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Sökning: WFRF:(Robson Samuel)

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  • Bais, A. F., et al. (författare)
  • Environmental effects of ozone depletion, UV radiation and interactions with climate change : UNEP Environmental Effects Assessment Panel, update 2017
  • 2018
  • Ingår i: Photochemical and Photobiological Sciences. - Royal Society of Chemistry. - 1474-905X. ; 17:2, s. 127-179
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The Environmental Effects Assessment Panel (EEAP) is one of three Panels of experts that inform the Parties to the Montreal Protocol. The EEAP focuses on the effects of UV radiation on human health, terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems, air quality, and materials, as well as on the interactive effects of UV radiation and global climate change. When considering the effects of climate change, it has become clear that processes resulting in changes in stratospheric ozone are more complex than previously held. Because of the Montreal Protocol, there are now indications of the beginnings of a recovery of stratospheric ozone, although the time required to reach levels like those before the 1960s is still uncertain, particularly as the effects of stratospheric ozone on climate change and vice versa, are not yet fully understood. Some regions will likely receive enhanced levels of UV radiation, while other areas will likely experience a reduction in UV radiation as ozone- and climate-driven changes affect the amounts of UV radiation reaching the Earth's surface. Like the other Panels, the EEAP produces detailed Quadrennial Reports every four years; the most recent was published as a series of seven papers in 2015 (Photochem. Photobiol. Sci., 2015, 14, 1-184). In the years in between, the EEAP produces less detailed and shorter Update Reports of recent and relevant scientific findings. The most recent of these was for 2016 (Photochem. Photobiol. Sci., 2017, 16, 107-145). The present 2017 Update Report assesses some of the highlights and new insights about the interactive nature of the direct and indirect effects of UV radiation, atmospheric processes, and climate change. A full 2018 Quadrennial Assessment, will be made available in 2018/2019.
  • Barnes, Paul W., et al. (författare)
  • Ozone depletion, ultraviolet radiation, climate change and prospects for a sustainable future
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: Nature Sustainability. - Nature Publishing Group. ; 2:7, s. 569-579
  • Forskningsöversikt (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • Changes in stratospheric ozone and climate over the past 40-plus years have altered the solar ultraviolet (UV) radiation conditions at the Earth's surface. Ozone depletion has also contributed to climate change across the Southern Hemisphere. These changes are interacting in complex ways to affect human health, food and water security, and ecosystem services. Many adverse effects of high UV exposure have been avoided thanks to the Montreal Protocol with its Amendments and Adjustments, which have effectively controlled the production and use of ozone-depleting substances. This international treaty has also played an important role in mitigating climate change. Climate change is modifying UV exposure and affecting how people and ecosystems respond to UV; these effects will become more pronounced in the future. The interactions between stratospheric ozone, climate and UV radiation will therefore shift over time; however, the Montreal Protocol will continue to have far-reaching benefits for human well-being and environmental sustainability.
  • Craddock, Nick, et al. (författare)
  • Genome-wide association study of CNVs in 16,000 cases of eight common diseases and 3,000 shared controls
  • 2010
  • Ingår i: Nature. - 0028-0836 .- 1476-4687. ; 464:7289, s. 713-720
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Copy number variants (CNVs) account for a major proportion of human genetic polymorphism and have been predicted to have an important role in genetic susceptibility to common disease. To address this we undertook a large, direct genome-wide study of association between CNVs and eight common human diseases. Using a purpose-designed array we typed,19,000 individuals into distinct copy-number classes at 3,432 polymorphic CNVs, including an estimated similar to 50% of all common CNVs larger than 500 base pairs. We identified several biological artefacts that lead to false-positive associations, including systematic CNV differences between DNAs derived from blood and cell lines. Association testing and follow-up replication analyses confirmed three loci where CNVs were associated with disease-IRGM for Crohn's disease, HLA for Crohn's disease, rheumatoid arthritis and type 1 diabetes, and TSPAN8 for type 2 diabetes-although in each case the locus had previously been identified in single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP)-based studies, reflecting our observation that most common CNVs that are well-typed on our array are well tagged by SNPs and so have been indirectly explored through SNP studies. We conclude that common CNVs that can be typed on existing platforms are unlikely to contribute greatly to the genetic basis of common human diseases.
  • Robson-Doucette, Christine A., et al. (författare)
  • beta-Cell Uncoupling Protein 2 Regulates Reactive Oxygen Species Production, Which Influences Both Insulin and Glucagon Secretion
  • 2011
  • Ingår i: Diabetes. - 0012-1797. ; 60:11, s. 2710-2719
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • OBJECTIVE-The role of uncoupling protein 2 (UCP2) in pancreatic beta-cells is highly debated, partly because of the broad tissue distribution of UCP2 and thus limitations of whole-body UCP2 knockout mouse models. To investigate the function of UCP2 in the beta-cell, beta-cell-specific UCP2 knockout mice (UCP2BKO) were generated and characterized. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS-UCP2BKO mice were generated by crossing loxUCP2 mice with mice expressing rat insulin promoter-driven Cre recombinase. Several in vitro and in vivo parameters were measured, including respiration rate, mitochondrial membrane potential, islet ATP content, reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels, glucose-stimulated insulin secretion (GSIS), glucagon secretion, glucose and insulin tolerance, and plasma hormone levels. RESULTS-UCP2BKO beta-cells displayed mildly increased glucose-induced mitochondrial membrane hyperpolarization but unchanged rates of uncoupled respiration and islet ATP content. UCP2BKO islets had elevated intracellular ROS levels that associated with enhanced GSIS. Surprisingly, UCP2BKO mice were glucose-intolerant, showing greater alpha-cell area, higher islet glucagon content, and aberrant ROS-dependent glucagon secretion under high glucose conditions. CONCLUSIONS-Using a novel beta-cell-specific UCP2K0 mouse model, we have shed light on UCP2 function in primary beta-cells. UCP2 does not behave as a classical metabolic uncoupler in the beta-cell, but has a more prominent role in the regulation of intracellular ROS levels that contribute to GSIS amplification. In addition, beta-cell UCP2 contributes to the regulation of intraislet ROS signals that mediate changes in alpha-cell morphology and glucagon secretion. Diabetes 60:2710-2719, 2011
  • Samudyata, Samudyata, et al. (författare)
  • Interaction of Sox2 with RNA binding proteins in mouse embryonic stem cells
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: Experimental Cell Research. - 0014-4827. ; 381:1, s. 129-138
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Sox2 is a master transcriptional regulator of embryonic development. In this study, we determined the protein interactome of Sox2 in the chromatin and nucleoplasm of mouse embryonic stem (mES) cells. Apart from canonical interactions with pluripotency-regulating transcription factors, we identified interactions with several chromatin modulators, including members of the heterochromatin protein 1 (HP1) family, suggesting a role for Sox2 in chromatin-mediated transcriptional repression. Sox2 was also found to interact with RNA binding proteins (RBPs), including proteins involved in RNA processing. RNA immunoprecipitation followed by sequencing revealed that Sox2 associates with different messenger RNAs, as well as small nucleolar RNA Snord34 and the non-coding RNA 7SK. 7SK has been shown to regulate transcription at gene regulatory regions, which could suggest a functional interaction with Sox2 for chromatin recruitment. Nevertheless, we found no evidence of Sox2 modulating recruitment of 7SK to chromatin when examining 7SK chromatin occupancy by Chromatin Isolation by RNA Purification (ChIRP) in Sox2 depleted mES cells. In addition, knockdown of 7SK in mES cells did not lead to any change in Sox2 occupancy at 7SK-regulated genes. Thus, our results show that Sox2 extensively interacts with RBPs, and suggest that Sox2 and 7SK co-exist in a ribonucleoprotein complex whose function is not to regulate chromatin recruitment, but could rather regulate other processes in the nucleoplasm.
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