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Träfflista för sökning "WFRF:(Robbins John A.) "

Sökning: WFRF:(Robbins John A.)

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1.
  • Forskningsöversikt (refereegranskat)
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2.
  • Zillikens, M. C., et al. (författare)
  • Large meta-analysis of genome-wide association studies identifies five loci for lean body mass
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: Nature Communications. - : Nature Publishing Group. - 2041-1723. ; 8:1
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Lean body mass, consisting mostly of skeletal muscle, is important for healthy aging. We performed a genome-wide association study for whole body (20 cohorts of European ancestry with n = 38,292) and appendicular (arms and legs) lean body mass (n = 28,330) measured using dual energy X-ray absorptiometry or bioelectrical impedance analysis, adjusted for sex, age, height, and fat mass. Twenty-one single-nucleotide polymorphisms were significantly associated with lean body mass either genome wide (p < 5 x 10(-8)) or suggestively genome wide (p < 2.3 x 10(-6)). Replication in 63,475 (47,227 of European ancestry) individuals from 33 cohorts for whole body lean body mass and in 45,090 (42,360 of European ancestry) subjects from 25 cohorts for appendicular lean body mass was successful for five single-nucleotide polymorphisms in/ near HSD17B11, VCAN, ADAMTSL3, IRS1, and FTO for total lean body mass and for three single-nucleotide polymorphisms in/ near VCAN, ADAMTSL3, and IRS1 for appendicular lean body mass. Our findings provide new insight into the genetics of lean body mass.
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3.
  • Karasik, D., et al. (författare)
  • Disentangling the genetics of lean mass
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: American Journal of Clinical Nutrition. - : Oxford University Press. - 0002-9165 .- 1938-3207. ; 109:2, s. 276-287
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background: Lean body mass (LM) plays an important role in mobility and metabolic function. We previously identified five loci associated with LM adjusted for fat mass in kilograms. Such an adjustment may reduce the power to identify genetic signals having an association with both lean mass and fat mass. Objectives: To determine the impact of different fat mass adjustments on genetic architecture of LM and identify additional LM loci. Methods: We performed genome-wide association analyses for whole-body LM (20 cohorts of European ancestry with n = 38,292) measured using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry) or bioelectrical impedance analysis, adjusted for sex, age, age(2), and height with or without fat mass adjustments (Model 1 no fat adjustment; Model 2 adjustment for fat mass as a percentage of body mass; Model 3 adjustment for fat mass in kilograms). Results: Seven single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in separate loci, including one novel LM locus (TNRC6B), were successfully replicated in an additional 47,227 individuals from 29 cohorts. Based on the strengths of the associations in Model 1 vs Model 3, we divided the LM loci into those with an effect on both lean mass and fat mass in the same direction and refer to those as "sumo wrestler" loci (FTO and MC4R). In contrast, loci with an impact specifically on LMwere termed "body builder" loci (VCAN and ADAMTSL3). Using existing available genome-wide association study databases, LM increasing alleles of SNPs in sumo wrestler loci were associated with an adverse metabolic profile, whereas LM increasing alleles of SNPs in "body builder" loci were associated with metabolic protection. Conclusions: In conclusion, we identified one novel LM locus (TNRC6B). Our results suggest that a genetically determined increase in lean mass might exert either harmful or protective effects on metabolic traits, depending on its relation to fat mass.
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4.
  • Estrada, Karol, et al. (författare)
  • Genome-wide meta-analysis identifies 56 bone mineral density loci and reveals 14 loci associated with risk of fracture.
  • 2012
  • Ingår i: Nature genetics. - : Nature Publishing Group. - 1546-1718 .- 1061-4036. ; 44:5, s. 491-501
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Bone mineral density (BMD) is the most widely used predictor of fracture risk. We performed the largest meta-analysis to date on lumbar spine and femoral neck BMD, including 17 genome-wide association studies and 32,961 individuals of European and east Asian ancestry. We tested the top BMD-associated markers for replication in 50,933 independent subjects and for association with risk of low-trauma fracture in 31,016 individuals with a history of fracture (cases) and 102,444 controls. We identified 56 loci (32 new) associated with BMD at genome-wide significance (P < 5 × 10(-8)). Several of these factors cluster within the RANK-RANKL-OPG, mesenchymal stem cell differentiation, endochondral ossification and Wnt signaling pathways. However, we also discovered loci that were localized to genes not known to have a role in bone biology. Fourteen BMD-associated loci were also associated with fracture risk (P < 5 × 10(-4), Bonferroni corrected), of which six reached P < 5 × 10(-8), including at 18p11.21 (FAM210A), 7q21.3 (SLC25A13), 11q13.2 (LRP5), 4q22.1 (MEPE), 2p16.2 (SPTBN1) and 10q21.1 (DKK1). These findings shed light on the genetic architecture and pathophysiological mechanisms underlying BMD variation and fracture susceptibility.
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5.
  • Medina-Gomez, C., et al. (författare)
  • Life-Course Genome-wide Association Study Meta-analysis of Total Body BMD and Assessment of Age-Specific Effects
  • 2018
  • Ingår i: American Journal of Human Genetics. - : Cell Press. - 0002-9297. ; 102:1, s. 88-102
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Bone mineral density (BMD) assessed by DXA is used to evaluate bone health. In children, total body (TB) measurements are commonly used; in older individuals, BMD at the lumbar spine (LS) and femoral neck (FN) is used to diagnose osteoporosis. To date, genetic variants in more than 60 loci have been identified as associated with BMD. To investigate the genetic determinants of TB-BMD variation along the life course and test for age-specific effects, we performed a meta-analysis of 30 genome-wide association studies (GWASs) of TB-BMD including 66,628 individuals overall and divided across five age strata, each spanning 15 years. We identified variants associated with TB-BMD at 80 loci, of which 36 have not been previously identified; overall, they explain approximately 10% of the TB-BMD variance when combining all age groups and influence the risk of fracture. Pathway and enrichment analysis of the association signals showed clustering within gene sets implicated in the regulation of cell growth and SMAD proteins, overexpressed in the musculoskeletal system, and enriched in enhancer and promoter regions. These findings reveal TB-BMD as a relevant trait for genetic studies of osteoporosis, enabling the identification of variants and pathways influencing different bone compartments. Only variants in ESR1 and close proximity to RANKL showed a clear effect dependency on age. This most likely indicates that the majority of genetic variants identified influence BMD early in life and that their effect can be captured throughout the life course. © 2017 American Society of Human Genetics
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6.
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7.
  • Liu, Ching-Ti, et al. (författare)
  • Assessment of gene-by-sex interaction effect on bone mineral density
  • 2012
  • Ingår i: Journal of Bone and Mineral Research. - : AMBMR. - 1523-4681. ; 27:10, s. 2051-2064
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Sexual dimorphism in various bone phenotypes, including bone mineral density (BMD), is widely observed; however, the extent to which genes explain these sex differences is unclear. To identify variants with different effects by sex, we examined gene-by-sex autosomal interactions genome-wide, and performed expression quantitative trait loci (eQTL) analysis and bioinformatics network analysis. We conducted an autosomal genome-wide meta-analysis of gene-by-sex interaction on lumbar spine (LS) and femoral neck (FN) BMD in 25,353 individuals from 8 cohorts. In a second stage, we followed up the 12 top single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs; p?
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8.
  • Duggan, D., et al. (författare)
  • Two genome-wide association studies of aggressive prostate cancer implicate putative prostate tumor suppressor gene DAB2IP
  • 2007
  • Ingår i: Journal of the National Cancer Institute. - 0027-8874 .- 1460-2105. ; 99:24, s. 1836-1844
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background: The consistent finding of a genetic susceptibility to prostate cancer suggests that there are germline sequence variants predisposing individuals to this disease. These variants could be useful in screening and treatment. Methods: We performed an exploratory genome-wide association scan in 498 men with aggressive prostate cancer and 494 control subjects selected from a population-based case-control study in Sweden. We combined the results of this scan with those for aggressive prostate cancer from the publicly available Cancer Genetic Markers of Susceptibility (CGEMS) Study. Single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) that showed statistically significant associations with the risk of aggressive prostate cancer based on two-sided allele tests were tested for their association with aggressive prostate cancer in two independent study populations composed of individuals of European or African American descent using one-sided tests and the genetic model (dominant or additive) associated with the lowest value in the exploratory study. Results: Among the approximately 60000 SNPs that were common to our study and CGEMS, we identified seven that had a similar (positive or negative) and statistically significant (P<.01) association with the risk of aggressive prostate cancer in both studies. Analysis of the distribution of these SNPs among 1032 prostate cancer patients and 571 control subjects of European descent indicated that one, rs1571801, located in the DAB2IP gene, which encodes a novel Ras GTPase-activating protein and putative prostate tumor suppressor, was associated with aggressive prostate cancer (one-sided P value =. 004). The association was also statistically significant in an African American study population that included 210 prostate cancer patients and 346 control subjects (one-sided P value =. 02). Conclusion: A genetic variant in DAB2IP may be associated with the risk of aggressive prostate cancer and should be evaluated further.
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9.
  • Hsu, Y. H., et al. (författare)
  • Meta-Analysis of Genomewide Association Studies Reveals Genetic Variants for Hip Bone Geometry
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: Journal of Bone and Mineral Research. - : AMBMR. - 0884-0431. ; 34:7, s. 1284-1296
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Hip geometry is an important predictor of fracture. We performed a meta-analysis of GWAS studies in adults to identify genetic variants that are associated with proximal femur geometry phenotypes. We analyzed four phenotypes: (i) femoral neck length; (ii) neck-shaft angle; (iii) femoral neck width, and (iv) femoral neck section modulus, estimated from DXA scans using algorithms of hip structure analysis. In the Discovery stage, 10 cohort studies were included in the fixed-effect meta-analysis, with up to 18,719 men and women ages 16 to 93 years. Association analyses were performed with similar to 2.5 million polymorphisms under an additive model adjusted for age, body mass index, and height. Replication analyses of meta-GWAS significant loci (at adjusted genomewide significance [GWS], threshold p <= 2.6 x 10(-8)) were performed in seven additional cohorts in silico. We looked up SNPs associated in our analysis, for association with height, bone mineral density (BMD), and fracture. In meta-analysis (combined Discovery and Replication stages), GWS associations were found at 5p15 (IRX1 and ADAMTS16); 5q35 near FGFR4; at 12p11 (in CCDC91); 11q13 (near LRP5 and PPP6R3 (rs7102273)). Several hip geometry signals overlapped with BMD, including LRP5 (chr. 11). Chr. 11 SNP rs7102273 was associated with any-type fracture (p = 7.5 x 10(-5)). We used bone transcriptome data and discovered several significant eQTLs, including rs7102273 and PPP6R3 expression (p = 0.0007), and rs6556301 (intergenic, chr.5 near FGFR4) and PDLIM7 expression (p = 0.005). In conclusion, we found associations between several genes and hip geometry measures that explained 12% to 22% of heritability at different sites. The results provide a defined set of genes related to biological pathways relevant to BMD and etiology of bone fragility. (c) 2019 American Society for Bone and Mineral Research.
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10.
  • Stephens, Lucas, et al. (författare)
  • Archaeological assessment reveals Earth's early transformation through land use
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: Science. - : American Association for the Advancement of Science. - 0036-8075 .- 1095-9203. ; 365:6456, s. 897-902
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Environmentally transformative human use of land accelerated with the emergence of agriculture, but the extent, trajectory, and implications of these early changes are not well understood. An empirical global assessment of land use from 10,000 years before the present (yr B.P.) to 1850 CE reveals a planet largely transformed by hunter-gatherers, farmers, and pastoralists by 3000 years ago, considerably earlier than the dates in the land-use reconstructions commonly used by Earth scientists. Synthesis of knowledge contributed by more than 250 archaeologists highlighted gaps in archaeological expertise and data quality, which peaked for 2000 yr B.P. and in traditionally studied and wealthier regions. Archaeological reconstruction of global land-use history illuminates the deep roots of Earth's transformation and challenges the emerging Anthropocene paradigm that large-scale anthropogenic global environmental change is mostly a recent phenomenon.
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