  • Moortgat-Pick, G., et al. (författare)
  • Polarized positrons and electrons at the linear collider
  • 2008
  • Ingår i: Physics reports. - 0370-1573 .- 1873-6270. ; 460:4-5, s. 131-243
  • Forskningsöversikt (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • The proposed International Linear Collider (ILC) is well-suited for discovering physics beyond the Standard Model and for precisely unraveling the structure of the underlying physics. The physics return can be maximized by the use of polarized beams. This report shows the paramount role of polarized beams and summarizes the benefits obtained from polarizing the positron beam, as well as the electron beam. The physics case for this option is illustrated explicitly by analyzing reference reactions in different physics scenarios. The results show that positron polarization, combined with the clean experimental environment provided by the linear collider, allows to improve strongly the potential of searches for new particles and the identification of their dynamics, which opens the road to resolve shortcomings of the Standard Model. The report also presents an overview of possible designs for polarizing both beams at the ILC, as well as for measuring their polarization.
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  • Accomando, E., et al. (författare)
  • Physics with e + e - linear colliders
  • 1998
  • Ingår i: Physics Report. - Elsevier. - 0370-1573. ; 299:1, s. 1-78
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The physics potential of e + e - linear colliders is summarized in this report. These machines are planned to operate in the first phase at a center-of-mass energy of 500 GeV, before being scaled up to about 1 TeV. In the second phase of the operation, a final energy of about 2 TeV is expected. The machines will allow us to perform precision tests of the heavy particles in the Standard Model, the top quark and the electroweak bosons. They are ideal facilities for exploring the properties of Higgs particles, in particular in the intermediate mass range. New vector bosons and novel matter particles in extended gauge theories can be searched for and studied thoroughly. The machines provide unique opportunities for the discovery of particles in supersymmetric extensions of the Standard Model, the spectrum of Higgs particles, the supersymmetric partners of the electroweak gauge and Higgs bosons, and of the matter particles. High precision analyses of their properties and interactions will allow for extrapolations to energy scales close to the Planck scale where gravity becomes significant. In alternative scenarios, i.e. compositeness models, novel matter particles and interactions can be discovered and investigated in the energy range above the existing colliders up to the TeV scale. Whatever scenario is realized in Nature, the discovery potential of e + e - linear colliders and the high precision with which the properties of particles and their interactions can be analyzed, define an exciting physics program complementary to hadron machines.
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  • Luo, Y. -W, et al. (författare)
  • Database of diazotrophs in global ocean abundance, biomass and nitrogen fixation rates
  • 2012
  • Ingår i: Earth System Science Data. - 1866-3508. ; 4:1, s. 47-73
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Marine N-2 fixing microorganisms, termed di-azotrophs, are a key functional group in marine pelagic ecosystems. The biological fixation of dinitrogen ( N-2) to bioavailable nitrogen provides an important new source of nitrogen for pelagic marine ecosystems and influences primary productivity and organic matter export to the deep ocean. As one of a series of efforts to collect biomass and rates specific to different phytoplankton functional groups, we have constructed a database on diazotrophic organisms in the global pelagic upper ocean by compiling about 12 000 direct field measurements of cyanobacterial diazotroph abundances (based on microscopic cell counts or qPCR assays targeting the nifH genes) and N-2 fixation rates. Biomass conversion factors are estimated based on cell sizes to convert abundance data to diazotrophic biomass. The database is limited spatially, lacking large regions of the ocean especially in the Indian Ocean. The data are approximately log-normal distributed, and large variances exist in most sub-databases with non-zero values differing 5 to 8 orders of magnitude. Reporting the geometric mean and the range of one geometric standard error below and above the geometric mean, the pelagic N-2 fixation rate in the global ocean is estimated to be 62 (52-73) Tg Nyr(-1) and the pelagic diazotrophic biomass in the global ocean is estimated to be 2.1 (1.4-3.1) Tg C from cell counts and to 89 (43-150) Tg C from nifH- based abundances. Reporting the arithmetic mean and one standard error instead, these three global estimates are 140 +/- 9.2 Tg Nyr(-1), 18 +/- 1.8 Tg C and 590 +/- 70 Tg C, respectively. Uncertainties related to biomass conversion factors can change the estimate of geometric mean pelagic diazotrophic biomass in the global ocean by about +/- 70 %. It was recently established that the most commonly applied method used to measure N-2 fixation has underestimated the true rates. As a result, one can expect that future rate measurements will shift the mean N-2 fixation rate upward and may result in significantly higher estimates for the global N-2 fixation. The evolving database can nevertheless be used to study spatial and temporal distributions and variations of marine N-2 fixation, to validate geochemical estimates and to parameterize and validate biogeochemical models, keeping in mind that future rate measurements may rise in the future.
6.
  • Swalethorp, Rasmus, et al. (författare)
  • Microzooplankton distribution in the Amundsen Sea Polynya (Antarctica) during an extensive Phaeocystis antarctica bloom
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: Progress in Oceanography. - Elsevier. - 0079-6611. ; 170, s. 1-10
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • In Antarctica, summer is a time of extreme environmental shifts resulting in large coastal phytoplankton blooms fueling the food web. Despite the importance of the microbial loop in remineralizing biomass from primary production, studies of how microzooplankton communities respond to such blooms in the Southern Ocean are rather scarce. Microzooplankton (ciliate and dinoflagellate) communities were investigated combining microscopy and 18S rRNA sequencing analyses in the Amundsen Sea Polynya during an extensive summer bloom of Phaeocystis antarctica. The succession of microzooplankton was further assessed during a 15-day induced bloom microcosm experiment. Dinoflagellates accounted for up to 59 % of the microzooplankton biomass in situ with Gymnodinium spp., Protoperidiwn spp. and Gyrodinium spp. constituting 89 % of the dinoflagellate biomass. Strobilidium spp., Strombidium spp. and tintinids represented 90 % of the ciliate biomass. Gymnodiniwn, Gyrodinium and tintinnids are known grazers of Phaeocystis, suggesting that this prymnesiophyte selected for the key microzooplankton taxa. Availability of other potential prey, such as diatoms, heterotrophic nanoflagellates and bacteria, also correlated to changes in microzooplankton community structure. Overall, both heterotrophy and mixotrophy appeared to be key trophic strategies of the dominant microzooplankton observed, suggesting that they influence carbon flow in the microbial food web through top-down control on the phytoplankton community.
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7.
  • Happel, E. M., et al. (författare)
  • Effects of allochthonous dissolved organic matter input on microbial composition and nitrogen-cycling genes at two contrasting estuarine sites
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: FEMS Microbiology Ecology. - Oxford University Press. - 0168-6496 .- 1574-6941. ; 95:9
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Heterotrophic bacteria are important drivers of nitrogen (N) cycling and the processing of dissolved organic matter (DOM). Projected increases in precipitation will potentially cause increased loads of riverine DOM to the Baltic Sea and likely affect the composition and function of bacterioplankton communities. To investigate this, the effects of riverine DOM from two different catchment areas (agricultural and forest) on natural bacterioplankton assemblages from two contrasting sites in the Baltic Sea were examined. Two microcosm experiments were carried out, where the community composition (16S rRNA gene sequencing), the composition of a suite of N-cycling genes (metagenomics) and the abundance and transcription of ammonia monooxygenase (amoA) genes involved in nitrification (quantitative PCR) were investigated. The river water treatments evoked a significant response in bacterial growth, but the effects on overall community composition and the representation of N-cycling genes were limited. Instead, treatment effects were reflected in the prevalence of specific taxonomic families, specific N-related functions and in the transcription of amoA genes. The study suggests that bacterioplankton responses to changes in the DOM pool are constrained to part of the bacterial community, whereas most taxa remain relatively unaffected.
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