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1.
  • Vergari, Elisa, et al. (författare)
  • Insulin inhibits glucagon release by SGLT2-induced stimulation of somatostatin secretion
  • Ingår i: Nature Communications. - : Nature Publishing Group. - 2041-1723. ; 10:1
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Hypoglycaemia (low plasma glucose) is a serious and potentially fatal complication of insulin-treated diabetes. In healthy individuals, hypoglycaemia triggers glucagon secretion, which restores normal plasma glucose levels by stimulation of hepatic glucose production. This counterregulatory mechanism is impaired in diabetes. Here we show in mice that therapeutic concentrations of insulin inhibit glucagon secretion by an indirect (paracrine) mechanism mediated by stimulation of intra-islet somatostatin release. Insulin's capacity to inhibit glucagon secretion is lost following genetic ablation of insulin receptors in the somatostatin-secreting δ-cells, when insulin-induced somatostatin secretion is suppressed by dapagliflozin (an inhibitor of sodium-glucose co-tranporter-2; SGLT2) or when the action of secreted somatostatin is prevented by somatostatin receptor (SSTR) antagonists. Administration of these compounds in vivo antagonises insulin's hypoglycaemic effect. We extend these data to isolated human islets. We propose that SSTR or SGLT2 antagonists should be considered as adjuncts to insulin in diabetes therapy.
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2.
  • Vergari, Elisa, et al. (författare)
  • Somatostatin secretion by Na+-dependent Ca2+-induced Ca2+ release in pancreatic delta-cells.
  • 2020
  • Ingår i: Nature metabolism. - : Springer Nature. - 2522-5812. ; 2:1, s. 32-40
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Pancreatic islets are complex micro-organs consisting of at least three different cell types: glucagon-secreting α-, insulin-producing β- and somatostatin-releasing δ-cells1. Somatostatin is a powerful paracrine inhibitor of insulin and glucagon secretion2. In diabetes, increased somatostatinergic signalling leads to defective counter-regulatory glucagon secretion3. This increases the risk of severe hypoglycaemia, a dangerous complication of insulin therapy4. The regulation of somatostatin secretion involves both intrinsic and paracrine mechanisms5 but their relative contributions and whether they interact remains unclear. Here we show that dapagliflozin-sensitive glucose- and insulin-dependent sodium uptake stimulates somatostatin secretion by elevating the cytoplasmic Na+ concentration ([Na+]i) and promoting intracellular Ca2+-induced Ca2+ release (CICR). This mechanism also becomes activated when [Na+]i is elevated following the inhibition of the plasmalemmal Na+-K+ pump by reductions of the extracellular K+ concentration emulating those produced by exogenous insulin in vivo6. Islets from some donors with type-2 diabetes hypersecrete somatostatin, leading to suppression of glucagon secretion that can be alleviated by a somatostatin receptor antagonist. Our data highlight the role of Na+ as an intracellular second messenger, illustrate the significance of the intraislet paracrine network and provide a mechanistic framework for pharmacological correction of the hormone secretion defects associated with diabetes that selectively target the δ-cells.
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3.
  • Adam, J., et al. (författare)
  • Fumarate Hydratase Deletion in Pancreatic beta Cells Leads to Progressive Diabetes
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: Cell Reports. - 2211-1247. ; 20:13, s. 3135-3148
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • We explored the role of the Krebs cycle enzyme fumarate hydratase (FH) in glucose-stimulated insulin secretion (GSIS). Mice lacking Fh1 in pancreatic beta cells (Fh1 beta KO mice) appear normal for 6-8 weeks but then develop progressive glucose intolerance and diabetes. Glucose tolerance is rescued by expression of mitochondrial or cytosolic FH but not by deletion of Hif1 alpha or Nrf2. Progressive hyperglycemia in Fh1bKO mice led to dysregulated metabolism in b cells, a decrease in glucose-induced ATP production, electrical activity, cytoplasmic [Ca2+](i) elevation, and GSIS. Fh1 loss resulted in elevated intracellular fumarate, promoting succination of critical cysteines in GAPDH, GMPR, and PARK 7/DJ-1 and cytoplasmic acidification. Intracellular fumarate levels were increased in islets exposed to high glucose and in islets from human donors with type 2 diabetes (T2D). The impaired GSIS in islets from diabetic Fh1bKO mice was ameliorated after culture under normoglycemic conditions. These studies highlight the role of FH and dysregulated mitochondrial metabolism in T2D.
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4.
  • Adam, Julie, et al. (författare)
  • Fumarate Hydratase Deletion in Pancreatic β Cells Leads to Progressive Diabetes
  • Ingår i: Cell Reports. - : Cell Press. - 2211-1247. ; 20:13, s. 3135-3148
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • We explored the role of the Krebs cycle enzyme fumarate hydratase (FH) in glucose-stimulated insulin secretion (GSIS). Mice lacking Fh1 in pancreatic β cells (Fh1βKO mice) appear normal for 6–8 weeks but then develop progressive glucose intolerance and diabetes. Glucose tolerance is rescued by expression of mitochondrial or cytosolic FH but not by deletion of Hif1α or Nrf2. Progressive hyperglycemia in Fh1βKO mice led to dysregulated metabolism in β cells, a decrease in glucose-induced ATP production, electrical activity, cytoplasmic [Ca2+]i elevation, and GSIS. Fh1 loss resulted in elevated intracellular fumarate, promoting succination of critical cysteines in GAPDH, GMPR, and PARK 7/DJ-1 and cytoplasmic acidification. Intracellular fumarate levels were increased in islets exposed to high glucose and in islets from human donors with type 2 diabetes (T2D). The impaired GSIS in islets from diabetic Fh1βKO mice was ameliorated after culture under normoglycemic conditions. These studies highlight the role of FH and dysregulated mitochondrial metabolism in T2D. Adam et al. have shown that progressive diabetes develops if fumarate hydratase is deleted in mouse pancreatic β cells. Such β cells exhibit elevated fumarate and protein succination and show progressively reduced ATP production and insulin secretion. The depleted insulin response to glucose recovers when diabetic islets are cultured in reduced glucose.
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5.
  • Barg, Sebastian, et al. (författare)
  • The stimulatory action of tolbutamide on Ca2+-dependent exocytosis in pancreatic beta cells is mediated by a 65-kDa mdr-like P-glycoprotein
  • 1999
  • Ingår i: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. - : National Acad Sciences. - 1091-6490 .- 0027-8424. ; 96:10, s. 5539-5544
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Intracellular application of the sulfonylurea tolbutamide during whole-cell patch-clamp recordings stimulated exocytosis >5-fold when applied at a cytoplasmic Ca2+ concentration of 0.17 microM. This effect was not detectable in the complete absence of cytoplasmic Ca2+ and when exocytosis was elicited by guanosine 5'-O-(3-thiotriphosphate) (GTPgammaS). The stimulatory action could be antagonized by the sulfonamide diazoxide, by the Cl--channel blocker 4,4'-diisothiocyanatostilbene-2,2'-disulfonic acid (DIDS), by intracellular application of the antibody JSB1 [originally raised against a 170-kDa multidrug resistance (mdr) protein], and by tamoxifen (an inhibitor of the mdr- and volume-regulated Cl- channels). Immunocytochemistry and Western blot analyses revealed that JSB1 recognizes a 65-kDa protein in the secretory granules. This protein exhibited no detectable binding of sulfonylureas and is distinct from the 140-kDa sulfonylurea high-affinity sulfonylurea receptors also present in the granules. We conclude that (i) tolbutamide stimulates Ca2+-dependent exocytosis secondary to its binding to a 140-kDa high-affinity sulfonylurea receptor in the secretory granules; and (ii) a granular 65-kDa mdr-like protein mediates the action. The processes thus initiated culminate in the activation of a granular Cl- conductance. We speculate that the activation of granular Cl- fluxes promotes exocytosis (possibly by providing the energy required for membrane fusion) by inducing water uptake and an increased intragranular hydrostatic pressure.
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6.
  • Barg, Sebastian, et al. (författare)
  • Tight coupling between electrical activity and exocytosis in mouse glucagon-secreting alpha-cells
  • 2000
  • Ingår i: Diabetes. - : American Diabetes Association Inc.. - 1939-327X .- 0012-1797. ; 49:9, s. 1500-1510
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • alpha-Cells were identified in preparations of dispersed mouse islets by immunofluorescence microscopy. A high fraction of alpha-cells correlated with a small cell size measured as the average cell diameter (10 microm) and whole-cell capacitance (<4 pF). The alpha-cells generated action potentials at a low frequency (1 Hz) in the absence of glucose. These action potentials were reversibly inhibited by elevation of the glucose concentration to 20 mmol/l. The action potentials originated from a membrane potential more negative than -50 mV, had a maximal upstroke velocity of 5 V/s, and peaked at +1 mV. Voltage-clamp experiments revealed the ionic conductances underlying the generation of action potentials. alpha-Cells are equipped with a delayed tetraethyl-ammonium-blockable outward current (activating at voltages above -20 mV), a large tetrodotoxin-sensitive Na+ current (above -30 mV; peak current 200 pA at +10 mV), and a small Ca2+ current (above -50 mV; peak current 30 pA at +10 mV). The latter flowed through omega-conotoxin GVIA (25%)- and nifedipine-sensitive (50%) Ca(2+)-channels. Mouse alpha-cells contained, on average, 7,300 granules, which undergo Ca(2+)-induced exocytosis when the alpha-cell is depolarized. Three functional subsets of granules were identified, and the size of the immediately releasable pool was estimated as 80 granules, or 1% of the total granule number. The maximal rate of exocytosis (1.5 pF/s) was observed 21 ms after the onset of the voltage-clamp depolarization, which is precisely the duration of Ca(2+)-influx during an action potential. Our results suggest that the secretory machinery of the alpha-cell is optimized for maximal efficiency in the use of Ca2+ for exocytosis.
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7.
  • Bengtsson, Martin, et al. (författare)
  • Gene expression profiling in single cells from the pancreatic islets of Langerhans reveals lognormal distribution of mRNA levels.
  • 2005
  • Ingår i: Genome Research. - : Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press (CSHL). - 1549-5469. ; 15:10, s. 1388-1392
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The transcriptional machinery in individual cells is controlled by a relatively small number of molecules, which may result in stochastic behavior in gene activity. Because of technical limitations in current collection and recording methods, most gene expression measurements are carried out on populations of cells and therefore reflect average mRNA levels. The variability of the transcript levels between different cells remains undefined, although it may have profound effects on cellular activities. Here we have measured gene expression levels of the five genes ActB, Ins1, Ins2, Abcc8, and Kcnj11 in individual cells from mouse pancreatic islets. Whereas Ins1 and Ins2 expression show a strong cell-cell correlation, this is not the case for the other genes. We further found that the transcript levels of the different genes are lognormally distributed. Hence, the geometric mean of expression levels provides a better estimate of gene activity of the typical cell than does the arithmetic mean measured on a cell population.
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8.
  • Briant, L. J. B., et al. (författare)
  • CPT1a-Dependent Long-Chain Fatty Acid Oxidation Contributes to Maintaining Glucagon Secretion from Pancreatic Islets
  • 2018
  • Ingår i: Cell Reports. - 2211-1247. ; 23:11, s. 3300-3311
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Glucagon, the principal hyperglycemic hormone, is secreted from pancreatic islet a cells as part of the counter-regulatory response to hypoglycemia. Hence, secretory output from a cells is under high demand in conditions of low glucose supply. Many tissues oxidize fat as an alternate energy substrate. Here, we show that glucagon secretion in low glucose conditions is maintained by fatty acid metabolism in both mouse and human islets, and that inhibiting this metabolic pathway profoundly decreases glucagon output by depolarizing alpha cell membrane potential and decreasing action potential amplitude. We demonstrate, by using experimental and computational approaches, that this is not mediated by the K-ATP channel, but instead due to reduced operation of the Na+-K+ pump. These data suggest that counter-regulatory secretion of glucagon is driven by fatty acid metabolism, and that the Na+-K+ pump is an important ATP-dependent regulator of alpha cell function.
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9.
  • Collins, S. C., et al. (författare)
  • Increased Expression of the Diabetes Gene SOX4 Reduces Insulin Secretion by Impaired Fusion Pore Expansion
  • 2016
  • Ingår i: Diabetes. - : American Diabetes Association Inc.. - 0012-1797. ; 65:7, s. 1952-1961
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The transcription factor Sox4 has been proposed to underlie the increased type 2 diabetes risk linked to an intronic single nucleotide polymorphism in CDKAL1. In a mouse model expressing a mutant form of Sox4, glucose-induced insulin secretion is reduced by 40% despite normal intracellular Ca2+ signaling and depolarization-evoked exocytosis. This paradox is explained by a fourfold increase in kiss-and-run exocytosis (as determined by single-granule exocytosis measurements) in which the fusion pore connecting the granule lumen to the exterior expands to a diameter of only 2 nm, which does not allow the exit of insulin. Microarray analysis indicated that this correlated with an increased expression of the exocytosis-regulating protein Stxbp6. In a large collection of human islet preparations (n = 63), STXBP6 expression and glucose induced insulin secretion correlated positively and negatively with SOX4 expression, respectively. Overexpression of SOX4 in the human insulin-secreting cell EndoC-beta H2 interfered with granule emptying and inhibited hormone release, the latter effect reversed by silencing STXBP6. These data suggest that increased SOX4 expression inhibits insulin secretion and increased diabetes risk by the upregulation of STXBP6 and an increase in kiss- and-run exocytosis at the expense of full fusion. We propose that pharmacological interventions promoting fusion pore expansion may be effective in diabetes therapy.
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10.
  • Dybjer, E., et al. (författare)
  • Incretin hormones, insulin, glucagon and advanced glycation end products in relation to cognitive function in older people with and without diabetes, a population-based study
  • 2020
  • Ingår i: Diabetic Medicine. - : WILEY. - 0742-3071 .- 1464-5491. ; 37:7, s. 1157-1166
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Aim The aim of this observational study was to investigate relationships between physiological levels of glucometabolic biomarkers and cognitive test results in a population-based setting. Methods Cross-sectional data were obtained from the Swedish population-based Malmo Diet and Cancer Study Re-examination 2007-2012 comprising 3001 older people (mean age 72 years). Through oral glucose tolerance testing (OGTT), fasting and post-load levels of serum insulin, plasma glucagon, serum glucose-dependent insulinotropic peptide (GIP) and plasma glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) were measured. Insulin resistance and insulin sensitivity levels were calculated. In 454 participants, advanced glycation end products (AGEs) were estimated through skin autofluorescence. Associations between biomarkers and two cognitive tests, the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) and A Quick Test of Cognitive Speed (AQT) respectively, were explored in multiple regression analyses. Results Positive associations following adjustments for known prognostic factors were found between MMSE scores and insulin sensitivity (B = 0.822, P = 0.004), 2-h plasma glucagon (B = 0.596, P = 0.026), 2-h serum GIP (B = 0.581, P = 0.040) and 2-h plasma GLP-1 (B = 0.585, P = 0.038), whereas negative associations were found between MMSE scores and insulin resistance (B = -0.734, P = 0.006), fasting plasma GLP-1 (B = -0.544, P = 0.033) and AGEs (B = -1.459, P = 0.030) were found. Conclusions Higher levels of insulin sensitivity, GIP and GLP-1 were associated with better cognitive outcomes, but AGEs were associated with worse outcomes, supporting evidence from preclinical studies. Glucagon was linked to better outcomes, which could possibly reflect neuroprotective properties similar to the related biomarker GLP-1 which has similar intracellular properties. Longitudinal and interventional studies are needed to further evaluate neuromodulating effects of these biomarkers. presented at the European Association for the Study of Diabetes (EASD) 2019, Barcelona, Spain
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