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Sökning: WFRF:(Roquet Fabien)

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1.
  • Chambault, Philippine, et al. (författare)
  • The Gulf Stream frontal system : A key oceanographic feature in the habitat selection of the leatherback turtle?
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: Deep Sea Research Part I : Oceanographic Research Papers. - 0967-0637 .- 1879-0119. ; 123, s. 35-47
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • <p>Although some associations between the leatherback turtle Dermochelys coriacea and the Gulf Stream current have been previously suggested, no study has to date demonstrated strong affinities between leatherback movements and this particular frontal system using thorough oceanographic data in both the horizontal and vertical dimensions. The importance of the Gulf Stream frontal system in the selection of high residence time (HRT) areas by the North Atlantic leatherback turtle is assessed here for the first time using state-of-the-art ocean reanalysis products. Ten adult females from the Eastern French Guianese rookery were satellite tracked during post-nesting migration to relate (1) their horizontal movements to physical gradients (Sea Surface Temperature (SST), Sea Surface Height (SSH) and filaments) and biological variables (micronekton and chlorophyll a), and (2) their diving behaviour to vertical structures within the water column (mixed layer, thermocline, halocline and nutricline). All the turtles migrated northward towards the Gulf Stream north wall. Although their HRT areas were geographically remote (spread between 80-30 degrees W and 28-45 degrees N), all the turtles targeted similar habitats in terms of physical structures, i.e. strong gradients of SST, SSH and a deep mixed layer. This close association with the Gulf Stream frontal system highlights the first substantial synchronization ever observed in this species, as the HRTs were observed in close match with the autumn phytoplankton bloom. Turtles remained within the enriched mixed layer at depths of 38.5 +/- 7.9 m when diving in HRT areas, likely to have an easier access to their prey and maximize therefore the energy gain. These depths were shallow in comparison to those attained within the thermocline (82.4 +/- 5.6 m) while crossing the nutrient-poor subtropical gyre, probably to reach cooler temperatures and save energy during the transit. In a context of climate change, anticipating the evolution of such frontal structure under the influence of global warming is crucial to ensure the conservation of this vulnerable species.</p>
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2.
  • Chambault, Philippine, et al. (författare)
  • The influence of oceanographic features on the foraging behavior of the olive ridley sea turtle Lepidochelys olivacea along the Guiana coast
  • 2016
  • Ingår i: Progress in Oceanography. - 0079-6611 .- 1873-4472. ; 142, s. 58-71
  • Forskningsöversikt (refereegranskat)abstract
    • <p>The circulation in the Western Equatorial Atlantic is characterized by a highly dynamic mesoscale activity that shapes the Guiana continental shelf. Olive ridley sea turtles (Lepidochelys olivacea) nesting in French Guiana cross this turbulent environment during their post-nesting migration. We studied how oceanographic and biological conditions drove the foraging behavior of 18 adult females, using satellite telemetry, remote sensing data (sea surface temperature, sea surface height, current velocity and euphotic depth), simulations of micronekton biomass (pelagic organisms) and in situ records (water temperature and salinity). The occurrence of foraging events throughout migration was located using Residence Time analysis, while an innovative proxy of the hunting time within a dive was used to identify and quantify foraging events during dives. Olive ridleys migrated northwestwards using the Guiana current and remained on the continental shelf at the edge of eddies formed by the North Brazil retroflection, an area characterized by low turbulence and high micronekton biomass. They performed mainly pelagic dives, hunting for an average 77% of their time. Hunting time within a dive increased with shallower euphotic depth and with lower water temperatures, and mean hunting depth increased with deeper thermocline. This is the first study to quantify foraging activity within dives in olive ridleys, and reveals the crucial role played by the thermocline on the foraging behavior of this carnivorous species. This study also provides novel and detailed data describing how turtles actively use oceanographic structures during post-nesting migration.</p>
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3.
  • de lavergne, C., et al. (författare)
  • Abyssal ocean overturning shaped by seafloor distribution
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: Nature. - 0028-0836 .- 1476-4687. ; 551:7679, s. 181-186
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • <p>The abyssal ocean is broadly characterized by northward flow of the densest waters and southward flow of less-dense waters above them. Understanding what controls the strength and structure of these interhemispheric flows-referred to as the abyssal overturning circulation-is key to quantifying the ocean's ability to store carbon and heat on timescales exceeding a century. Here we show that, north of 32 degrees S, the depth distribution of the seafloor compels dense southernorigin waters to flow northward below a depth of about 4 kilometres and to return southward predominantly at depths greater than 2.5 kilometres. Unless ventilated from the north, the overlying mid-depths (1 to 2.5 kilometres deep) host comparatively weak mean meridional flow. Backed by analysis of historical radiocarbon measurements, the findings imply that the geometry of the Pacific, Indian and Atlantic basins places a major external constraint on the overturning structure.</p>
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4.
  • de Lavergne, Casimir, et al. (författare)
  • Getting to the bottom of the ocean
  • 2016
  • Ingår i: Nature Geoscience. - 1752-0894 .- 1752-0908. ; 9:12, s. 857-858
  • Tidskriftsartikel (övrigt vetenskapligt)
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5.
  • de Lavergne, C., et al. (författare)
  • Toward global maps of internal tide energy sinks
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: Ocean Modelling. - 1463-5003. ; 137, s. 52-75
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Internal tides power much of the observed small-scale turbulence in the ocean interior. To represent mixing induced by this turbulence in ocean climate models, the cascade of internal tide energy to dissipation scales must be understood and mapped. Here, we present a framework for estimating the geography of internal tide energy sinks. The mapping relies on the following ingredients: (i) a global observational climatology of stratification; (ii) maps of the generation of M-2, S-2 and K-1 internal tides decomposed into vertical normal modes; (iii) simplified representations of the dissipation of low-mode internal tides due to wave-wave interactions, scattering by small-scale topography, interaction with critical slopes and shoaling; (iv) Lagrangian tracking of low-mode energy beams through observed stratification, including refraction and reflection. We thus obtain a global map of the column-integrated energy dissipation for each of the four considered dissipative processes, each of the three tidal constituents and each of the first five modes. Modes >= 6 are inferred to dissipate within the local water column at the employed half-degree horizontal resolution. Combining all processes, modes and constituents, we construct a map of the total internal tide energy dissipation, which compares well with observational inferences of internal wave energy dissipation. This result suggests that tides largely shape observed spatial contrasts of dissipation, and that the framework has potential in improving understanding and modelling of ocean mixing. However, sensitivity to poorly constrained parameters and simplifying assumptions entering the parameterized energy sinks calls for additional investigation. The attenuation of low-mode internal tides by wave-wave interactions needs particular attention.
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7.
  • Falahat, Saeed, et al. (författare)
  • Comparison of calculated energy flux of internal tides with microstructure measurements
  • 2014
  • Ingår i: Tellus. Series A, Dynamic meteorology and oceanography. - 0280-6495 .- 1600-0870. ; 66, s. 23240
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • <p>Vertical mixing caused by breaking of internal tides plays a major role in maintaining the deep-ocean stratification. This study compares observations of dissipation from microstructure measurements to calculations of the vertical energy flux from barotropic to internal tides, taking into account the temporal variation due to the spring-neap tidal cycle. The dissipation data originate from two surveys in the Brazil Basin Tracer Release Experiment (BBTRE), and one over the LArval Dispersal along the Deep East Pacific Rise (LADDER3), supplemented with a few stations above the North-Atlantic Ridge (GRAVILUCK) and in the western Pacific (IZU). A good correlation is found between logarithmic values of energy flux and local dissipation in BBTRE, suggesting that the theory is able to predict energy fluxes. For the LADDER3, the local dissipation is much smaller than the calculated energy flux, which is very likely due to the different topographic features of BBTRE and LADDER3. The East Pacific Rise consists of a few isolated seamounts, so that most of the internal wave energy can radiate away from the generation site, whereas the Brazil Basin is characterised by extended rough bathymetry, leading to a more local dissipation. The results from all four field surveys support the general conclusion that the fraction of the internal-tide energy flux that is dissipated locally is very different in different regions.</p>
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8.
  • Falahat, Saeed, et al. (författare)
  • Global Calculation of Tidal Energy Conversion into Vertical Normal Modes
  • 2014
  • Ingår i: Journal of Physical Oceanography. - 0022-3670 .- 1520-0485. ; 44:12, s. 3225-3244
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • <p>A direct calculation of the tidal generation of internal waves over the global ocean is presented. The calculation is based on a semianalytical model, assuming that the internal tide characteristic slope exceeds the bathymetric slope (subcritical slope) and the bathymetric height is small relative to the vertical scale of the wave, as well as that the horizontal tidal excursion is smaller than the horizontal topographic scale. The calculation is performed for the M-2 tidal constituent. In contrast to previous similar computations, the internal tide is projected onto vertical eigenmodes, which gives two advantages. First, the vertical density profile and the finite ocean depth are taken into account in a fully consistent way, in contrast to earlier work based on the WKB approximation. Nevertheless, the WKB-based total global conversion follows closely that obtained using the eigenmode decomposition in each of the latitudinal and vertical distributions. Second, the information about the distribution of the conversion energy over different vertical modes is valuable, since the lowest modes can propagate over long distances, while high modes are more likely to dissipate locally, near the generation site. It is found that the difference between the vertical distributions of the tidal conversion into the vertical modes is smaller for the case of very deep ocean than the shallow-ocean depth. The results of the present work pave the way for future work on the vertical and horizontal distribution of the mixing caused by internal tides.</p>
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10.
  • Ferreira, David, et al. (författare)
  • Atlantic-Pacific Asymmetry in Deep Water Formation
  • 2018
  • Ingår i: Annual Review of Earth and Planetary Science. - 0084-6597 .- 1545-4495. ; 46, s. 327-352
  • Forskningsöversikt (refereegranskat)abstract
    • <p>While the Atlantic Ocean is ventilated by high-latitude deep water formation and exhibits a pole-to-pole overturning circulation, the Pacific Ocean does not. This asymmetric global overturning pattern has persisted for the past 2-3 million years, with evidence for different ventilation modes in the deeper past. In the current climate, the Atlantic-Pacific asymmetry occurs because the Atlantic is more saline, enabling deep convection. To what extent the salinity contrast between the two basins is dominated by atmospheric processes (larger net evaporation over the Atlantic) or oceanic processes (salinity transport into the Atlantic) remains an outstanding question. Numerical simulations have provided support for both mechanisms; observations of the present climate support a strong role for atmospheric processes as well as some modulation by oceanic processes. A major avenue for future work is the quantification of the various processes at play to identify which mechanisms are primary in different climate states.</p>
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