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1.
  • Barasa, Anders, 1973-, et al. (författare)
  • Heart Failure in Late Pregnancy and Postpartum: Incidence and Long-Term Mortality in Sweden From 1997 to 2010
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: Journal of Cardiac Failure. - 1071-9164. ; 23:5, s. 370-378
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background: Heart failure (HF) in late pregnancy and postpartum (HFPP), of which peripartum cardiomyopathy (PPCM) constitutes the larger part, is still a rare occurrence in Sweden. Population-based data are scarce. Our aim was to characterize HFPP and determine the incidence and mortality in a Swedish cohort. Methods and Results: Through merging data from the National Inpatient, Cause of Death, and Medical Birth Registries, we identified ICD-10 codes for HF and cardiomyopathy within 3 months before delivery to 6 months postpartum. Each case was assigned 5 age -matched control subjects from the Medical Birth Registry. From 1997 to 2010, 241 unique HFPP case subjects and 1063 matched control subjects were identified. Mean incidence was 1 in 5719 deliveries. HFPP was strongly associated with preeclampsia (odds ratio [OR] 11.91, 95% confidence interval [CI] 7.86-18.06), obesity (OR 2.5, 95% CI 1.7-3.7), low-and middle -income country (LMIC) of origin (OR 1.73, 95% CI 1.14-2.63), and twin deliveries (OR 4.39 CI 95% 2.24-8.58). By the end of the study period deaths among cases were > 35 -fold those of controls: 9 cases (3.7 %) and 1 control (0.1 %; P <.0001). Among control subjects, 17.9% of mortalities occurred within 3 years, of diagnosis compared with 100% among cases. Conclusions: The mean incidence and mortality among women with HFPP in Sweden from 1997 to 2010 was low but carried a marked excess risk of death compared with control subjects and was strongly linked to preeclampsia, obesity, multifetal births, and LMIC origin of the mother. (J Cardiac Fail 2017;23:370-378)
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2.
  • Dotevall, Annika, 1957-, et al. (författare)
  • Considerable disturbances of cardiovascular risk factors in women with diabetes and myocardial infarction
  • 2005
  • Ingår i: J Diabetes Complications. - 1056-8727 (Print). ; 19:1, s. 26-34
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • OBJECTIVE: To investigate to which extent differences in cardiovascular risk factors explain the increased risk of myocardial infarction (MI) and complication rate in women with diabetes mellitus (DM). DESIGN: Case-control study. SUBJECTS: We compared women with diabetes and previous MI (n=29), diabetes but no MI (n=46), prior MI but no diabetes (n=64), and healthy controls (n=125). MEASUREMENTS: Smoking habits, physical activity, blood pressure (BP), body mass index (BMI), waist/hip ratio (WHR), serum lipids, plasma fibrinogen, and serum sex hormones. RESULTS: Despite the fact that diabetic women had similar BMI, those with a past MI, compared to diabetic women without MI, had significantly higher WHR (mean, 95% CI) [0.89 (0.87, 0.92) vs. 0.84 (0.81, 0.86) mmol/l, P=.001] and very high S-triglycerides [3.03 (2.23, 3.83) vs. 1.69, (1.39, 1.99) mmol/l, P=.001] and low HDL-cholesterol [1.09 (0.94, 1.24) vs. 1.56 (1.41, 1.71) mmol/l, P<.001], indicating pronounced metabolic disturbances. Women with MI but no diabetes had intermediate values for WHR, triglycerides, and HDL-cholesterol. Furthermore, women with diabetes and MI had significantly higher p-fibrinogen, were smokers, and lived a more sedentary life than the other women. Over half of all women with prior MI were on lipid-lowering therapy and tended to have nonsignificantly lower S-cholesterol than women without MI. CONCLUSIONS: Women with diabetes who have manifested an MI carry a very substantial cardiovascular risk factor burden, which probably explain their increased morbidity and mortality. In order to improve prognosis, studies targeted at investigating treatment modalities for these abnormalities are needed.
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3.
  • Dotevall, Annika, 1957-, et al. (författare)
  • Increased levels of triglycerides, BMI and blood pressure and low physical activity increase the risk of diabetes in Swedish women. A prospective 18-year follow-up of the BEDA study
  • 2004
  • Ingår i: Diabet Med. - 0742-3071 (Print). ; 21:6, s. 615-22
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • AIM: To investigate risk factors for the development of diabetes in middle-aged women. METHODS: A random population sample of 1351 women without prior diabetes or cardiovascular disease, aged 39-65 years, took part in a screening study in 1979-1981 with questionnaires, physical examination and blood sampling. Development of diabetes up to 1998 was identified at a second examination in 1997-1998. RESULTS: Seventy-three women (5.4%) were diagnosed with diabetes during follow-up. As expected, obesity resulted in a rising age-adjusted risk with hazards ratio 3.2 [95% confidence interval (CI) 1.3, 8.1] at body mass index (BMI) 24-27 kg/m(2), and 8.3 (3.5, 19.7), at BMI > or = 27, compared with BMI < 22 kg/m(2). S-triglycerides (TG) carried a steeply increasing age-adjusted risk with hazards ratio 4.0 (95% CI 2.1, 7.6) already at s-TG 1.0-1.4 mmol/l, 7.1 (3.6, 14.0) at s-TG 1.5-1.9 mmol/l and 9.3 (4.3, 20.2) at s-TG > or = 2.0 mmol/l compared with s-TG < 1.0 mmol/l. Increasing systolic blood pressure (SBP) to 130-144, 145-159 and > or = 160 mmHg escalated the hazards ratio of diabetes to 1.6 (0.8, 3.3), 3.6 (1.7, 7.4) and 5.6 (2.7, 11.4), respectively, compared with SBP < 130 mmHg. Also, low physical activity predicted diabetes, with hazards ratio 2.1 (1.3, 3.3) for sedentary compared with non-sedentary activity. Smoking was not associated with increased risk of diabetes. After adjustment for BMI, SBP and physical activity, increasing TG level remained a strong and significant risk factor for diabetes [hazards ratio 3.0 (1.6, 5.7), 3.7 (1.8, 7.7) and 4.5 (2.0, 10.0), P < 0.001]. CONCLUSIONS: Among middle-aged Swedish women even very slightly elevated s-TG resulted in a considerably enhanced risk of developing diabetes, which was independent of age, BMI, blood pressure and physical activity.
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4.
  • Landin-Wilhelmsen, Kerstin, 1952-, et al. (författare)
  • Calcaneal ultrasound measurements are determined by age and physical activity. Studies in two Swedish random population samples.
  • 2000
  • Ingår i: Journal of internal medicine. - 0954-6820. ; 247:2, s. 269-78
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • AIM: To present reference values and correlations with body composition, blood variables and lifestyle factors. SUBJECTS: Two random population samples from Göteborg, Sweden, one comprising 184 men and 455 women aged 25-64 years (MONICA) and the other 860 women aged 55-82 years (BEDA) were studied. METHODS: Calcaneal ultrasound measurement (LUNAR Achilles) and bioimpedance were measured. Smoking habits, coffee consumption, physical activity, psychological stress, education and marital status, as well as blood lipids, blood pressure, and fractures were studied. RESULTS: Broadband ultrasound attenuation and stiffness were higher in men than in women (P < 0. 001), but speed of sound did not differ between sexes. Speed of sound, broadband ultrasound attenuation and stiffness decreased with age (P < 0.001). In both sexes speed of sound, broadband ultrasound attenuation and stiffness correlated positively to body size variables, and negatively with smoking in women after adjustment for age. Speed of sound, broadband ultrasound attenuation and stiffness were positively related to physical activity in both sexes, and these relationships were the only ones that remained in multivariate analyses in addition to age (negative). Osteoporotic fractures increased with age. Speed of sound, broadband ultrasound attenuation and stiffness were lower amongst women with osteoporotic fractures. CONCLUSION: Speed of sound, broadband ultrasound attenuation and stiffness decreased with age and increased with physical activity, but body weight and height were not correlated in multivariate analyses. Osteoporotic fractures increased with age and were associated with lower calcaneal ultrasound values.
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5.
  • Rosengren, Annika, 1951-, et al. (författare)
  • Coffee and incidence of diabetes in Swedish women: a prospective 18-year follow-up study
  • 2004
  • Ingår i: J Intern Med. - 0954-6820 (Print). ; 255:1, s. 89-95
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • OBJECTIVES: To examine the long-term incidence of diabetes in relation to coffee consumption in Swedish women. DESIGN: Prospective longitudinal cohort study. SETTING: City of Goteborg, Sweden. SUBJECTS: A random population sample of 1361 women, aged 39-65 years, without prior diabetes or cardiovascular disease took part in a screening study in 1979-1981 with questionnaires, physical examination and blood sampling. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: The development of diabetes until 1999 was identified by questionnaires in a second screening and the Swedish hospital discharge register. RESULTS: Altogether, there were 74 new cases of diabetes. The risk of developing diabetes was 475 per 100 000 person-years in women who consumed two cups of coffee or less per day, 271 in women who consumed three to four cups per day, 202 with a consumption of five to six cups per day, and 267 in drinkers of seven cups or more per day. Associated hazard ratios, after adjustment for age, smoking, low physical activity, education and body mass index were 0.55 (0.32-0.95), 0.39 (0.20-0.77) and 0.48 (0.22-1.06) for daily consumption of three to four, five to six and seven cups or more, respectively, with a consumption of less than two per day as reference. Additional adjustment for serum cholesterol and triglycerides attenuated the relation between coffee and diabetes slightly, indicating a possible mediating effect on the effect of coffee by serum lipids. CONCLUSIONS: The findings of the present study support the hypothesis that coffee consumption protects from the development of diabetes in women.
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6.
  • Söderberg, Mia, 1977-, et al. (författare)
  • Psychosocial work environment, job mobility and gender differences in turnover behaviour: a prospective study among the Swedish general population
  • 2014
  • Ingår i: BMC Public Health. - 1471-2458. ; 14
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • BACKGROUND: Throughout the literature, substantial evidence supports associations between poor psychosocial work characteristics and a variety of ill-health outcomes. Yet, few reports strategies workers carry out to improve detrimental work conditions and consequently their health, such as changing jobs. The aim of this study was to examine if adverse psychosocial work exposure, as measured with the job demand-control and effort-reward imbalance models, could predict job mobility over a 5 years observation period. METHOD: Participants were working men and women (n = 940; 54.3% women), aged 24-60 years from the population of Gothenburg and surrounding metropolitan area. Job demand-control and effort-reward variables were compared with independent t-tests and chi2-test in persons with and without job mobility. Multivariate logistic regression was used to analyse whether psychosocial factors could predict job mobility. All regression analyses were stratified by gender. RESULTS: Exposure to a combination of high demands-low control or high imbalance between effort and reward was related to increased odds of changing jobs (OR 1.63; CI 1.03-2.59 and OR 1.46; CI 1.13-1.89 respectively). When analysing men and women separately, men had a higher OR of changing jobs when exposed to either high demands-low control (OR 2.72; CI 1.24-5.98) or high effort-reward imbalance (OR 1.74; CI 1.11-2.72) compared to reference values. The only significant associations for women was slightly decreased odds for turnover in high reward jobs (OR 0.96; CI 0.92-0.99). CONCLUSIONS: The results indicate that workers will seek to improve poor work environment by changing jobs. There were notable gender differences, where men tended to engage in job mobility when exposed to adverse psychosocial factors, while women did not. The lack of measures for mechanisms driving job mobility was a limitation of this study, thus preventing conclusions regarding psychosocial factors as the primary source for job mobility.
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7.
  • Vuorela, Mikko, et al. (författare)
  • Further evidence for the contribution of the RAD51C gene in hereditary breast and ovarian cancer susceptibility.
  • 2011
  • Ingår i: Breast cancer research and treatment. - 1573-7217. ; 130:3, s. 1003-1010
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • RAD51C, a RAD51 paralogue involved in homologous recombination, is a recently established Fanconi anemia and breast cancer predisposing factor. In the initial report, RAD51C mutations were shown to confer a high risk for both breast and ovarian tumors, but most of the replication studies published so far have failed to identify any additional susceptibility alleles. Here, we report a full mutation screening of the RAD51C gene in 147 Finnish familial breast cancer cases and in 232 unselected ovarian cancer cases originating from Finland and Sweden. In addition, in order to resolve whether common RAD51C SNPs are risk factors for breast cancer, we genotyped five tagging single nucleotide polymorphisms, rs12946522, rs304270, rs304283, rs17222691, and rs28363312, all located within the gene, from 993 Finnish breast cancer cases and 871 controls for cancer associated variants. Whereas, none of the studied common SNPs associated with breast cancer susceptibility, mutation analysis revealed two clearly pathogenic alterations. RAD51C c.-13_14del27 was observed in one familial breast cancer case and c.774delT in one unselected ovarian cancer case, thus confirming that RAD51C mutations are implicated in breast and ovarian cancer predisposition, although their overall frequency seems to be low. Independent identification of the very recently reported RAD51C c.774delT mutation in yet another patient originating from Sweden suggests that it might be a recurrent mutation in that population and should be studied further. The reliable estimation of the clinical implications of carrying a defective RAD51C allele still requires the identification of additional mutation positive families.
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8.
  • Abarca-Gómez, Leandra, et al. (författare)
  • Worldwide trends in body-mass index, underweight, overweight, and obesity from 1975 to 2016: a pooled analysis of 2416 population-based measurement studies in 128·9 million children, adolescents, and adults
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: Lancet (London, England). - 1474-547X. ; 390:10113, s. 2627-2642
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • BACKGROUND: Underweight, overweight, and obesity in childhood and adolescence are associated with adverse health consequences throughout the life-course. Our aim was to estimate worldwide trends in mean body-mass index (BMI) and a comprehensive set of BMI categories that cover underweight to obesity in children and adolescents, and to compare trends with those of adults.METHODS: We pooled 2416 population-based studies with measurements of height and weight on 128·9 million participants aged 5 years and older, including 31·5 million aged 5-19 years. We used a Bayesian hierarchical model to estimate trends from 1975 to 2016 in 200 countries for mean BMI and for prevalence of BMI in the following categories for children and adolescents aged 5-19 years: more than 2 SD below the median of the WHO growth reference for children and adolescents (referred to as moderate and severe underweight hereafter), 2 SD to more than 1 SD below the median (mild underweight), 1 SD below the median to 1 SD above the median (healthy weight), more than 1 SD to 2 SD above the median (overweight but not obese), and more than 2 SD above the median (obesity).FINDINGS: Regional change in age-standardised mean BMI in girls from 1975 to 2016 ranged from virtually no change (-0·01 kg/m(2) per decade; 95% credible interval -0·42 to 0·39, posterior probability [PP] of the observed decrease being a true decrease=0·5098) in eastern Europe to an increase of 1·00 kg/m(2) per decade (0·69-1·35, PP&gt;0·9999) in central Latin America and an increase of 0·95 kg/m(2) per decade (0·64-1·25, PP&gt;0·9999) in Polynesia and Micronesia. The range for boys was from a non-significant increase of 0·09 kg/m(2) per decade (-0·33 to 0·49, PP=0·6926) in eastern Europe to an increase of 0·77 kg/m(2) per decade (0·50-1·06, PP&gt;0·9999) in Polynesia and Micronesia. Trends in mean BMI have recently flattened in northwestern Europe and the high-income English-speaking and Asia-Pacific regions for both sexes, southwestern Europe for boys, and central and Andean Latin America for girls. By contrast, the rise in BMI has accelerated in east and south Asia for both sexes, and southeast Asia for boys. Global age-standardised prevalence of obesity increased from 0·7% (0·4-1·2) in 1975 to 5·6% (4·8-6·5) in 2016 in girls, and from 0·9% (0·5-1·3) in 1975 to 7·8% (6·7-9·1) in 2016 in boys; the prevalence of moderate and severe underweight decreased from 9·2% (6·0-12·9) in 1975 to 8·4% (6·8-10·1) in 2016 in girls and from 14·8% (10·4-19·5) in 1975 to 12·4% (10·3-14·5) in 2016 in boys. Prevalence of moderate and severe underweight was highest in India, at 22·7% (16·7-29·6) among girls and 30·7% (23·5-38·0) among boys. Prevalence of obesity was more than 30% in girls in Nauru, the Cook Islands, and Palau; and boys in the Cook Islands, Nauru, Palau, Niue, and American Samoa in 2016. Prevalence of obesity was about 20% or more in several countries in Polynesia and Micronesia, the Middle East and north Africa, the Caribbean, and the USA. In 2016, 75 (44-117) million girls and 117 (70-178) million boys worldwide were moderately or severely underweight. In the same year, 50 (24-89) million girls and 74 (39-125) million boys worldwide were obese.INTERPRETATION: The rising trends in children's and adolescents' BMI have plateaued in many high-income countries, albeit at high levels, but have accelerated in parts of Asia, with trends no longer correlated with those of adults.FUNDING: Wellcome Trust, AstraZeneca Young Health Programme.
9.
  • Adamsson Eryd, Samuel, et al. (författare)
  • Blood pressure and complications in individuals with type 2 diabetes and no previous cardiovascular disease: national population based cohort study
  • 2016
  • Ingår i: Bmj-British Medical Journal. - 1756-1833. ; 354
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • OBJECTIVES To compare the risk associated with systolic blood pressure that meets current recommendations (that is, below 140 mm Hg) with the risk associated with lower levels in patients who have type 2 diabetes and no previous cardiovascular disease. Population based cohort study with nationwide clinical registries, 2006-12. The mean follow-up was 5.0 years. 187 106 patients registered in the Swedish national diabetes register who had had type 2 diabetes for at least a year, age 75 or younger, and with no previous cardiovascular or other major disease. Clinical events were obtained from the hospital discharge and death registers with respect to acute myocardial infarction, stroke, a composite of acute myocardial infarction and stroke (cardiovascular disease), coronary heart disease, heart failure, and total mortality. Hazard ratios were estimated for different levels of baseline systolic blood pressure with clinical characteristics and drug prescription data as covariates. The group with the lowest systolic blood pressure (110-119 mm Hg) had a significantly lower risk of non-fatal acute myocardial infarction (adjusted hazard ratio 0.76, 95% confidence interval 0.64 to 0.91; P=0.003), total acute myocardial infarction (0.85, 0.72 to 0.99; P=0.04), non-fatal cardiovascular disease (0.82, 0.72 to 0.93; P=0.002), total cardiovascular disease (0.88, 0.79 to 0.99; P=0.04), and non-fatal coronary heart disease (0.88, 0.78 to 0.99; P=0.03) compared with the reference group (130-139 mm Hg). There was no indication of a J shaped relation between systolic blood pressure and the endpoints, with the exception of heart failure and total mortality. Lower systolic blood pressure than currently recommended is associated with significantly lower risk of cardiovascular events in patients with type 2 diabetes. The association between low blood pressure and increased mortality could be due to concomitant disease rather than antihypertensive treatment.
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