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Träfflista för sökning "WFRF:(Roldin Pontus) "

Sökning: WFRF:(Roldin Pontus)

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1.
  • Boy, M., et al. (författare)
  • Interactions between the atmosphere, cryosphere, and ecosystems at northern high latitudes
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics. - : COPERNICUS GESELLSCHAFT MBH. - 1680-7316 .- 1680-7324. ; 19:3, s. 2015-2061
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The Nordic Centre of Excellence CRAICC (Cryosphere-Atmosphere Interactions in a Changing Arctic Climate), funded by NordForsk in the years 2011-2016, is the largest joint Nordic research and innovation initiative to date, aiming to strengthen research and innovation regarding climate change issues in the Nordic region. CRAICC gathered more than 100 scientists from all Nordic countries in a virtual centre with the objectives of identifying and quantifying the major processes controlling Arctic warming and related feedback mechanisms, outlining strategies to mitigate Arctic warming, and developing Nordic Earth system modelling with a focus on short-lived climate forcers (SLCFs), including natural and anthropogenic aerosols. The outcome of CRAICC is reflected in more than 150 peer-reviewed scientific publications, most of which are in the CRAICC special issue of the journal Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics. This paper presents an overview of the main scientific topics investigated in the centre and provides the reader with a state-of-the-art comprehensive summary of what has been achieved in CRAICC with links to the particular publications for further detail. Faced with a vast amount of scientific discovery, we do not claim to completely summarize the results from CRAICC within this paper, but rather concentrate here on the main results which are related to feedback loops in climate change-cryosphere interactions that affect Arctic amplification.
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2.
  • Reddington, C. L., et al. (författare)
  • Primary versus secondary contributions to particle number concentrations in the European boundary layer
  • 2011
  • Ingår i: Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics. - : Copernicus Gesellschaft mbH. - 1680-7324 .- 1680-7316. ; 11:23, s. 12007-12036
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • It is important to understand the relative contribution of primary and secondary particles to regional and global aerosol so that models can attribute aerosol radiative forcing to different sources. In large-scale models, there is considerable uncertainty associated with treatments of particle formation (nucleation) in the boundary layer (BL) and in the size distribution of emitted primary particles, leading to uncertainties in predicted cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) concentrations. Here we quantify how primary particle emissions and secondary particle formation influence size-resolved particle number concentrations in the BL using a global aerosol microphysics model and aircraft and ground site observations made during the May 2008 campaign of the European Integrated Project on Aerosol Cloud Climate Air Quality Interactions (EUCAARI). We tested four different parameterisations for BL nucleation and two assumptions for the emission size distribution of anthropogenic and wildfire carbonaceous particles. When we emit carbonaceous particles at small sizes (as recommended by the Aerosol Inter-comparison project, AEROCOM), the spatial distributions of campaign-mean number concentrations of particles with diameter >50 nm (N-50) and >100 nm (N-100) were well captured by the model (R-2 >= 0.8) and the normalised mean bias (NMB) was also small (-18% for N-50 and -1% for N-100). Emission of carbonaceous particles at larger sizes, which we consider to be more realistic for low spatial resolution global models, results in equally good correlation but larger bias (R-2 >= 0.8, NMB = -52% and -29%), which could be partly but not entirely compensated by BL nucleation. Within the uncertainty of the observations and accounting for the uncertainty in the size of emitted primary particles, BL nucleation makes a statistically significant contribution to CCN-sized particles at less than a quarter of the ground sites. Our results show that a major source of uncertainty in CCN-sized particles in polluted European air is the emitted size of primary carbonaceous particles. New information is required not just from direct observations, but also to determine the "effective emission size" and composition of primary particles appropriate for different resolution models.
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3.
  • Wittbom, C., et al. (författare)
  • Effect of solubility limitation on hygroscopic growth and cloud drop activation of SOA particles produced from traffic exhausts
  • Ingår i: Journal of Atmospheric Chemistry. - : Springer. - 0167-7764 .- 1573-0662. ; 75:4, s. 359-383
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Hygroscopicity measurements of secondary organic aerosol (SOA) particles often show inconsistent results between the supersaturated and subsaturated regimes, with higher activity as cloud condensation nucleus (CCN) than indicated by hygroscopic growth. In this study, we have investigated the discrepancy between the two regimes in the Lund University (LU) smog chamber. Various anthropogenic SOA were produced from mixtures of different precursors: anthropogenic light aromatic precursors (toluene and m-xylene), exhaust from a diesel passenger vehicle spiked with the light aromatic precursors, and exhaust from two different gasoline-powered passenger vehicles. Three types of seed particles were used: soot aggregates from a diesel vehicle, soot aggregates from a flame soot generator and ammonium sulphate (AS) particles. The hygroscopicity of seed particles with condensed, photochemically produced, anthropogenic SOA was investigated with respect to critical supersaturation (sc) and hygroscopic growth factor (gf) at 90% relative humidity. The hygroscopicity parameter κ was calculated for the two regimes: κsc and κgf, from measurements of sc and gf, respectively. The two κ showed significant discrepancies, with a κgf /κsc ratio closest to one for the gasoline experiments with ammonium sulphate seed and lower for the soot seed experiments. Empirical observations of sc and gf were compared to theoretical predictions, using modified Köhler theory where water solubility limitations were taken into account. The results indicate that the inconsistency between measurements in the subsaturated and supersaturated regimes may be explained by part of the organic material in the particles produced from anthropogenic precursors having a limited solubility in water.
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4.
  • Ahlberg, Erik, et al. (författare)
  • Effect of salt seed particle surface area, composition and phase on secondary organic aerosol mass yields in oxidation flow reactors
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics. - : Copernicus Gesellschaft mbH. - 1680-7316. ; 19:4, s. 2701-2712
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Atmospheric particulate water is ubiquitous, affecting particle transport and uptake of gases. Yet, research on the effect of water on secondary organic aerosol (SOA) mass yields is not consistent. In this study, the SOA mass yields of an α-pinene and m-xylene mixture, at a concentration of 60 μgm-3, were examined using an oxidation flow reactor operated at a relative humidity (RH) of 60% and a residence time of 160 s. Wet or dried ammonium sulfate and ammonium nitrate seed particles were used. By varying the amount of seed particle surface area, the underestimation of SOA formation induced by the short residence time in flow reactors was confirmed. Starting at a SOA mass concentration of 5 μgm-3, the maximum yield increased by a factor of 2 with dry seed particles and on average a factor of 3.2 with wet seed particles. Hence, wet particles increased the SOA mass yield by 60% compared to the dry experiment. Maximum yield in the reactor was achieved using a surface area concentration of 1600 μm2 cm-3. This corresponded to a condensational lifetime of 20 s for low-volatility organics. The O V C ratio of SOA on wet ammonium sulfate was significantly higher than when using ammonium nitrate or dry ammonium sulfate seed particles, probably due to differences in heterogeneous chemistry.
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5.
  • Ahlberg, Erik, et al. (författare)
  • No particle mass enhancement from induced atmospheric ageing at a rural site in northern Europe
  • Ingår i: Atmosphere. - : MDPI AG. - 2073-4433. ; 10:7
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • A large portion of atmospheric aerosol particles consists of secondary material produced by oxidation reactions. The relative importance of secondary organic aerosol (SOA) can increase with improved emission regulations. A relatively simple way to study potential particle formation in the atmosphere is by using oxidation flow reactors (OFRs) which simulate atmospheric ageing. Here we report on the first ambient OFR ageing experiment in Europe, coupled with scanning mobility particle sizer (SMPS), aerosol mass spectrometer (AMS) and proton transfer reaction (PTR)-MS measurements. We found that the simulated ageing did not produce any measurable increases in particle mass or number concentrations during the two months of the campaign due to low concentrations of precursors. Losses in the reactor increased with hydroxyl radical (OH) exposure and with increasing difference between ambient and reactor temperatures, indicating fragmentation and evaporation of semivolatile material.
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6.
  • Ahlberg, Erik, et al. (författare)
  • Secondary organic aerosol from VOC mixtures in an oxidation flow reactor
  • Ingår i: Atmospheric Environment. - : Elsevier. - 1352-2310. ; 161, s. 210-220
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The atmospheric organic aerosol is a tremendously complex system in terms of chemical content. Models generally treat the mixtures as ideal, something which has been questioned owing to model-measurement discrepancies. We used an oxidation flow reactor to produce secondary organic aerosol (SOA) mixtures containing oxidation products of biogenic (α-pinene, myrcene and isoprene) and anthropogenic (m-xylene) volatile organic compounds (VOCs). The resulting volume concentration and chemical composition was measured using a scanning mobility particle sizer (SMPS) and a high-resolution time-of-flight aerosol mass spectrometer (HR-ToF-AMS), respectively. The SOA mass yield of the mixtures was compared to a partitioning model constructed from single VOC experiments. The single VOC SOA mass yields with no wall-loss correction applied are comparable to previous experiments. In the mixtures containing myrcene a higher yield than expected was produced. We attribute this to an increased condensation sink, arising from myrcene producing a significantly higher number of nucleation particles compared to the other precursors. Isoprene did not produce much mass in single VOC experiments but contributed to the mass of the mixtures. The effect of high concentrations of isoprene on the OH exposure was found to be small, even at OH reactivities that previously have been reported to significantly suppress OH exposures in oxidation flow reactors. Furthermore, isoprene shifted the particle size distribution of mixtures towards larger sizes, which could be due to a change in oxidant dynamics inside the reactor.
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7.
  • Ahlberg, Erik, et al. (författare)
  • "Vi klimatforskare stödjer Greta och skolungdomarna"
  • Ingår i: Dagens nyheter (DN debatt). - 1101-2447.
  • Tidskriftsartikel (populärvet., debatt m.m.)abstract
    • DN DEBATT 15/3. Sedan industrialiseringens början har vi använt omkring fyra femtedelar av den mängd fossilt kol som får förbrännas för att vi ska klara Parisavtalet. Vi har bara en femtedel kvar och det är bråttom att kraftigt reducera utsläppen. Det har Greta Thunberg och de strejkande ungdomarna förstått. Därför stödjer vi deras krav, skriver 270 klimatforskare.
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8.
  • Bianchi, Federico, et al. (författare)
  • Highly Oxygenated Organic Molecules (HOM) from Gas-Phase Autoxidation Involving Peroxy Radicals : A Key Contributor to Atmospheric Aerosol
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: Chemical Reviews. - : The American Chemical Society (ACS). - 0009-2665 .- 1520-6890. ; 119:6, s. 3472-3509
  • Forskningsöversikt (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Highly oxygenated organic molecules (HOM) are formed in the atmosphere via autoxidation involving peroxy radicals arising from volatile organic compounds (VOC). HOM condense on pre-existing particles and can be involved in new particle formation. HOM thus contribute to the formation of secondary organic aerosol (SOA), a significant and ubiquitous component of atmospheric aerosol known to affect the Earth's radiation balance. HOM were discovered only very recently, but the interest in these compounds has grown rapidly. In this Review, we define HOM and describe the currently available techniques for their identification/quantification, followed by a summary of the current knowledge on their formation mechanisms and physicochemical properties. A main aim is to provide a common frame for the currently quite fragmented literature on HOM studies. Finally, we highlight the existing gaps in our understanding and suggest directions for future HOM research.
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9.
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10.
  • Eriksson, Axel, et al. (författare)
  • Diesel soot aging in urban plumes within hours under cold dark and humid conditions
  • Ingår i: Scientific Reports. - : Nature Publishing Group. - 2045-2322.
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Fresh and aged diesel soot particles have different impacts on climate and human health. While fresh diesel soot particles are highly aspherical and non-hygroscopic, aged particles are spherical and hygroscopic. Aging and its effect on water uptake also controls the dispersion of diesel soot in the atmosphere. Understanding the timescales on which diesel soot ages in the atmosphere is thus important, yet knowledge thereof is lacking. We show that under cold, dark and humid conditions the atmospheric transformation from fresh to aged soot occurs on a timescale of less than five hours. Under dry conditions in the laboratory, diesel soot transformation is much less efficient. While photochemistry drives soot aging, our data show it is not always a limiting factor. Field observations together with aerosol process model simulations show that the rapid ambient diesel soot aging in urban plumes is caused by coupled ammonium nitrate formation and water uptake.
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