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Sökning: WFRF:(Rinne JO)

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1.
  • Bäckman, Lars, et al. (författare)
  • Effects of working-memory training on striatal dopamine release
  • 2011
  • Ingår i: Science. - 0036-8075 .- 1095-9203. ; 333:6043, s. 718-
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Updating of working memory has been associated with striato-frontal brain regions and phasic dopaminergic neurotransmission. We assessed raclopride binding to striatal dopamine (DA) D2 receptors during a letter-updating task and a control condition before and after 5 weeks of updating training. Results showed that updating affected DA activity before training and that training further increased striatal DA release during updating. These findings highlight the pivotal role of transient neural processes associated with D2 receptor activity in working memory.
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2.
  • Jansen, Willemijn J, et al. (författare)
  • Association of Cerebral Amyloid-β Aggregation With Cognitive Functioning in Persons Without Dementia.
  • 2018
  • Ingår i: JAMA psychiatry. - : American Medical Association. - 2168-6238 .- 2168-622X. ; 75:1, s. 84-95
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Cerebral amyloid-β aggregation is an early event in Alzheimer disease (AD). Understanding the association between amyloid aggregation and cognitive manifestation in persons without dementia is important for a better understanding of the course of AD and for the design of prevention trials.To investigate whether amyloid-β aggregation is associated with cognitive functioning in persons without dementia.This cross-sectional study included 2908 participants with normal cognition and 4133 with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) from 53 studies in the multicenter Amyloid Biomarker Study. Normal cognition was defined as having no cognitive concerns for which medical help was sought and scores within the normal range on cognitive tests. Mild cognitive impairment was diagnosed according to published criteria. Study inclusion began in 2013 and is ongoing. Data analysis was performed in January 2017.Global cognitive performance as assessed by the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) and episodic memory performance as assessed by a verbal word learning test. Amyloid aggregation was measured with positron emission tomography or cerebrospinal fluid biomarkers and dichotomized as negative (normal) or positive (abnormal) according to study-specific cutoffs. Generalized estimating equations were used to examine the association between amyloid aggregation and low cognitive scores (MMSE score ≤27 or memory z score≤-1.28) and to assess whether this association was moderated by age, sex, educational level, or apolipoprotein E genotype.Among 2908 persons with normal cognition (mean [SD] age, 67.4 [12.8] years), amyloid positivity was associated with low memory scores after age 70 years (mean difference in amyloid positive vs negative, 4% [95% CI, 0%-7%] at 72 years and 21% [95% CI, 10%-33%] at 90 years) but was not associated with low MMSE scores (mean difference, 3% [95% CI, -1% to 6%], P = .16). Among 4133 patients with MCI (mean [SD] age, 70.2 [8.5] years), amyloid positivity was associated with low memory (mean difference, 16% [95% CI, 12%-20%], P < .001) and low MMSE (mean difference, 14% [95% CI, 12%-17%], P < .001) scores, and this association decreased with age. Low cognitive scores had limited utility for screening of amyloid positivity in persons with normal cognition and those with MCI. In persons with normal cognition, the age-related increase in low memory score paralleled the age-related increase in amyloid positivity with an intervening period of 10 to 15 years.Although low memory scores are an early marker of amyloid positivity, their value as a screening measure for early AD among persons without dementia is limited.
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3.
  • Mattsson, Niklas, et al. (författare)
  • Prevalence of the apolipoprotein E ε4 allele in amyloid β positive subjects across the spectrum of Alzheimer's disease
  • 2018
  • Ingår i: Alzheimer's and Dementia. - : Wiley. - 1552-5260 .- 1552-5279. ; 14:7, s. 913-924
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Introduction: Apolipoprotein E (APOE) ε4 is the major genetic risk factor for Alzheimer's disease (AD), but its prevalence is unclear because earlier studies did not require biomarker evidence of amyloid β (Aβ) pathology. Methods: We included 3451 Aβ+ subjects (853 AD-type dementia, 1810 mild cognitive impairment, and 788 cognitively normal). Generalized estimating equation models were used to assess APOE ε4 prevalence in relation to age, sex, education, and geographical location. Results: The APOE ε4 prevalence was 66% in AD-type dementia, 64% in mild cognitive impairment, and 51% in cognitively normal, and it decreased with advancing age in Aβ+ cognitively normal and Aβ+ mild cognitive impairment (P <.05) but not in Aβ+ AD dementia (P =.66). The prevalence was highest in Northern Europe but did not vary by sex or education. Discussion: The APOE ε4 prevalence in AD was higher than that in previous studies, which did not require presence of Aβ pathology. Furthermore, our results highlight disease heterogeneity related to age and geographical location.
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4.
  • Toppala, Sini, et al. (författare)
  • Association of Early β-Amyloid Accumulation and Neuroinflammation Measured With [11C]PBR28 in Elderly Individuals Without Dementia
  • 2021
  • Ingår i: Neurology. - : Wolters Kluwer. - 0028-3878 .- 1526-632X. ; 96:12, s. e1608-e1619
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • OBJECTIVE: To examine whether early β-amyloid (Aβ) accumulation and metabolic risk factors are associated with neuroinflammation in elderly individuals without dementia.METHODS: We examined 54 volunteers (mean age 70.0 years, 56% women, 51% APOE ɛ4 carriers) with the translocator protein (TSPO) tracer [11C]PBR28 to assess neuroinflammation and with [11C] Pittsburgh compound B (PiB) to assess cerebral Aβ accumulation. [11C]PBR28 and [11C]PiB standardized uptake value ratios (SUVRs) were quantified in 6 regions of interests by using the cerebellar cortex as a pseudo-reference and reference region, respectively. Fasting venous glucose, insulin, and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) values were determined. Homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) was calculated. A subset of individuals (n = 11) underwent CSF sampling, and Aβ40, Aβ42, total tau, phospho-tau, soluble TREM2, and YKL-40 levels were measured.RESULTS: Among the whole study group, no significant association was found between [11C]PiB and [11C]PBR28 SUVR composite scores (slope 0.02, p = 0.30). However, higher [11C]PiB binding was associated with higher [11C]PBR28 binding among amyloid-negative ([11C]PiB composite score ≤1.5) (TSPO genotype-, age- and sex-adjusted slope 0.26, p = 0.008) but not among amyloid-positive (slope -0.004, p = 0.88) participants. Higher CSF soluble TREM2 (rs = 0.72, p = 0.01) and YKL-40 (rs = 0.63, p = 0.04) concentrations were associated with a higher [11C]PBR28 composite score. Higher body mass index, HOMA-IR, and hs-CRP were associated with higher [11C]PBR28 binding in brain regions where Aβ accumulation is first detected in Alzheimer disease.CONCLUSIONS: While there was no association between amyloid and neuroinflammation in the overall study group, neuroinflammation was associated with amyloid among the subgroup at early stages of amyloid pathology.
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5.
  • Bäckman, Lars, et al. (författare)
  • Increased dopamine release after working-memory updating training : Neurochemical correlates of transfer
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: Scientific Reports. - : NATURE PUBLISHING GROUP. - 2045-2322. ; 7
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Previous work demonstrates that working-memory (WM) updating training results in improved performance on a letter-memory criterion task, transfers to an untrained n-back task, and increases striatal dopamine (DA) activity during the criterion task. Here, we sought to replicate and extend these findings by also examining neurochemical correlates of transfer. Four positron emission tomography (PET) scans using the radioligand raclopride were performed. Two of these assessed DAD2 binding (letter memory; n-back) before 5 weeks of updating training, and the same two scans were performed post training. Key findings were (a) pronounced training-related behavioral gains in the lettermemory criterion task, (b) altered striatal DAD2 binding potential after training during letter-memory performance, suggesting training-induced increases in DA release, and (c) increased striatal DA activity also during the n-back transfer task after the intervention, but no concomitant behavioral transfer. The fact that the training-related DA alterations during the transfer task were not accompanied by behavioral transfer suggests that increased DA release may be a necessary, but not sufficient, condition for behavioral transfer to occur.
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6.
  • Ekblad, Laura L., et al. (författare)
  • Midlife insulin resistance, APOE genotype, and late-life brain amyloid accumulation
  • 2018
  • Ingår i: Neurology. - : Lippincott Williams & Wilkins. - 0028-3878 .- 1526-632X. ; 90:13, s. e1150-e1157
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Objective To examine whether midlife insulin resistance is an independent risk factor for brain amyloid accumulation in vivo after 15 years, and whether this risk is modulated by APOE epsilon 4 genotype. Methods This observational study examined 60 elderly volunteers without dementia (mean age at baseline 55.4 and at follow-up 70.9 years, 55.5% women) from the Finnish population-based, nationwide Health2000 study with [C-11]Pittsburgh compound B-PET imaging in 2014-2016. The participants were recruited according to their homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) values in the year 2000, and their APOE epsilon 4 genotype. The exposure group (IR+, n = 30) consisted of individuals with HOMA-IR > 2.17 at baseline (highest tertile of the Health2000 study population), and the control group (IR-, n = 30) consisted of individuals with HOMA-IR < 1.25 at baseline (lowest tertile). The groups were enriched for APOE epsilon 4 carriers, resulting in 50% (n = 15) APOE epsilon 4 carriers in both groups. Analyses were performed with multivariate logistic and linear regression. Results An amyloid-positive PET scan was found in 33.3% of the IR-group and 60.0% of the IR+ group (odds ratio 3.0, 95% confidence interval 1.1-8.9, p = 0.04). The increased risk was seen in carriers and noncarriers of APOE epsilon 4 genotype. Higher midlife, but not late-life continuous HOMA-IR was associated with a greater brain amyloid burden at follow-up after multivariate adjustments for other cognitive and metabolic risk factors (ss = 0.11, 95% confidence interval 0.002-0.22, p = 0.04). Conclusions These results indicate that midlife insulin resistance is an independent risk factor for brain amyloid accumulation in elderly individuals without dementia.
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7.
  • Herukka, Sanna-Kaisa, et al. (författare)
  • Recommendations for cerebrospinal fluid Alzheimer's disease biomarkers in the diagnostic evaluation of mild cognitive impairment.
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: Alzheimer's & dementia : the journal of the Alzheimer's Association. - 1552-5279. ; 13:3, s. 285-295
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • This article presents recommendations, based on the Grading of Recommendations, Assessment, Development, and Evaluation method, for the clinical application of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) amyloid-β1-42, tau, and phosphorylated tau in the diagnostic evaluation of patients with mild cognitive impairment (MCI). The recommendations were developed by a multidisciplinary working group and based on the available evidence and consensus from focused group discussions for 1) prediction of clinical progression to Alzheimer's disease (AD) dementia, 2) cost-effectiveness, 3) interpretation of results, and 4) patient counseling. The working group recommended using CSF AD biomarkers in the diagnostic workup of MCI patients, after prebiomarker counseling, as an add-on to clinical evaluation to predict functional decline or conversion to AD dementia and to guide disease management. Because of insufficient evidence, it was uncertain whether CSF AD biomarkers outperform imaging biomarkers. Furthermore, the working group provided recommendations for interpretation of ambiguous CSF biomarker results and for pre- and post-biomarker counseling.
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8.
  • Kemppainen, Nina, et al. (författare)
  • Brain amyloid load and its associations with cognition and vascular risk factors in FINGER Study
  • 2018
  • Ingår i: Neurology. - 0028-3878 .- 1526-632X. ; 90:3, s. E206-E213
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Objective To investigate brain amyloid pathology in a dementia-risk population defined as cardiovascular risk factors, aging, and dementia risk (CAIDE) score of at least 6 but with normal cognition and to examine associations between brain amyloid load and cognitive performance and vascular risk factors.Methods A subgroup of 48 individuals from the Finnish Geriatric Intervention Study to Prevent Cognitive Impairment and Disability (FINGER) main study participated in brain C-11-Pittsburgh compound B (PiB)-PET imaging, brain MRI, and neuropsychological assessment at the beginning of the study. Lifestyle/vascular risk factors were determined as body mass index, blood pressure, total and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and glucose homeostasis model assessment. White matter lesions were visually rated from MRIs by a semiquantitative Fazekas score.Results Twenty participants (42%) had a positive PiB-PET on visual analysis. The PiB-positive group performed worse in executive functioning tests, included more participants with APOE epsilon 4 allele (50%), and showed slightly better glucose homeostasis compared to PiB-negative participants. PiB-positive and -negative participants did not differ significantly in other cognitive domain scores or other vascular risk factors. There was no significant difference in Fazekas score between the PiB groups.Conclusions The high percentage of PiB-positive participants provides evidence of a successful recruitment process of the at-risk population in the main FINGER intervention trial. The results suggest a possible association between early brain amyloid accumulation and decline in executive functions. APOE epsilon 4 was clearly associated with amyloid positivity, but no other risk factor was found to be associated with positive PiB-PET.
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9.
  • Konki, Mikko, et al. (författare)
  • Peripheral blood DNA methylation differences in twin pairs discordant for Alzheimer's disease.
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: Clinical Epigenetics. - : BMC. - 1868-7083. ; 11:1
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • BACKGROUND: Alzheimer's disease results from a neurodegenerative process that starts well before the diagnosis can be made. New prognostic or diagnostic markers enabling early intervention into the disease process would be highly valuable. Environmental and lifestyle factors largely modulate the disease risk and may influence the pathogenesis through epigenetic mechanisms, such as DNA methylation. As environmental and lifestyle factors may affect multiple tissues of the body, we hypothesized that the disease-associated DNA methylation signatures are detectable in the peripheral blood of discordant twin pairs.RESULTS: Comparison of 23 disease discordant Finnish twin pairs with reduced representation bisulfite sequencing revealed peripheral blood DNA methylation differences in 11 genomic regions with at least 15.0% median methylation difference and FDR adjusted p value ≤ 0.05. Several of the affected genes are primarily associated with neuronal functions and pathologies and do not display disease-associated differences in gene expression in blood. The DNA methylation mark in ADARB2 gene was found to be differentially methylated also in the anterior hippocampus, including entorhinal cortex, of non-twin cases and controls. Targeted bisulfite pyrosequencing of the DNA methylation mark in ADARB2 gene in 62 Finnish and Swedish twin pairs revealed that, in addition to the disease status, DNA methylation of this region is influenced by gender, age, zygosity, APOE genotype, and smoking. Further analysis of 120 Swedish twin pairs indicated that this specific DNA methylation mark is not predictive for Alzheimer's disease and becomes differentially methylated after disease onset.CONCLUSIONS: DNA methylation differences can be detected in the peripheral blood of twin pairs discordant for Alzheimer's disease. These DNA methylation signatures may have value as disease markers and provide insights into the molecular mechanisms of pathogenesis. We found no evidence that the DNA methylation marks would be associated with gene expression in blood. Further studies are needed to elucidate the potential importance of the associated genes in neuronal functions and to validate the prognostic or diagnostic value of the individual marks or marker panels.
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10.
  • Leuzy, Antoine, et al. (författare)
  • Pittsburgh compound B imaging and cerebrospinal fluid amyloid-β in a multicentre European memory clinic study.
  • 2016
  • Ingår i: Brain : a journal of neurology. - 1460-2156. ; 139:Pt 9, s. 2540-53
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The aim of this study was to assess the agreement between data on cerebral amyloidosis, derived using Pittsburgh compound B positron emission tomography and (i) multi-laboratory INNOTEST enzyme linked immunosorbent assay derived cerebrospinal fluid concentrations of amyloid-β42; (ii) centrally measured cerebrospinal fluid amyloid-β42 using a Meso Scale Discovery enzyme linked immunosorbent assay; and (iii) cerebrospinal fluid amyloid-β42 centrally measured using an antibody-independent mass spectrometry-based reference method. Moreover, we examined the hypothesis that discordance between amyloid biomarker measurements may be due to interindividual differences in total amyloid-β production, by using the ratio of amyloid-β42 to amyloid-β40 Our study population consisted of 243 subjects from seven centres belonging to the Biomarkers for Alzheimer's and Parkinson's Disease Initiative, and included subjects with normal cognition and patients with mild cognitive impairment, Alzheimer's disease dementia, frontotemporal dementia, and vascular dementia. All had Pittsburgh compound B positron emission tomography data, cerebrospinal fluid INNOTEST amyloid-β42 values, and cerebrospinal fluid samples available for reanalysis. Cerebrospinal fluid samples were reanalysed (amyloid-β42 and amyloid-β40) using Meso Scale Discovery electrochemiluminescence enzyme linked immunosorbent assay technology, and a novel, antibody-independent, mass spectrometry reference method. Pittsburgh compound B standardized uptake value ratio results were scaled using the Centiloid method. Concordance between Meso Scale Discovery/mass spectrometry reference measurement procedure findings and Pittsburgh compound B was high in subjects with mild cognitive impairment and Alzheimer's disease, while more variable results were observed for cognitively normal and non-Alzheimer's disease groups. Agreement between Pittsburgh compound B classification and Meso Scale Discovery/mass spectrometry reference measurement procedure findings was further improved when using amyloid-β42/40 Agreement between Pittsburgh compound B visual ratings and Centiloids was near complete. Despite improved agreement between Pittsburgh compound B and centrally analysed cerebrospinal fluid, a minority of subjects showed discordant findings. While future studies are needed, our results suggest that amyloid biomarker results may not be interchangeable in some individuals.
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