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Sökning: WFRF:(Riklund K)

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  • Adam, A, et al. (författare)
  • Abstracts from Hydrocephalus 2016.
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: Fluids and Barriers of the CNS. - 2045-8118 .- 2045-8118. ; 14:Suppl 1
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)
  • Ahlén Bergman, Emma, et al. (författare)
  • Increased CD4+ T cell lineage commitment determined by CpG methylation correlates with better prognosis in urinary bladder cancer patients
  • 2018
  • Ingår i: Clinical Epigenetics. - : BMC. - 1868-7083. ; 10
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • BACKGROUND: Urinary bladder cancer is a common malignancy worldwide. Environmental factors and chronic inflammation are correlated with the disease risk. Diagnosis is performed by transurethral resection of the bladder, and patients with muscle invasive disease preferably proceed to radical cystectomy, with or without neoadjuvant chemotherapy. The anti-tumour immune responses, known to be initiated in the tumour and draining lymph nodes, may play a major role in future treatment strategies. Thus, increasing the knowledge of tumour-associated immunological processes is important. Activated CD4+ T cells differentiate into four main separate lineages: Th1, Th2, Th17 and Treg, and they are recognized by their effector molecules IFN-γ, IL-13, IL-17A, and the transcription factor Foxp3, respectively. We have previously demonstrated signature CpG sites predictive for lineage commitment of these four major CD4+ T cell lineages. Here, we investigate the lineage commitment specifically in tumour, lymph nodes and blood and relate them to the disease stage and response to neoadjuvant chemotherapy.RESULTS: Blood, tumour and regional lymph nodes were obtained from patients at time of transurethral resection of the bladder and at radical cystectomy. Tumour-infiltrating CD4+ lymphocytes were significantly hypomethylated in all four investigated lineage loci compared to CD4+ lymphocytes in lymph nodes and blood (lymph nodes vs tumour-infiltrating lymphocytes: IFNG -4229 bp p < 0.0001, IL13 -11 bp p < 0.05, IL17A -122 bp p < 0.01 and FOXP3 -77 bp p > 0.05). Examination of individual lymph nodes displayed different methylation signatures, suggesting possible correlation with future survival. More advanced post-cystectomy tumour stages correlated significantly with increased methylation at the IFNG -4229 bp locus. Patients with complete response to neoadjuvant chemotherapy displayed significant hypomethylation in CD4+ T cells for all four investigated loci, most prominently in IFNG p < 0.0001. Neoadjuvant chemotherapy seemed to result in a relocation of Th1-committed CD4+ T cells from blood, presumably to the tumour, indicated by shifts in the methylation patterns, whereas no such shifts were seen for lineages corresponding to IL13, IL17A and FOXP3.CONCLUSION: Increased lineage commitment in CD4+ T cells, as determined by demethylation in predictive CpG sites, is associated with lower post-cystectomy tumour stage, complete response to neoadjuvant chemotherapy and overall better outcome, suggesting epigenetic profiling of CD4+ T cell lineages as a useful readout for clinical staging.
  • Hartana, C. A., et al. (författare)
  • Tissue-resident memory T cells are epigenetically cytotoxic with signs of exhaustion in human urinary bladder cancer
  • 2018
  • Ingår i: Clinical and Experimental Immunology. - : WILEY. - 0009-9104 .- 1365-2249. ; 194:1, s. 39-53
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Tissue-resident memory T (T-RM) cells are CD8(+) T lymphocytes that reside in the tissues, including tumours. This T cell subset possesses a magnitude of cytotoxicity, but its epigenetic regulation has not been studied. Here, we investigate the impact of perforin DNA methylation in T-RM cells and correlate it with their functional potential. Fifty-three urothelial urinary bladder cancer (UBC) patients were recruited prospectively. The DNA methylation status of the perforin gene (PRF1) locus in T-RM cells was investigated by pyrosequencing. Flow cytometry with ViSNE analysis and in-vitro stimulation were used to evaluate T-RM cell phenotypes. We discovered that tumour T-RM cells have low DNA methylation in the PRF1 locus (329% methylation), which corresponds to increased numbers of perforin-expressing T-RM cells. Surprisingly, programmed cell death 1 (PD-1) expression is high in tumour T-RM cells, suggesting exhaustion. Following interleukin-15 and T cell receptor stimulation, perforin and T-bet expressions are enhanced, indicating that T-RM cells from tumours are not terminally exhausted. Moreover, a high number of T-RM cells infiltrating the tumours corresponds to lower tumour stage in patients. In conclusion, T-RM cells from UBC tumours are epigenetically cytotoxic with signs of exhaustion. This finding identifies T-RM cells as potential new targets for cancer immunotherapy.
  • Glimelius, Bengt, et al. (författare)
  • U-CAN : a prospective longitudinal collection of biomaterials and clinical information from adult cancer patients in Sweden.
  • 2018
  • Ingår i: Acta Oncologica. - : Taylor & Francis Group. - 0284-186X .- 1651-226X. ; 57:2, s. 187-194
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background: Progress in cancer biomarker discovery is dependent on access to high-quality biological materials and high-resolution clinical data from the same cases. To overcome current limitations, a systematic prospective longitudinal sampling of multidisciplinary clinical data, blood and tissue from cancer patients was therefore initiated in 2010 by Uppsala and Umeå Universities and involving their corresponding University Hospitals, which are referral centers for one third of the Swedish population.Material and Methods: Patients with cancer of selected types who are treated at one of the participating hospitals are eligible for inclusion. The healthcare-integrated sampling scheme encompasses clinical data, questionnaires, blood, fresh frozen and formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissue specimens, diagnostic slides and radiology bioimaging data.Results: In this ongoing effort, 12,265 patients with brain tumors, breast cancers, colorectal cancers, gynecological cancers, hematological malignancies, lung cancers, neuroendocrine tumors or prostate cancers have been included until the end of 2016. From the 6914 patients included during the first five years, 98% were sampled for blood at diagnosis, 83% had paraffin-embedded and 58% had fresh frozen tissues collected. For Uppsala County, 55% of all cancer patients were included in the cohort.Conclusions: Close collaboration between participating hospitals and universities enabled prospective, longitudinal biobanking of blood and tissues and collection of multidisciplinary clinical data from cancer patients in the U-CAN cohort. Here, we summarize the first five years of operations, present U-CAN as a highly valuable cohort that will contribute to enhanced cancer research and describe the procedures to access samples and data.
  • Nevalainen, N., et al. (författare)
  • COBRA : A prospective multimodal imaging study of dopamine, brain structure and function, and cognition
  • 2015
  • Ingår i: Brain Research. - 0006-8993 .- 1872-6240. ; 1612, s. 83-103
  • Forskningsöversikt (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Cognitive decline is a characteristic feature of normal human aging. Previous work has demonstrated marked interindividual variability in onset and rate of decline. Such variability has been linked to factors such as maintenance of functional and structural brain integrity, genetics, and lifestyle. Still, few, if any, studies have combined a longitudinal design with repeated multimodal imaging and a comprehensive assessment of cognition as well as genetic and lifestyle factors. The present paper introduces the Cognition, Brain, and Aging (COBRA) study, in which cognitive performance and brain structure and function are measured in a cohort of 181 older adults aged 64 to 68 years at baseline. Participants will be followed longitudinally over a 10-year period, resulting in a total of three equally spaced measurement occasions. The measurement protocol at each occasion comprises a comprehensive set of behavioral and imaging measures. Cognitive performance is evaluated via computerized testing of working memory, episodic memory, perceptual speed, motor speed, implicit sequence learning, and vocabulary. Brain imaging is performed using positron emission tomography with [C-11]-raclopride to assess dopamine D2/D3 receptor availability. Structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is used for assessment of white and gray-matter integrity and cerebrovascular perfusion, and functional MRI maps brain activation during rest and active task conditions. Lifestyle descriptives are collected, and blood samples are obtained and stored for future evaluation. Here, we present selected results from the baseline assessment along with a discussion of sample characteristics and methodological considerations that determined the design of the study. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled SI: Memory & Aging. (C) 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. This is an open access article under the CC BY-NC-ND license (http://creativecommons.orgilicenses/by-nc-nd/3.0/).
  • Sandgren, Kristina, et al. (författare)
  • Registration of histopathology to magnetic resonance imaging of prostate cancer
  • 2021
  • Ingår i: Physics and Imaging in Radiation Oncology. - : Elsevier. - 2405-6316. ; 18, s. 19-25
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background and purpose: The diagnostic accuracy of new imaging techniques requires validation, preferably by histopathological verification. The aim of this study was to develop and present a registration procedure between histopathology and in-vivo magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the prostate, to estimate its uncertainty and to evaluate the benefit of adding a contour-correcting registration.Materials and methods: For twenty-five prostate cancer patients, planned for radical prostatectomy, a 3D-printed prostate mold based on in-vivo MRI was created and an ex-vivo MRI of the specimen, placed inside the mold, was performed. Each histopathology slice was registered to its corresponding ex-vivo MRI slice using a 2D-affine registration. The ex-vivo MRI was rigidly registered to the in-vivo MRI and the resulting transform was applied to the histopathology stack. A 2D deformable registration was used to correct for specimen distortion concerning the specimen's fit inside the mold. We estimated the spatial uncertainty by comparing positions of landmarks in the in-vivo MRI and the corresponding registered histopathology stack.Results: Eighty-four landmarks were identified, located in the urethra (62%), prostatic cysts (33%), and the ejaculatory ducts (5%). The median number of landmarks was 3 per patient. We showed a median in-plane error of 1.8 mm before and 1.7 mm after the contour-correcting deformable registration. In patients with extraprostatic margins, the median in-plane error improved from 2.1 mm to 1.8 mm after the contour-correcting deformable registration.Conclusions: Our registration procedure accurately registers histopathology to in-vivo MRI, with low uncertainty. The contour-correcting registration was beneficial in patients with extraprostatic surgical margins.
  • Bailey, D. L., et al. (författare)
  • Combined PET/MRI : Global Warming-Summary Report of the 6th International Workshop on PET/MRI, March 27-29, 2017, Tubingen, Germany
  • 2018
  • Ingår i: Molecular Imaging and Biology. - : SPRINGER. - 1536-1632 .- 1860-2002. ; 20:1, s. 4-20
  • Forskningsöversikt (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The 6th annual meeting to address key issues in positron emission tomography (PET)/magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was held again in Tubingen, Germany, from March 27 to 29, 2017. Over three days of invited plenary lectures, round table discussions and dialogue board deliberations, participants critically assessed the current state of PET/MRI, both clinically and as a research tool, and attempted to chart future directions. The meeting addressed the use of PET/MRI and workflows in oncology, neurosciences, infection, inflammation and chronic pain syndromes, as well as deeper discussions about how best to characterise the tumour microenvironment, optimise the complementary information available from PET and MRI, and how advanced data mining and bioinformatics, as well as information from liquid biomarkers (circulating tumour cells and nucleic acids) and pathology, can be integrated to give a more complete characterisation of disease phenotype. Some issues that have dominated previous meetings, such as the accuracy of MR-based attenuation correction (AC) of the PET scan, were finally put to rest as having been adequately addressed for the majority of clinical situations. Likewise, the ability to standardise PET systems for use in multicentre trials was confirmed, thus removing a perceived barrier to larger clinical imaging trials. The meeting openly questioned whether PET/MRI should, in all cases, be used as a whole-body imaging modality or whether in many circumstances it would best be employed to give an in-depth study of previously identified disease in a single organ or region. The meeting concluded that there is still much work to be done in the integration of data from different fields and in developing a common language for all stakeholders involved. In addition, the participants advocated joint training and education for individuals who engage in routine PET/MRI. It was agreed that PET/MRI can enhance our understanding of normal and disrupted biology, and we are in a position to describe the in vivo nature of disease processes, metabolism, evolution of cancer and the monitoring of response to pharmacological interventions and therapies. As such, PET/MRI is a key to advancing medicine and patient care.
  • Krantz, David, et al. (författare)
  • Neoadjuvant Chemotherapy Reinforces Antitumour T cell Response in Urothelial Urinary Bladder Cancer
  • 2018
  • Ingår i: European Urology. - : Elsevier. - 0302-2838 .- 1873-7560. ; 74:6, s. 688-692
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Evidence indicates that neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NAC) may promote antitumour immune responses by activating T cells. The tumour-draining sentinel node (SN) is a key site to study tumour-specific T cell activation, being the primary immunological barrier against the tumour. In this prospective study, we set out to elucidate the effects of NAC on T cell subsets in the SNs of patients with muscle-invasive urothelial bladder cancer. We found that CD8+ effector T (Teff) cell exhaustion was reduced after NAC treatment, while cytotoxicity was increased. Additionally, in complete responders (CR patients), these cells were functionally committed effectors, as displayed by epigenetic analysis. In CD4+ Teffs, NAC treatment was associated with increased clonal expansion of tumour-specific SN-derived cells, as demonstrated by a specific cell reactivity assay. In contrast, we observed an attenuating effect of NAC on regulatory T cells (Tregs) with a dose-dependent decrease in Treg frequency and reduced effector molecule expression in the remaining Tregs. In addition, multicolour flow cytometry analysis revealed that CR patients had higher Teff to activated Treg ratio, promoting antitumoural T cell activation. These results suggest that NAC reinforces the antitumour immune response by activating the effector arm of the T cell compartment and diminishing the influence of suppressive Tregs.PATIENT SUMMARY: In this report, we analysed the effect of chemotherapy on immune cell subsets of 40 patients with advanced bladder cancer. We found that chemotherapy has a positive effect on immune effector T cells, whereas an opposite, diminishing effect was observed for immune-suppressive regulatory T cells. We conclude that chemotherapy reinforces the antitumour immune response in bladder cancer patients.
  • Nordin, Kristin, et al. (författare)
  • Distinct and Common Large-Scale Networks of the Hippocampal Long Axis in Older Age: Links to Episodic Memory and Dopamine D2 Receptor Availability
  • 2021
  • Ingår i: Cerebral Cortex. - : Oxford University Press. - 1047-3211 .- 1460-2199. ; 31:7, s. 3435-3450
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The hippocampal longitudinal axis has been linked to dissociated functional networks relevant to episodic memory. However, the organization of axis-dependent networks and their relation to episodic memory in aging remains less explored. Moreover, age-related deterioration of the dopamine (DA) system, affecting memory and functional network properties, might constitute a source of reduced specificity of hippocampal networks in aging. Here, we characterized axis-dependent large-scale hippocampal resting-state networks, their relevance to episodic memory, and links to DA in older individuals (n = 170, 64-68 years). Partial least squares identified 2 dissociated networks differentially connected to the anterior and posterior hippocampus. These overlapped with anterior-temporal/posterior-medial networks in young adults, indicating preserved organization of axis-dependent connectivity in old age. However, axis-specific networks were overall unrelated to memory and hippocampal DA D2 receptor availability (D2DR) measured with [11C]-raclopride positron emission tomography. Further analyses identified a memory-related network modulated by hippocampal D2DR, equally connected to anterior-posterior regions. This network included medial frontal, posterior parietal, and striatal areas. The results add to the current understanding of large-scale hippocampal connectivity in aging, demonstrating axis-dependent connectivity with dissociated anterior and posterior networks, as well as a primary role in episodic memory of connectivity shared by regions along the hippocampalaxis.
  • Rutegård, Miriam, et al. (författare)
  • Rectal cancer : a methodological approach to matching PET/MRI to histopathology
  • 2020
  • Ingår i: Cancer Imaging. - : BioMed Central. - 1740-5025 .- 1470-7330. ; 20:1
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Purpose: To enable the evaluation of locoregional disease in the on-going RECTOPET (REctal Cancer Trial on PET/MRI/CT) study; a methodology to match mesorectal imaging findings to histopathology is presented, along with initial observations.Methods: FDG-PET/MRI examinations were performed in twenty-four consecutively included patients with rectal adenocarcinoma. In nine patients, of whom five received neoadjuvant treatment, a postoperative MRI of the surgical specimen was performed. The pathological cut-out was performed according to clinical routine with the addition of photo documentation of each slice of the surgical specimen, meticulously marking the location, size, and type of pathology of each mesorectal finding. This allowed matching individual nodal structures from preoperative MRI, via the specimen MRI, to histopathology.Results: Preoperative MRI identified 197 mesorectal nodal structures, of which 92 (47%) could be anatomically matched to histopathology. Of the matched nodal structures identified in both MRI and histopathology, 25% were found to be malignant. These malignant structures consisted of lymph nodes (43%), tumour deposits (48%), and extramural venous invasion (9%). One hundred eleven nodal structures (55%) could not be matched anatomically. Of these, 97 (87%) were benign lymph nodes, and 14 (13%) were malignant nodal structures. Five were malignant lymph nodes, and nine were tumour deposits, all of which had a short axis diameter < 5 mm.Conclusions: We designed a method able to anatomically match and study the characteristics of individual mesorectal nodal structures, enabling further research on the impact of each imaging modality. Initial observations suggest that small malignant nodal structures assessed as lymph nodes in MRI often comprise other forms of mesorectal tumour spread.
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