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1.
  • Ederle, Joerg, et al. (författare)
  • Carotid artery stenting compared with endarterectomy in patients with symptomatic carotid stenosis (International Carotid Stenting Study): an interim analysis of a randomised controlled trial
  • 2010
  • Ingår i: The Lancet. - Elsevier. - 1474-547X. ; 375:9719, s. 985-997
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background Stents are an alternative treatment to carotid endarterectomy for symptomatic carotid stenosis, but previous trials have not established equivalent safety and efficacy. We compared the safety of carotid artery stenting with that of carotid endarterectomy. Methods The International Carotid Stenting Study (ICSS) is a multicentre, international, randomised controlled trial with blinded adjudication of outcomes. Patients with recently symptomatic carotid artery stenosis were randomly assigned in a 1:1 ratio to receive carotid artery stenting or carotid endarterectomy. Randomisation was by telephone call or fax to a central computerised service and was stratified by centre with minimisation for sex, age, contralateral occlusion, and side of the randomised artery. Patients and investigators were not masked to treatment assignment. Patients were followed up by independent clinicians not directly involved in delivering the randomised treatment. The primary outcome measure of the trial is the 3-year rate of fatal or disabling stroke in any territory, which has not been analysed yet. The main outcome measure for the interim safety analysis was the 120-day rate of stroke, death, or procedural myocardial infarction. Analysis was by intention to treat (ITT). This study is registered, number ISRCTN25337470. Findings The trial enrolled 1713 patients (stenting group, n=855; endarterectomy group, n=858). Two patients in the stenting group and one in the endarterectomy group withdrew immediately after randomisation, and were not included in the ITT analysis. Between randomisation and 120 days, there were 34 (Kaplan-Meier estimate 4.0%) events of disabling stroke or death in the stenting group compared with 27 (3.2%) events in the endarterectomy group (hazard ratio [HR] 1.28, 95% CI 0.77-2.11). The incidence of stroke, death, or procedural myocardial infarction was 8.5% in the stenting group compared with 5.2% in the endarterectomy group (72 vs 44 events; HR 1.69, 1.16-2.45, p=0.006), Risks of any stroke (65 vs 35 events; HR 1.92, 1.27-2.89) and all-cause death (19 vs seven events; HR 2.76, 1.16-6.56) were higher in the stenting group than in the endarterectomy group. Three procedural myocardial infarctions were recorded in the stenting group, all of which were fatal, compared with four, all non-fatal, in the endarterectomy group. There was one event of cranial nerve palsy in the stenting group compared with 45 in the endarterectomy group. There were also fewer haematomas of any severity in the stenting group than in the endarterectomy group (31 vs 50 events; p=0.0197). Interpretation Completion of long-term follow-up is needed to establish the efficacy of carotid artery stenting compared with endarterectomy. In the meantime, carotid endarterectomy should remain the treatment of choice for patients suitable for surgery.
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2.
  • Aktas, A, et al. (författare)
  • A direct search for stable magnetic monopoles produced in positron-proton collisions at HERA
  • 2005
  • Ingår i: European Physical Journal C. Particles and Fields. - Springer. - 1434-6044. ; 41, s. 133-141
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • A direct search has been made for magnetic monopoles produced in e(+)p collisions at a centre of mass energy of 300 GeV at HERA. The beam pipe surrounding the interaction region in 1995-1997 was investigated using a SQUID magnetometer to look for stopped magnetic monopoles. During this time an integrated luminosity of 62 pb(-1) was delivered. No magnetic monopoles were observed and charge and mass dependent upper limits on the e(+)p production cross section are set.
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3.
  • Tinetti, Giovanna, et al. (författare)
  • The EChO science case
  • 2015
  • Ingår i: Experimental astronomy (Print). - 0922-6435 .- 1572-9508. ; 40:2-3, s. 329-391
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • <p>The discovery of almost two thousand exoplanets has revealed an unexpectedly diverse planet population. We see gas giants in few-day orbits, whole multi-planet systems within the orbit of Mercury, and new populations of planets with masses between that of the Earth and Neptune-all unknown in the Solar System. Observations to date have shown that our Solar System is certainly not representative of the general population of planets in our Milky Way. The key science questions that urgently need addressing are therefore: What are exoplanets made of? Why are planets as they are? How do planetary systems work and what causes the exceptional diversity observed as compared to the Solar System? The EChO (Exoplanet Characterisation Observatory) space mission was conceived to take up the challenge to explain this diversity in terms of formation, evolution, internal structure and planet and atmospheric composition. This requires in-depth spectroscopic knowledge of the atmospheres of a large and well-defined planet sample for which precise physical, chemical and dynamical information can be obtained. In order to fulfil this ambitious scientific program, EChO was designed as a dedicated survey mission for transit and eclipse spectroscopy capable of observing a large, diverse and well-defined planet sample within its 4-year mission lifetime. The transit and eclipse spectroscopy method, whereby the signal from the star and planet are differentiated using knowledge of the planetary ephemerides, allows us to measure atmospheric signals from the planet at levels of at least 10(-4) relative to the star. This can only be achieved in conjunction with a carefully designed stable payload and satellite platform. It is also necessary to provide broad instantaneous wavelength coverage to detect as many molecular species as possible, to probe the thermal structure of the planetary atmospheres and to correct for the contaminating effects of the stellar photosphere. This requires wavelength coverage of at least 0.55 to 11 mu m with a goal of covering from 0.4 to 16 mu m. Only modest spectral resolving power is needed, with R similar to 300 for wavelengths less than 5 mu m and R similar to 30 for wavelengths greater than this. The transit spectroscopy technique means that no spatial resolution is required. A telescope collecting area of about 1 m(2) is sufficiently large to achieve the necessary spectro-photometric precision: for the Phase A study a 1.13 m(2) telescope, diffraction limited at 3 mu m has been adopted. Placing the satellite at L2 provides a cold and stable thermal environment as well as a large field of regard to allow efficient time-critical observation of targets randomly distributed over the sky. EChO has been conceived to achieve a single goal: exoplanet spectroscopy. The spectral coverage and signal-to-noise to be achieved by EChO, thanks to its high stability and dedicated design, would be a game changer by allowing atmospheric composition to be measured with unparalleled exactness: at least a factor 10 more precise and a factor 10 to 1000 more accurate than current observations. This would enable the detection of molecular abundances three orders of magnitude lower than currently possible and a fourfold increase from the handful of molecules detected to date. Combining these data with estimates of planetary bulk compositions from accurate measurements of their radii and masses would allow degeneracies associated with planetary interior modelling to be broken, giving unique insight into the interior structure and elemental abundances of these alien worlds. EChO would allow scientists to study exoplanets both as a population and as individuals. The mission can target super-Earths, Neptune-like, and Jupiter-like planets, in the very hot to temperate zones (planet temperatures of 300-3000 K) of F to M-type host stars. The EChO core science would be delivered by a three-tier survey. The EChO Chemical Census: This is a broad survey of a few-hundred exoplanets, which allows us to explore the spectroscopic and chemical diversity of the exoplanet population as a whole. The EChO Origin: This is a deep survey of a subsample of tens of exoplanets for which significantly higher signal to noise and spectral resolution spectra can be obtained to explain the origin of the exoplanet diversity (such as formation mechanisms, chemical processes, atmospheric escape). The EChO Rosetta Stones: This is an ultra-high accuracy survey targeting a subsample of select exoplanets. These will be the bright "benchmark" cases for which a large number of measurements would be taken to explore temporal variations, and to obtain two and three dimensional spatial information on the atmospheric conditions through eclipse-mapping techniques. If EChO were launched today, the exoplanets currently observed are sufficient to provide a large and diverse sample. The Chemical Census survey would consist of &gt; 160 exoplanets with a range of planetary sizes, temperatures, orbital parameters and stellar host properties. Additionally, over the next 10 years, several new ground- and space-based transit photometric surveys and missions will come on-line (e.g. NGTS, CHEOPS, TESS, PLATO), which will specifically focus on finding bright, nearby systems. The current rapid rate of discovery would allow the target list to be further optimised in the years prior to EChO's launch and enable the atmospheric characterisation of hundreds of planets.</p>
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4.
  • Aktas, A., et al. (författare)
  • Measurement of event shape variables in deep-inelastic scattering at HERA
  • 2006
  • Ingår i: European Physical Journal C. Particles and Fields. - Springer. - 1434-6044. ; 46:2, s. 343-356
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Deep-inelastic ep scattering data taken with the H1 detector at HERA and corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 106 pb(-1) are used to study the differential distributions of event shape variables. These include thrust, jet broadening, jet mass and the C-parameter. The four-momentum transfer Q is taken to be the relevant energy scale and ranges between 14 GeV and 200 GeV. The event shape distributions are compared with perturbative QCD predictions, which include resummed contributions and analytical power law corrections, the latter accounting for non-perturbative hadronisation effects. The data clearly exhibit the running of the strong coupling alpha(s)(Q) and are consistent with a universal power correction parameter alpha(0) for all event shape variables. A combined QCD fit using all event shape variables yields alpha(s)(m(Z)) = 0.1198 +/- 0.0013 (+0.0056)(-0.0043) and alpha(0) = 0.476 +/- 0.008 (+0.018)(-0.059).
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5.
  • Aktas, A., et al. (författare)
  • Photoproduction of dijets with high transverse momenta at HERA
  • 2006
  • Ingår i: Physics Letters. Section B: Nuclear, Elementary Particle and High-Energy Physics. - Elsevier. - 0370-2693. ; 639:1, s. 21-31
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Differential dijet cross sections are measured in photoproduction in the region of photon virtualities Q(2) < 1 GeV2 with the H1 detector at the HERA ep collider using an integrated luminosity of 66.6 pb(-1). Jets are defined with the inclusive k perpendicular to algorithm and a minimum transverse momentum of the leading jet of 25 GeV is required. Dijet cross sections are measured indirect and resolved photon enhanced regions separately. Longitudinal proton momentum fractions up to 0.7 are reached. The data compare well with predictions from Monte Carlo event generators based on leading order QCD and parton showers and with next-to-leading order QCD calculations corrected for hadronisation effects.
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6.
  • Aktas, A., et al. (författare)
  • Elastic J/psi production at HERA
  • 2006
  • Ingår i: European Physical Journal C. Particles and Fields. - Springer. - 1434-6044. ; 46:3, s. 585-603
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Cross sections for elastic production of J/psi mesons in photoproduction and electroproduction are measured in electron proton collisions at HERA using an integrated luminosity of 55 pb(-1). Results are presented for photon virtualities Q(2) up to 80 GeV2. The dependence on the photon-proton centre of mass energy W-gamma p is analysed in the range 40 <= W-gamma p <= 305 GeV in photoproduction and 40 <= W-gamma p <= 160 GeV in electroproduction. The W-gamma p dependences of the cross sections do not change significantly with Q(2) and can be described by models based on perturbative QCD. Within such models, the data show a high sensitivity to the gluon density of the proton in the domain of low Bjorken x and low Q(2). Differential cross sections d sigma/dt, where t is the squared four-momentum transfer at the proton vertex, are measured in the range vertical bar t vertical bar < 1.2 GeV2 as functions of W-gamma p and Q(2). Effective Pomeron trajectories are determined for photoproduction and electroproduction. The J/psi production and decay angular distributions are consistent with s-channel helicity conservation. The ratio of the cross sections for longitudinally and transversely polarised photons is measured as a function of Q(2) and is found to be described by perturbative QCD based models.
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7.
  • Aktas, A., et al. (författare)
  • Forward jet production in deep inelastic scattering at HERA
  • 2006
  • Ingår i: European Physical Journal C. Particles and Fields. - Springer. - 1434-6044. ; 46:1, s. 27-42
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The production of forward jets has been measured in deep inelastic ep collisions at HERA. The results are presented in terms of single differential cross sections as a function of the Bjorken scaling variable (xB(j)) and as triple differential cross sections d3 sigma/dx(Bj)dQ(2)dp(t)(,jet)(2), where Q(2) is the four momentum transfer squared and p(t)(,iet)(2) is the squared transverse momentum of the forward jet. Also cross sections for events with a di-jet system in addition to the forward jet are measured as a function of the rapidity separation between the forward jet and the two additional jets. The measurements are compared with next-to-leading order QCD calculations and with the predictions of various QCD-based models.
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8.
  • Aaron, F. D., et al. (författare)
  • A general search for new phenomena at HERA
  • 2009
  • Ingår i: Physics Letters. Section B: Nuclear, Elementary Particle and High-Energy Physics. - Elsevier. - 0370-2693. ; 674:4-5, s. 257-268
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • A model-independent search for deviations from the Standard Model prediction is performed using the full e(+/-) p data sample collected by the H1 experiment at HERA. All event topologies involving isolated electrons, photons, muons, neutrinos and jets with transverse momenta above 20 GeV are investigated in a single analysis. Events are assigned to exclusive classes according to their final state. A dedicated algorithm is used to search for deviations from the Standard Model in the distributions of the scalar sum of transverse momenta or the invariant mass of final state particles and to quantify their significance. Variables related to angular distributions and energy sharing between final state particles are also introduced to study the final state topologies. No significant deviation from the Standard Model expectation is observed in the phase space covered by this analysis. (C) 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
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9.
  • Aaron, F. D., et al. (författare)
  • A precision measurement of the inclusive ep scattering cross section at HERA
  • 2009
  • Ingår i: European Physical Journal C. Particles and Fields. - Springer. - 1434-6044. ; 64:4, s. 561-587
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • A measurement of the inclusive deep inelastic neutral current e(+) p scattering cross section is reported in the region of four-momentum transfer squared, 12GeV(2) <= Q(2) <= 150 GeV2, and Bjorken x, 2 x 10(-4) <= x <= 0.1. The results are based on data collected by the H1 Collaboration at the ep collider HERA at positron and proton beam energies of E-e = 27.6 GeV and E-p = 920 GeV, respectively. The data are combined with previously published data, taken at E-p = 820 GeV. The accuracy of the combined measurement is typically in the range of 1.3-2%. A QCD analysis at next-to-leading order is performed to determine the parton distributions in the proton based on H1 data.
10.
  • Aaron, F. D., et al. (författare)
  • Events with isolated leptons and missing transverse momentum and measurement of W production at HERA
  • 2009
  • Ingår i: European Physical Journal C. Particles and Fields. - Springer. - 1434-6044. ; 64:2, s. 251-271
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Events with high energy isolated electrons, muons or tau leptons and missing transverse momentum are studied using the full e(+/-)p data sample collected by the H1 experiment at HERA, corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 474 pb(-1). Within the Standard Model, events with isolated leptons and missing transverse momentum mainly originate from the production of single W bosons. The total single W boson production cross section is measured as 1.14 +/- 0.25 (stat.) +/- 0.14 (sys.) pb, in agreement with the Standard Model expectation. The data are also used to establish limits on the WW gamma gauge couplings and for a measurement of the W boson polarisation.
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