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1.
  • Carlsson, A. C., et al. (författare)
  • Novel and established anthropometric measures and the prediction of incident cardiovascular disease: a cohort study
  • 2013
  • Ingår i: International Journal of Obesity. - : Nature Publishing Group. - 1476-5497 .- 0307-0565. ; 37:12, s. 1579-1585
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to compare novel and established anthropometrical measures in their ability to predict cardiovascular disease (CVD), and to determine whether they improve risk prediction beyond classical risk factors in a cohort study of 60-year-old men and women. We also stratified the results according to gender to identify possible differences between men and women. Furthermore, we aimed to replicate our findings in a large independent cohort (The Malmo Diet and Cancer study-cardiovascular cohort). METHODS: This was a population-based study of 1751 men and 1990 women, aged 60 years and without CVD at baseline, with 375 incident cases of CVD during 11 years of follow-up. Weight, height, waist circumference (WC), hip circumference and sagittal abdominal diameter (SAD) were measured at baseline. Body mass index (BMI), waist-hip ratio (WHR), waist-hip-height ratio (WHHR), WC-to-height ratio (WCHR) and SAD-to-height ratio (SADHR) were calculated. RESULTS: All anthropometric measures predicted CVD in unadjusted Cox regression models per s.d. increment (hazard ratios, 95% confidence interval), while significant associations after adjustments for established risk CVD factors were noted for WHHR 1.20 (1.08-1.33), WHR 1.14 (1.02-1.28), SAD 1.13 (1.02-1.25) and SADHR 1.17 (1.06-1.28). WHHR had higher increases in C-statistics, and model improvements (likelihood ratio tests (P<0.001)). In the replication study (MDC-CC, n = 5180), WHHR was the only measure that improved Cox regression models in men (P = 0.01). CONCLUSION: WHHR, a new measure reflecting body fat distribution, showed the highest risk estimates after adjustments for established CVD risk factors. These findings were verified in men but not women in an independent cohort.
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2.
  • Alsharari, Zayed, et al. (författare)
  • Association between carbohydrate intake and fatty acids in the de novo lipogenic pathway in serum phospholipids and adipose tissue in a population of Swedish men
  • 2020
  • Ingår i: European Journal of Nutrition. - 1436-6207 .- 1436-6215. ; 59:5, s. 2089-2097
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Purpose Fatty acid composition in blood and adipose tissue (AT) is a useful biomarker of dietary fat quality. However, circulating saturated fatty acids (SFA) and monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA) have been proposed to also reflect carbohydrate-induced de novo lipogenesis (DNL) and stearoyl-CoA desaturase (SCD) activity. We aimed to test the hypothesis that high carbohydrate intake is related to SFA and MUFA in serum or AT in a Swedish population. Methods Fatty acid composition was measured in serum phospholipids (PL) and AT by gas chromatography in 63-year-old men (n = 299). Carbohydrate and alcohol intake was assessed (validated 7-day food records) in relation to total SFA, 16:0 (palmitate), 16:1 (palmitoleate), and estimated SCD activity (16:1n-7/16:0-ratio) in serum PL and in AT, respectively. Results Total carbohydrate intake was inversely associated with 16:0 in PL (P = 0.005), independently of BMI. Disaccharides were non-linearly (restricted cubic splines) and weakly associated with 16:1 and SCD activity in PL (nonlinear trend,P <= 0.02) but not AT. Carbohydrate intake and SCD expression were not associated (P >= 0.08,n = 81). Alcohol intake was, however, linearly associated with 16:0 in PL (P < 0.001), and with 16:1 (P < 0.001) and SCD activity (P <= 0.005) in both PL and AT. Conclusions Higher carbohydrate intake from sugar-rich foods or beverages was not clearly reflected by higher SFA or SCD activity in serum PL or AT. Alcohol was, however, associated with higher SFA and MUFA.
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3.
  • Rosqvist, F., et al. (författare)
  • Overeating Saturated Fat Promotes Fatty Liver and Ceramides Compared With Polyunsaturated Fat: A Randomized Trial
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: The Journal of clinical endocrinology and metabolism. - 1945-7197. ; 104:12, s. 6207-6219
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • CONTEXT: Saturated fatty acid (SFA) vs polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) may promote nonalcoholic fatty liver disease by yet unclear mechanisms. OBJECTIVE: To investigate if overeating SFA- and PUFA-enriched diets lead to differential liver fat accumulation in overweight and obese humans. DESIGN: Double-blind randomized trial (LIPOGAIN-2). Overfeeding SFA vs PUFA for 8 weeks, followed by 4 weeks of caloric restriction. SETTING: General community. PARTICIPANTS: Men and women who are overweight or have obesity (n = 61). INTERVENTION: Muffins, high in either palm (SFA) or sunflower oil (PUFA), were added to the habitual diet. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Lean tissue mass (not reported here). Secondary and exploratory outcomes included liver and ectopic fat depots. RESULTS: By design, body weight gain was similar in SFA (2.31 ± 1.38 kg) and PUFA (2.01 ± 1.90 kg) groups, P = 0.50. SFA markedly induced liver fat content (50% relative increase) along with liver enzymes and atherogenic serum lipids. In contrast, despite similar weight gain, PUFA did not increase liver fat or liver enzymes or cause any adverse effects on blood lipids. SFA had no differential effect on the accumulation of visceral fat, pancreas fat, or total body fat compared with PUFA. SFA consistently increased, whereas PUFA reduced circulating ceramides, changes that were moderately associated with liver fat changes and proposed markers of hepatic lipogenesis. The adverse metabolic effects of SFA were reversed by calorie restriction. CONCLUSIONS: SFA markedly induces liver fat and serum ceramides, whereas dietary PUFA prevents liver fat accumulation and reduces ceramides and hyperlipidemia during excess energy intake and weight gain in overweight individuals. Copyright © 2019 Endocrine Society.
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4.
  • Uusitupa, M., et al. (författare)
  • Effects of an isocaloric healthy Nordic diet on insulin sensitivity, lipid profile and inflammation markers in metabolic syndrome - a randomized study (SYSDIET)
  • 2013
  • Ingår i: Journal of Internal Medicine. - : Wiley-Blackwell. - 1365-2796. ; 274:1, s. 52-66
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background Different healthy food patterns may modify cardiometabolic risk. We investigated the effects of an isocaloric healthy Nordic diet on insulin sensitivity, lipid profile, blood pressure and inflammatory markers in people with metabolic syndrome. Methods We conducted a randomized dietary study lasting for 18-24weeks in individuals with features of metabolic syndrome (mean age 55years, BMI 31.6kgm-2, 67% women). Altogether 309 individuals were screened, 200 started the intervention after 4-week run-in period, and 96 (proportion of dropouts 7.9%) and 70 individuals (dropouts 27%) completed the study, in the Healthy diet and Control diet groups, respectively. Healthy diet included whole-grain products, berries, fruits and vegetables, rapeseed oil, three fish meals per week and low-fat dairy products. An average Nordic diet served as a Control diet. Compliance was monitored by repeated 4-day food diaries and fatty acid composition of serum phospholipids. Results Body weight remained stable, and no significant changes were observed in insulin sensitivity or blood pressure. Significant changes between the groups were found in non-HDL cholesterol (-0.18, mmolL-1 95% CI -0.35; -0.01, P=0.04), LDL to HDL cholesterol (-0.15, -0.28; -0.00, P=0.046) and apolipoprotein B to apolipoprotein A1 ratios (-0.04, -0.07; -0.00, P=0.025) favouring the Healthy diet. IL-1 Ra increased during the Control diet (difference -84, -133; -37ngL-1, P= 0.00053). Intakes of saturated fats (E%, beta estimate 4.28, 0.02; 8.53, P=0.049) and magnesium (mg, -0.23, -0.41; -0.05, P=0.012) were associated with IL-1 Ra. Conclusions Healthy Nordic diet improved lipid profile and had a beneficial effect on low-grade inflammation.
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5.
  • Carlsson, A. C., et al. (författare)
  • Prediction of cardiovascular disease by abdominal obesity measures is dependent on body weight and sex - Results from two community based cohort studies
  • 2014
  • Ingår i: NMCD. Nutrition Metabolism and Cardiovascular Diseases. - : Elsevier. - 0939-4753 .- 1590-3729. ; 24:8, s. 891-899
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Aim: To study waist-hip ratio (WHR), waist circumference (WC), sagittal abdominal diameter (SAD), and waist-hip-height ratio (WHHR) as predictors of CVD, in men and women stratified by BMI (cut-off >= 25). Methods and results: A cohort of n = 3741 (53% women) 60-year old individuals without CVD was followed for 11-years (375 CVD cases). To replicate the results, we also assessed another large independent cohort; The Malmo Diet and Cancer study - cardiovascular cohort (MDCC, (n = 5180, 60% women, 602 CVD cases during 16-years). After adjustment for established risk factors in normal-weight women, the hazard ratio (HR) per one standard deviation (SD) were; WHR; 1.91 (95% confidence interval (CI) 1.35-2.70), WC; 1.81 (95% CI 1.02-3.20), SAD; 1.25 (95% CI 0.74-2.11), and WHHR; 1.97 (95% CI 1.40-2.78). In men the association with WHR, WHHR and WC were not significant, whereas SAD was the only measure that significantly predicted CVD in men (HR 1.19 (95% CI 1.04-1.35). After adjustments for established risk factors in overweight/obese women, none of the measures were significantly associated with CVD risk. In men, however, all measures were significant predictors; WHR; 1.24 (955 CI 1.04-1.47), WC 1.19 (95% CI 1.00-1.42), SAD 1.21 (95% CI 1.00-1.46), and WHHR; 1.23 (95% CI 1.05-1.44). Only the findings in men with BMI >= 25 were verified in MDCC. Conclusion: In normal weight individuals, WHHR and WHR were the best predictors in women, whereas SAD was the only independent predictor in men. Among overweight/obese individuals all measures failed to predict CVD in women, whereas WHHR was the strongest predictor after adjustments for CVD risk factors in men.
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6.
  • Feldreich, T., et al. (författare)
  • Urinary osteopontin predicts incident chronic kidney disease, while plasma osteopontin predicts cardiovascular death in elderly men
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: CardioRenal Medicine. - 1664-3828. ; 7:3, s. 245-254
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background and Objectives: The matricellular protein osteopontin is involved in the pathogenesis of both kidney and cardiovascular disease. However, whether circulating and urinary osteopontin levels are associated with the risk of these diseases is less studied.Design, Setting, Participants, and Measurements: A community-based cohort of elderly men (Uppsala Longitudinal Study of Adult Men [ULSAM]; n = 741; mean age: 77 years) was used to study the associations between plasma and urinary osteopontin, incident chronic kidney disease, and the risk of cardiovascular death during a median of 8 years of follow-up.Results: There was no significant cross-sectional correlation between plasma and urinary osteopontin (Spearman ρ = 0.07, p = 0.13). Higher urinary osteopontin, but not plasma osteopontin, was associated with incident chronic kidney disease in multivariable models adjusted for age, cardiovascular risk factors, baseline glomerular filtration rate, urinary albumin/creatinine ratio, and the inflammatory markers interleukin 6 and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (odds ratio for 1 standard deviation [SD] of urinary osteopontin, 1.42, 95% CI 1.00-2.02, p = 0.048). Conversely, plasma osteopontin, but not urinary osteopontin, was independently associated with cardiovascular death (multivariable hazard ratio per SD increase, 1.35, 95% CI 1.14-1.58, p < 0.001, and 1.00, 95% CI 0.79-1.26, p = 0.99, respectively). The addition of plasma osteopontin to a model with established cardiovascular risk factors significantly increased the C-statistics for the prediction of cardiovascular death (p < 0.002).Conclusions: Higher urinary osteopontin specifically predicts incident chronic kidney disease, while plasma osteopontin specifically predicts cardiovascular death. Our data put forward osteopontin as an important factor in the detrimental interplay between the kidney and the cardiovascular system. The clinical implications, and why plasma and urinary osteopontin mirror different pathologies, remain to be established.
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7.
  • González-Ortiz, Ailema, et al. (författare)
  • Plant-based diets, insulin sensitivity and inflammation in elderly men with chronic kidney disease.
  • 2020
  • Ingår i: JN. Journal of Nephrology (Milano. 1992). - 1121-8428 .- 1724-6059. ; 33, s. 1091-1101
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • BACKGROUND: In persons with CKD, adherence to plant-based diets is associated with lower risk of CKD progression and death, but underlying mechanisms are poorly characterized. We here explore associations between adherence to plant-based diets and measures of insulin sensitivity and inflammation in men with CKD stages 3-5.METHODS: Cross-sectional study including 418 men free from diabetes, aged 70-71 years and with cystatin-C estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) <60 mL/min/1.73m2 and not receiving kidney-specific dietetic advice. Information from 7-day food records was used to evaluate the adherence to a plant-based diet index (PBDi), which scores positively the intake of plant-foods and negatively animal-foods. Insulin sensitivity and glucose disposal rate were assessed with the gold-standard hyperinsulinemic euglycemic glucose clamp technique. Inflammation was evaluated by serum concentrations of C-reactive protein (CRP) and interleukin (IL)-6. Associations were explored through linear regression and restricted cubic splines.RESULTS: The majority of men had CKD stage 3a. Hypertension and cardiovascular disease were the most common comorbidities. The median PBDi was 38 (range 14-55). Across higher quintiles of PBDi (i.e. higher adherence), participants were less often smokers, consumed less alcohol, had lower BMI and higher eGFR (P for trend <0.05 for all). Across higher PBDi quintiles, patients exhibited higher insulin sensitivity and lower inflammation (P for trend <0.05). After adjustment for eGFR, lifestyle factors, BMI, comorbidities and energy intake, a higher PBDi score remained associated with higher glucose disposal rate and insulin sensitivity as well as with lower levels of IL-6 and CRP.CONCLUSION: In elderly men with non-dialysis CKD stages 3-5, adherence to a plant-based diet was associated with higher insulin sensitivity and lower inflammation, supporting a possible role of plant-based diets in the prevention of metabolic complications of CKD.
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8.
  • Huang, X, et al. (författare)
  • Serum fatty acid patterns, insulin sensitivity and the metabolic syndrome in individuals with chronic kidney disease
  • 2014
  • Ingår i: Journal of Internal Medicine. - 0954-6820 .- 1365-2796. ; 275:1, s. 71-83
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • OBJECTIVES: The causes of the multiple metabolic disorders of individuals with chronic kidney disease (CKD) are not fully known. We investigated the relationships between dietary fat quality, the metabolic syndrome (MetS), insulin sensitivity and inflammation in individuals with CKD.SUBJECTS: Two population-based surveys were conducted in elderly Swedish individuals (aged 70 years) with serum cystatin C-estimated glomerular filtration rate <60 mL min(-1) /1.73 m(2) : the Uppsala Longitudinal Study of Adult Men (ULSAM) and the Prospective Investigation of the Vasculature in Uppsala Seniors (PIVUS) surveys. The present population comprised 274 men and 187 subjects (63% women) from the ULSAM and PIVUS cohorts, respectively.DESIGN: Factor analyses of serum fatty acids were used to evaluate dietary fat quality. Insulin sensitivity was measured by homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (IR) and, in ULSAM, also by euglycaemic clamp.RESULTS: Factor analyses generated two fatty acid patterns of (i) low linoleic acid (LA)/high saturated fatty acid (SFA) or (ii) high n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (n-3 PUFA) levels. In both surveys, the low LA/high SFA pattern increased the odds of having MetS [adjusted odds ratio 0.60 [95% confidence interval (CI) 0.44-0.81] and 0.45 (95% CI 0.30-0.67) per SD decrease in factor score in the ULSAM and PIVUS surveys, respectively] and was directly associated with both IR and C-reactive protein. The n-3 PUFA pattern was not consistently associated with these risk factors.CONCLUSIONS: A serum fatty acid pattern reflecting low LA and high SFA was strongly associated with MetS, IR and inflammation in two independent surveys of elderly individuals with CKD. At present, there are no specific dietary guidelines for individuals with CKD; however, these findings indirectly support current recommendations to replace SFAs with PUFAs from vegetable oils.
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9.
  • Iggman, D, et al. (författare)
  • Adipose tissue fatty acids and insulin sensitivity in elderly men
  • 2010
  • Ingår i: Diabetologia. - : Springer-Verlag. - 0012-186X .- 1432-0428. ; 53:5, s. 850-857
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Aims/hypothesis: Dietary fatty acids may affect insulin sensitivity. Adipose tissue fatty acid composition partly reflects long-term dietary intake, but data from large studies regarding relationships with insulin sensitivity are lacking. We aimed to determine the association between adipose tissue fatty acids and insulin sensitivity in elderly Swedish men. Methods In a cross-sectional analysis of the community-based Uppsala Longitudinal Study of Adult Men (n?=?795, mean age 71 years), adipose tissue biopsies were obtained and fatty acid composition was determined by gas–liquid chromatography. Insulin sensitivity was measured directly by a euglycaemic clamp. Results Palmitic acid (16:0), the major saturated fatty acid (SFA) in the diet and in adipose tissue, was negatively correlated with insulin sensitivity (r?=?-0.14), as were 16:1 n-7 (r?=?-0.15), 20:3 n-6 (r?=?-0.31), 20:4 n-6 (r?=?-0.38), 22:4 n-6 (r?=?-0.37) and 22:5 n-3 (r?=?-0.24; p?
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10.
  • Iggman, David, et al. (författare)
  • Role of dietary fats in modulating cardiometabolic risk during moderate weight gain : a randomized double-blind overfeeding trial (LIPOGAIN study)
  • 2014
  • Ingår i: Journal of the American Heart Association. - 2047-9980 .- 2047-9980. ; 3:5
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • BACKGROUND: Whether the type of dietary fat could alter cardiometabolic responses to a hypercaloric diet is unknown. In addition, subclinical cardiometabolic consequences of moderate weight gain require further study.METHODS AND RESULTS: In a 7-week, double-blind, parallel-group, randomized controlled trial, 39 healthy, lean individuals (mean age of 27±4) consumed muffins (51% of energy [%E] from fat and 44%E refined carbohydrates) providing 750 kcal/day added to their habitual diets. All muffins had identical contents, except for type of fat; sunflower oil rich in polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA diet) or palm oil rich in saturated fatty acids (SFA diet). Despite comparable weight gain in the 2 groups, total: high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein:HDL cholesterol, and apolipoprotein B:AI ratios decreased during the PUFA versus the SFA diet (-0.37±0.59 versus +0.07±0.29, -0.31±0.49 versus +0.05±0.28, and -0.07±0.11 versus +0.01±0.07, P=0.003, P=0.007, and P=0.01 for between-group differences), whereas no significant differences were observed for other cardiometabolic risk markers. In the whole group (ie, independently of fat type), body weight increased (+2.2%, P<0.001) together with increased plasma proinsulin (+21%, P=0.007), insulin (+17%, P=0.003), proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9, (+9%, P=0.008) fibroblast growth factor-21 (+31%, P=0.04), endothelial markers vascular cell adhesion molecule-1, intercellular adhesion molecule-1, and E-selectin (+9, +5, and +10%, respectively, P<0.01 for all), whereas nonesterified fatty acids decreased (-28%, P=0.001).CONCLUSIONS: Excess energy from PUFA versus SFA reduces atherogenic lipoproteins. Modest weight gain in young individuals induces hyperproinsulinemia and increases biomarkers of endothelial dysfunction, effects that may be partly outweighed by the lipid-lowering effects of PUFA.CLINICAL TRIAL REGISTRATION URL: http://ClinicalTrials.gov. Unique identifier: NCT01427140.
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