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Sökning: WFRF:(Rochat Thierry)

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1.
  • Adam, Martin, et al. (författare)
  • Adult lung function and long-term air pollution exposure. ESCAPE a multicentre cohort study and meta-analysis
  • 2015
  • Ingår i: European Respiratory Journal. - 0903-1936 .- 1399-3003. ; 41:5, s. 38-50
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • <p>The chronic impact of ambient air pollutants on lung function in adults is not fully understood. The objective of this study was to investigate the association of long-term exposure to ambient air pollution with lung function in adult participants from five cohorts in the European Study of Cohorts for Air Pollution Effects (ESCAPE). Residential exposure to nitrogen oxides (NO2, NOx) and particulate matter (PM) was modelled and traffic indicators were assessed in a standardised manner. The spirometric parameters forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1) and forced vital capacity (FVC) from 7613 subjects were considered as outcomes. Cohort-specific results were combined using meta-analysis. We did not observe an association of air pollution with longitudinal change in lung function, but we observed that a 10 μg·m(-3) increase in NO2 exposure was associated with lower levels of FEV1 (-14.0 mL, 95%CI -25.8- -2.1) and FVC (-14.9 mL, 95% CI -28.7- -1.1). An increase of 10 μg·m(-3) in PM10, but not other PM metrics (PM2.5, coarse fraction of PM, PM absorbance), was associated with a lower level of FEV1 (-44.6 mL, 95% CI -85.4- -3.8) and FVC (-59.0 mL, 95% CI -112.3- -5.6). The associations were particularly strong in obese persons. This study adds to the evidence for an adverse association of ambient air pollution with lung function in adults at very low levels in Europe.</p>
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2.
  • Artigas Soler, María, et al. (författare)
  • Genome-wide association and large-scale follow up identifies 16 new loci influencing lung function.
  • 2011
  • Ingår i: Nature genetics. - 1546-1718. ; 43:11, s. 1082-90
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Pulmonary function measures reflect respiratory health and are used in the diagnosis of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. We tested genome-wide association with forced expiratory volume in 1 second and the ratio of forced expiratory volume in 1 second to forced vital capacity in 48,201 individuals of European ancestry with follow up of the top associations in up to an additional 46,411 individuals. We identified new regions showing association (combined P < 5 × 10(-8)) with pulmonary function in or near MFAP2, TGFB2, HDAC4, RARB, MECOM (also known as EVI1), SPATA9, ARMC2, NCR3, ZKSCAN3, CDC123, C10orf11, LRP1, CCDC38, MMP15, CFDP1 and KCNE2. Identification of these 16 new loci may provide insight into the molecular mechanisms regulating pulmonary function and into molecular targets for future therapy to alleviate reduced lung function.
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3.
  • Boudier, Anne, et al. (författare)
  • Ten-Year Follow-up of Cluster-based Asthma Phenotypes in Adults A Pooled Analysis of Three Cohorts
  • 2013
  • Ingår i: American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine. - 1073-449X .- 1535-4970. ; 188:5, s. 550-560
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • <p>Rationale: The temporal stability of adult asthma phenotypes identified using clustering methods has never been addressed. Longitudinal cluster-based methods may provide novel insights in the study of the natural history of asthma. Objectives: To compare the stability of cluster-based asthma phenotype structures a decade apart in adults and to address the individuals' phenotypic transition across these asthma phenotypes. Methods: The latent transition analysis was applied on longitudinal data (twice, 10 yr apart) from 3,320 adults with asthma who took part in the European Community Respiratory Health Survey, the Swiss Cohort Study on Air Pollution and Lung and Heart Diseases in Adults, or the Epidemiological Study on Genetics and Environment of Asthma. Nine variables covering personal and phenotypic characteristics measured twice, 10 years apart, were simultaneously considered. Measurements and Main Results: Latent transition analysis identifies seven asthma phenotypes (prevalence range, 8.4-20.8%), mainly [GRAPHICS] characterized by the level of asthma symptoms ( low, moderate, high), the allergic status, and pulmonary function. Phenotypes observed 10 years apart showed strong similarities. The probability of membership in the same asthma phenotype at both times varied across phenotypes from 54 to 88%. Different transition patterns were observed across phenotypes. Transitions toward increased asthma symptoms were more frequently observed among nonallergic phenotypes as compared with allergic phenotypes. Results showed a strong stability of the allergic status over time. Conclusions: Adult asthma phenotypes identified by a clustering approach, 10 years apart, were highly consistent. This study is the first to model the probabilities of transitioning over time between comprehensive asthma phenotypes.</p>
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4.
  • Cai, Yutong, et al. (författare)
  • Cross-sectional associations between air pollution and chronic bronchitis : an ESCAPE meta-analysis across five cohorts
  • 2014
  • Ingår i: Thorax. - 0040-6376 .- 1468-3296. ; 69:11, s. 1005-1014
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • <p><strong>BACKGROUND:</strong> This study aimed to assess associations of outdoor air pollution on prevalence of chronic bronchitis symptoms in adults in five cohort studies (Asthma-E3N, ECRHS, NSHD, SALIA, SAPALDIA) participating in the European Study of Cohorts for Air Pollution Effects (ESCAPE) project.</p><p><strong>METHODS:</strong> Annual average particulate matter (PM10, PM2.5, PMabsorbance, PMcoarse), NO2, nitrogen oxides (NOx) and road traffic measures modelled from ESCAPE measurement campaigns 2008-2011 were assigned to home address at most recent assessments (1998-2011). Symptoms examined were chronic bronchitis (cough and phlegm for ≥3 months of the year for ≥2 years), chronic cough (with/without phlegm) and chronic phlegm (with/without cough). Cohort-specific cross-sectional multivariable logistic regression analyses were conducted using common confounder sets (age, sex, smoking, interview season, education), followed by meta-analysis.</p><p><strong>RESULTS:</strong> 15 279 and 10 537 participants respectively were included in the main NO2 and PM analyses at assessments in 1998-2011. Overall, there were no statistically significant associations with any air pollutant or traffic exposure. Sensitivity analyses including in asthmatics only, females only or using back-extrapolated NO2 and PM10 for assessments in 1985-2002 (ECRHS, NSHD, SALIA, SAPALDIA) did not alter conclusions. In never-smokers, all associations were positive, but reached statistical significance only for chronic phlegm with PMcoarse OR 1.31 (1.05 to 1.64) per 5 µg/m(3) increase and PM10 with similar effect size. Sensitivity analyses of older cohorts showed increased risk of chronic cough with PM2.5abs (black carbon) exposures.</p><p><strong>CONCLUSIONS:</strong> Results do not show consistent associations between chronic bronchitis symptoms and current traffic-related air pollution in adult European populations.</p>
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5.
  • Hancock, Dana B, et al. (författare)
  • Genome-Wide Joint Meta-Analysis of SNP and SNP-by-Smoking Interaction Identifies Novel Loci for Pulmonary Function
  • 2012
  • Ingår i: PLoS genetics. - 1553-7404. ; 8:12, s. e1003098
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • <p>Genome-wide association studies have identified numerous genetic loci for spirometic measures of pulmonary function, forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV<sub>1</sub>), and its ratio to forced vital capacity (FEV<sub>1</sub>/FVC). Given that cigarette smoking adversely affects pulmonary function, we conducted genome-wide joint meta-analyses (JMA) of single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) and SNP-by-smoking (ever-smoking or pack-years) associations on FEV<sub>1</sub> and FEV<sub>1</sub>/FVC across 19 studies (total N = 50,047). We identified three novel loci not previously associated with pulmonary function. SNPs in or near <em>DNER</em> (smallest <em>P</em><sub>JMA = </sub>5.00×10<sup>−11</sup>), <em>HLA-DQB1</em> and <em>HLA-DQA2</em> (smallest <em>P</em><sub>JMA = </sub>4.35×10<sup>−9</sup>), and <em>KCNJ2</em> and <em>SOX9</em> (smallest <em>P</em><sub>JMA = </sub>1.28×10<sup>−8</sup>) were associated with FEV<sub>1</sub>/FVC or FEV<sub>1</sub> in meta-analysis models including SNP main effects, smoking main effects, and SNP-by-smoking (ever-smoking or pack-years) interaction. The HLA region has been widely implicated for autoimmune and lung phenotypes, unlike the other novel loci, which have not been widely implicated. We evaluated <em>DNER</em>, <em>KCNJ2</em>, and <em>SOX9</em> and found them to be expressed in human lung tissue. <em>DNER</em> and <em>SOX9</em> further showed evidence of differential expression in human airway epithelium in smokers compared to non-smokers. Our findings demonstrated that joint testing of SNP and SNP-by-environment interaction identified novel loci associated with complex traits that are missed when considering only the genetic main effects.</p>
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6.
  • Jacquemin, Benedicte, et al. (författare)
  • Ambient Air Pollution and Adult Asthma Incidence in Six European Cohorts (ESCAPE)
  • 2015
  • Ingår i: Journal of Environmental Health Perspectives. - 0091-6765 .- 1552-9924. ; 123:6, s. 613-621
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • <p>BACKGROUND: Short-term exposure to air pollution has adverse effects among patients with asthma, but whether long-term exposure to air pollution is a cause of adult-onset asthma is unclear. OBJECTIVE: We aimed to investigate the association between air pollution and adult onset asthma. METHODS: Asthma incidence was prospectively assessed in six European cohorts. Exposures studied were annual average concentrations at home addresses for nitrogen oxides assessed for 23,704 participants (including 1,257 incident cases) and particulate matter (PM) assessed for 17,909 participants through ESCAPE land-use regression models and traffic exposure indicators. Meta-analyses of cohort-specific logistic regression on asthma incidence were performed. Models were adjusted for age, sex, overweight, education, and smoking and included city/area within each cohort as a random effect. RESULTS: In this longitudinal analysis, asthma incidence was positively, but not significantly, associated with all exposure metrics, except for PMcoarse. Positive associations of borderline significance were observed for nitrogen dioxide [adjusted odds ratio (OR) = 1.10; 95% CI: 0.99, 1.21 per 10 mu g/m(3); p = 0.10] and nitrogen oxides (adjusted OR = 1.04; 95% CI: 0.99, 1.08 per 20 mu g/m(3); p = 0.08). Nonsignificant positive associations were estimated for PM10 (adjusted OR = 1.04; 95% CI: 0.88, 1.23 per 10 mu g/m(3)), PM2.5 (adjusted OR = 1.04; 95% CI: 0.88, 1.23 per 5 mu g/m(3)), PM2.5absorbance (adjusted OR = 1.06; 95% CI: 0.95, 1.19 per 10(-5)/m), traffic load (adjusted OR = 1.10; 95% CI: 0.93, 1.30 per 4 million vehicles x meters/day on major roads in a 100-m buffer), and traffic intensity (adjusted OR = 1.10; 95% CI: 0.93, 1.30 per 5,000 vehicles/day on the nearest road). A nonsignificant negative association was estimated for PMcoarse (adjusted OR = 0.98; 95% CI: 0.87, 1.14 per 5 mu g/m(3)). CONCLUSIONS: Results suggest a deleterious effect of ambient air pollution on asthma incidence in adults. Further research with improved personal-level exposure assessment (vs. residential exposure assessment only) and phenotypic characterization is needed.</p>
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7.
  • Jacquemin, Benedicte, et al. (författare)
  • Ambient Air Pollution and Adult Asthma Incidence in Six European horts ESCAPE)
  • 2015
  • Ingår i: Journal of Environmental Health Perspectives. - 0091-6765 .- 1552-9924. ; 123:6, s. 613-621
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • <p>Background: Short-term exposure to air pollution has adverse effects among patients with asthma, but whether long-term exposure to air pollution is a cause of adult-onset asthma is unclear. Objective: We aimed to investigate the association between air pollution and adult onset asthma. Methods: Asthma incidence was prospectively assessed in six European cohorts. Exposures studied were annual average concentrations at home addresses for nitrogen oxides assessed for 23,704 participants (including 1,257 incident cases) and particulate matter (PM) assessed for 17,909 participants through ESCAPE land-use regression models and traffic exposure indicators. Meta-analyses of cohort-specific logistic regression on asthma incidence were performed. Models were adjusted for age, sex, overweight, education, and smoking and included city/area within each cohort as a random effect. Results: In this longitudinal analysis, asthma incidence was positively, but not significantly, associated with all exposure metrics, except for PMcoarse. Positive associations of borderline significance were observed for nitrogen dioxide [adjusted odds ratio (OR) = 1.10; 95% CI: 0.99, 1.21 per 10 μg/m3; p = 0.10] and nitrogen oxides (adjusted OR = 1.04; 95% CI: 0.99, 1.08 per 20 μg/m3; p = 0.08). Nonsignificant positive associations were estimated for PM10 (adjusted OR = 1.04; 95% CI: 0.88, 1.23 per 10 μg/m3), PM2.5 (adjusted OR = 1.04; 95% CI: 0.88, 1.23 per 5 μg/m3), PM2.5absorbance (adjusted OR = 1.06; 95% CI: 0.95, 1.19 per 10–5/m), traffic load (adjusted OR = 1.10; 95% CI: 0.93, 1.30 per 4 million vehicles × meters/day on major roads in a 100-m buffer), and traffic intensity (adjusted OR = 1.10; 95% CI: 0.93, 1.30 per 5,000 vehicles/day on the nearest road). A nonsignificant negative association was estimated for PMcoarse (adjusted OR = 0.98; 95% CI: 0.87, 1.14 per 5 μg/m3). Conclusions: Results suggest a deleterious effect of ambient air pollution on asthma incidence in adults. Further research with improved personal-level exposure assessment (vs. residential exposure assessment only) and phenotypic characterization is needed.</p>
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8.
  • Köttgen, Anna, et al. (författare)
  • New loci associated with kidney function and chronic kidney disease
  • 2010
  • Ingår i: Nature Genetics. - 1061-4036 .- 1546-1718. ; 42:5, s. 376-384
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • <p>Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is a significant public health problem, and recent genetic studies have identified common CKD susceptibility variants. The CKDGen consortium performed a meta-analysis of genome-wide association data in 67,093 individuals of European ancestry from 20 predominantly population-based studies in order to identify new susceptibility loci for reduced renal function as estimated by serum creatinine (eGFRcrea), serum cystatin c (eGFRcys) and CKD (eGFRcrea &lt; 60 ml/min/1.73 m<sup>2</sup>; <em>n</em> = 5,807 individuals with CKD (cases)). Follow-up of the 23 new genome-wide–significant loci (<em>P</em> &lt; 5 × 10<sup>−8</sup>) in 22,982 replication samples identified 13 new loci affecting renal function and CKD (in or near <em>LASS2, GCKR, ALMS1, TFDP2, DAB2, SLC34A1, VEGFA, PRKAG2, PIP5K1B, ATXN2, DACH1, UBE2Q2</em> and <em>SLC7A9</em>) and 7 loci suspected to affect creatinine production and secretion (<em>CPS1, SLC22A2, TMEM60, WDR37, SLC6A13, WDR72</em> and <em>BCAS3</em>). These results further our understanding of the biologic mechanisms of kidney function by identifying loci that potentially influence nephrogenesis, podocyte function, angiogenesis, solute transport and metabolic functions of the kidney.</p>
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9.
  • Schikowski, Tamara, et al. (författare)
  • Association of ambient air pollution with the prevalence and incidence of COPD
  • 2014
  • Ingår i: European Respiratory Journal. - European Respiratory Society. - 0903-1936 .- 1399-3003. ; 44:3, s. 614-626
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • <p>The role of air pollution in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) remains uncertain.The aim was to assess the impact of chronic exposure to air pollution on COPD in four cohorts using the standardised ESCAPE exposure estimates. Annual average particulate matter (PM), nitrogen oxides (NOx) and road traffic exposure were assigned to home addresses using land-use regression models. COPD was defined by NHANES reference equation (forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1)/forced vital capacity (FVC) less than the lower limit of normal) and the Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease criterion (FEV1/FVC &lt;0.70) and categorised by severity in non-asthmatics.We included 6550 subjects with assigned NOx and 3692 with PM measures. COPD was not associated with NO2 or PM10 in any individual cohort. In meta-analyses only NO2, NOx, PM10 and the traffic indicators were positively, although not significantly, associated with COPD. The only statistically significant associations were seen in females (COPD prevalence using GOLD: OR 1.57, 95% CI 1.11-2.23; and incidence: OR 1.79, 95% CI 1.21-2.68).None of the principal results were statistically significant, the weak positive associations of exposure with COPD and the significant subgroup findings need to be evaluated in further well standardised cohorts followed up for longer time, and with time-matched exposure assignments.</p>
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10.
  • Thun, Gian Andri, et al. (författare)
  • Causal and Synthetic Associations of Variants in the SERPINA Gene Cluster with Alpha1-antitrypsin Serum Levels
  • 2013
  • Ingår i: PLOS Genetics. - 1553-7390 .- 1553-7404. ; 9:8, s. e1003585
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • <p>Several infrequent genetic polymorphisms in the SERPINA1 gene are known to substantially reduce concentration of alpha1-antitrypsin (AAT) in the blood. Since low AAT serum levels fail to protect pulmonary tissue from enzymatic degradation these polymorphisms also increase the risk for early onset chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). The role of more common SERPINA1 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in respiratory health remains poorly understood. We present here an agnostic investigation of genetic determinants of circulating AAT levels in a general population sample by performing a genome-wide association study (GWAS) in 1392 individuals of the SAPALDIA cohort. Five common SNPs defined by showing minor allele frequencies (MAFs) &gt;5% reached genome-wide significance all located in the SERPINA gene cluster at 14q32.13. The top-ranking genotyped SNP rs4905179 was associated with an estimated effect of beta = 20.068 g/L per minor allele (P = 1.20*10(-12)). But denser SERPINA1 locus genotyping in 5569 participants with subsequent stepwise conditional analysis as well as exon-sequencing in a subsample (N = 410) suggested that AAT serum level is causally determined at this locus by rare (MAF&lt;1%) and low-frequent (MAF 1-5%) variants only in particular by the well-documented protein inhibitor S and Z (PI S PI Z) variants. Replication of the association of rs4905179 with AAT serum levels in the Copenhagen City Heart Study (N = 8273) was successful (P&lt;0.0001) as was the replication of its synthetic nature (the effect disappeared after adjusting for PI S and Z P = 0.57). Extending the analysis to lung function revealed a more complex situation. Only in individuals with severely compromised pulmonary health (N = 397) associations of common SNPs at this locus with lung function were driven by rarer PI S or Z variants. Overall our meta-analysis of lung function in ever-smokers does not support a functional role of common SNPs in the SERPINA gene cluster in the general population.</p>
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