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Sökning: WFRF:(Rostgaard K)

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  • Cozen, W., et al. (författare)
  • A meta-analysis of Hodgkin lymphoma reveals 19p13.3 TCF3 as a novel susceptibility locus
  • 2014
  • Ingår i: Nature Communications. - 2041-1723 .- 2041-1723. ; 5, s. 3856-
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Recent genome-wide association studies (GWAS) of Hodgkin lymphoma (HL) have identified associations with genetic variation at both HLA and non-HLA loci; however, much of heritable HL susceptibility remains unexplained. Here we perform a meta-analysis of three HL GWAS totaling 1,816 cases and 7,877 controls followed by replication in an independent set of 1,281 cases and 3,218 controls to find novel risk loci. We identify a novel variant at 19p13.3 associated with HL (rs1860661; odds ratio (OR) = 0.81, 95% confidence interval (95% CI) = 0.76-0.86, P-combined 3.5 x 10(-10)), located in intron 2 of TCF3 (also known as E2A), a regulator of B-and T-cell lineage commitment known to be involved in HL pathogenesis. This meta-analysis also notes associations between previously published loci at 2p16, 5q31, 6p31, 8q24 and 10p14 and HL subtypes. We conclude that our data suggest a link between the 19p13.3 locus, including TCF3, and HL risk.
  • Edgren, G., et al. (författare)
  • Searching for unknown transfusion-transmitted hepatitis viruses : a binational cohort study of 1.5 million transfused patients
  • 2018
  • Ingår i: ; 284:1, s. 92-103
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background. Both hepatitis B and C viruses were transmitted through blood transfusion before implementation of donor screening. The existence of additional, yet unknown transfusion transmittable agents causing liver disease could have important public health implications.Methods. Analyses were based on the Scandinavian Donations and Transfusions (SCANDAT2) database. Cox regression models were used to estimate the hazard ratio (HR) of developing chronic liver disease in recipients of blood from donors who later developed any chronic liver disease compared to recipients who received blood transfusion from healthy donors. We also studied whether the risk of liver disease was increased in patients who received units from high-risk' donors, defined as donors who had a higher than expected occurrence of liver disease amongst their previous recipients. All analyses were stratified before and after 1992 to account for the effect of screening for hepatitis C virus.Results. A total of 1 482 922 transfused patients were included in the analyses. Analyses showed evidence of transfusion transmission of liver diseases before, but not after the implementation of hepatitis C virus screening in 1992, with HRs for any liver disease of 1.38 [95% confidence interval (CI), 1.30-1.46] and 0.99 (95% CI, 0.91-1.07), before and after 1992, respectively. Similarly, blood components from 'high-risk' donors conferred increased risks before, but not after 1992.Conclusions. Our data provide no evidence for transfusion transmission of agents causing liver disease after the implementation of screening for hepatitis B and C, and suggest that if such transmission does occur, it is rare.
  • Stepien, M., et al. (författare)
  • Metabolic perturbations prior to hepatocellular carcinoma diagnosis: Findings from a prospective observational cohort study
  • 2020
  • Ingår i: International Journal of Cancer. - : John Wiley & Sons. - 0020-7136 .- 1097-0215.
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) development entails changes in liver metabolism. Current knowledge on metabolic perturbations in HCC is derived mostly from case-control designs, with sparse information from prospective cohorts. Our objective was to apply comprehensive metabolite profiling to detect metabolites whose serum concentrations are associated with HCC development, using biological samples from within the prospective European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) cohort (>520 000 participants), where we identified 129 HCC cases matched 1:1 to controls. We conducted high-resolution untargeted liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry-based metabolomics on serum samples collected at recruitment prior to cancer diagnosis. Multivariable conditional logistic regression was applied controlling for dietary habits, alcohol consumption, smoking, body size, hepatitis infection and liver dysfunction. Corrections for multiple comparisons were applied. Of 9206 molecular features detected, 220 discriminated HCC cases from controls. Detailed feature annotation revealed 92 metabolites associated with HCC risk, of which 14 were unambiguously identified using pure reference standards. Positive HCC-risk associations were observed forN1-acetylspermidine, isatin,p-hydroxyphenyllactic acid, tyrosine, sphingosine,l,l-cyclo(leucylprolyl), glycochenodeoxycholic acid, glycocholic acid and 7-methylguanine. Inverse risk associations were observed for retinol, dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate, glycerophosphocholine, gamma-carboxyethyl hydroxychroman and creatine. Discernible differences for these metabolites were observed between cases and controls up to 10 years prior to diagnosis. Our observations highlight the diversity of metabolic perturbations involved in HCC development and replicate previous observations (metabolism of bile acids, amino acids and phospholipids) made in Asian and Scandinavian populations. These findings emphasize the role of metabolic pathways associated with steroid metabolism and immunity and specific dietary and environmental exposures in HCC development.
  • Edgren, Gustaf, et al. (författare)
  • The new Scandinavian Donations and Transfusions database (SCANDAT2) : a blood safety resource with added versatility
  • 2015
  • Ingår i: ; 55:7, s. 1600-1606
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • BackgroundRisks of transfusion-transmitted disease are currently at a record low in the developed world. Still, available methods for blood surveillance might not be sufficient to detect transmission of diseases with unknown etiologies or with very long incubation periods. Study Design and MethodsWe have previously created the anonymized Scandinavian Donations and Transfusions (SCANDAT) database, containing data on blood donors, blood transfusions, and transfused patients, with complete follow-up of donors and patients for a range of health outcomes. Here we describe the re-creation of SCANDAT with updated, identifiable data. We collected computerized data on blood donations and transfusions from blood banks covering all of Sweden and Denmark. After data cleaning, two structurally identical databases were created and the entire database was linked with nationwide health outcomes registers to attain complete follow-up for up to 47 years regarding hospital care, cancer, and death. ResultsAfter removal of erroneous records, the database contained 25,523,334 donation records, 21,318,794 transfusion records, and 3,692,653 unique persons with valid identification, presently followed over 40 million person-years, with possibility for future extension. Data quality is generally high with 96% of all transfusions being traceable to their respective donation(s) and a very high (>97%) concordance with official statistics on annual number of blood donations and transfusions. ConclusionsIt is possible to create a binational, nationwide database with almost 50 years of follow-up of blood donors and transfused patients for a range of health outcomes. We aim to use this database for further studies of donor health, transfusion-associated risks, and transfusion-transmitted disease.
  • Enkovaara, J. (författare)
  • Electronic structure calculations with GPAW : a real-space implementation of the projector augmented-wave method
  • 2010
  • Ingår i: Journal of Physics. - 0953-8984 .- 1361-648X. ; 22:25, s. 253202-
  • Forskningsöversikt (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Electronic structure calculations have become an indispensable tool in many areas of materials science and quantum chemistry. Even though the Kohn-Sham formulation of the density-functional theory (DFT) simplifies the many-body problem significantly, one is still confronted with several numerical challenges. In this article we present the projector augmented-wave (PAW) method as implemented in the GPAW program package (https://wiki.fysik.dtu.dk/gpaw) using a uniform real-space grid representation of the electronic wavefunctions. Compared to more traditional plane wave or localized basis set approaches, real-space grids offer several advantages, most notably good computational scalability and systematic convergence properties. However, as a unique feature GPAW also facilitates a localized atomic-orbital basis set in addition to the grid. The efficient atomic basis set is complementary to the more accurate grid, and the possibility to seamlessly switch between the two representations provides great flexibility. While DFT allows one to study ground state properties, time-dependent density-functional theory (TDDFT) provides access to the excited states. We have implemented the two common formulations of TDDFT, namely the linear-response and the time propagation schemes. Electron transport calculations under finite-bias conditions can be performed with GPAW using non-equilibrium Green functions and the localized basis set. In addition to the basic features of the real-space PAW method, we also describe the implementation of selected exchange-correlation functionals, parallelization schemes, Delta SCF-method, x-ray absorption spectra, and maximally localized Wannier orbitals.
  • Grau, Katrine, et al. (författare)
  • No association between frequent apheresis donation and risk of fractures : a retrospective cohort analysis from Sweden
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: Transfusion. - 0041-1132 .- 1537-2995. ; 57:2, s. 390-396
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • BACKGROUND: Citrate anticoagulation during apheresis induces transient alterations in calcium homeostasis. It is unknown whether the repeated, transient alterations in calcium homeostasis experienced by repeated apheresis donors affects bone turnover to increase fracture risk. Our aim was to investigate the risk of osteoporotic and nonosteoporotic fracture among voluntary, frequent apheresis donors. STUDY DESIGN AND METHODS: All apheresis donors were identified from the Scandinavian Donations and Transfusions database (SCANDAT2), which includes information on over 1.6 million blood donors from Sweden and Denmark from the years 1968 and 1981, respectively. Only data from Sweden were used for these analyses. Information on fractures was obtained by linking SCANDAT2 to hospital registers. Poisson regression was used to compute incidence rate ratios of fractures in relation to the cumulative number of apheresis donations, both overall and in fixed time windows. RESULTS: In total, 140,289 apheresis donors (67,970 women and 72,319 men) were identified from the SCANDAT2 database and were followed for up to 23 years. We observed no association between the frequency of apheresis donation and the risk of fracture either in the overall study period or during fixed-length time windows. The incidence rate ratio of fractures in donors who had made 100 or more cumulative apheresis donations was 0.99(95% confidence interval, 0.92-1.06) compared with donors who had made from 9 to 24 donations. The results were similar in analyses stratified by sex and restricted to postmenopausal women. CONCLUSIONS: The absence of an association between repeated apheresis donation and fracture risk indicates that apheresis collection is safe with regard to bone health.
  • Halmin, Marit, et al. (författare)
  • Epidemiology of Massive Transfusion : A Binational Study From Sweden and Denmark
  • 2016
  • Ingår i: ; 44:3, s. 468-477
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Objective: There is an increasing focus on massive transfusion, but there is a paucity of comprehensive descriptions of the massively transfused patients and their outcomes. The objective of this study is to describe the incidence rate of massive transfusion, patient characteristics, and the mortality of massively transfused patients. Design: Descriptive cohort study. Setting: Nationwide study with data from Sweden and Denmark. Patients: The study was based on the Scandinavian Donations and Transfusions database, including all patients receiving 10 or more red cell concentrate transfusions in Sweden from 1987 and in Denmark from 1996. A total of 92,057 patients were included. Patients were followed until the end of 2012. Measurements and Main Results: Descriptive statistics were used to characterize the patients and indications. Post transfusion mortality was expressed as crude 30-day mortality and as long-term mortality using the Kaplan-Meier method and using standardized mortality ratios. The incidence of massive transfusion was higher in Denmark (4.5 per 10,000) than in Sweden (2.5 per 10,000). The most common indication for massive transfusion was major surgery (61.2%) followed by trauma (15.4%). Massive transfusion due to obstetrical bleeding constituted only 1.8%. The overall 5-year mortality was very high (54.6%), however with large differences between indication groups, ranging from 91.1% among those transfused for a malignant disease without surgery to 1.7% among patients transfused for obstetrical bleeding. The early standardized mortality ratios were high and decreased thereafter, but remained elevated throughout the time period. Conclusions: This large-scale study based on nationwide data from Sweden and Denmark describes the complete range of massive transfusion. We report a nonnegligible incidence and both a high absolute mortality and high standardized mortality ratio. The general pattern was similar for Sweden and Denmark, and we believe that similar patterns may be found in other high-resource countries. The study provides a relevant background for clinicians and researchers for designing future studies in this field.
  • Holmqvist, Jacob, et al. (författare)
  • No evidence of transfusion transmitted sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease: results from a bi-national cohort study
  • 2020
  • Ingår i: Transfusion. - 0041-1132 .- 1537-2995. ; 60:4, s. 694-697
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • BACKGROUND Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD) is an uncommon, invariably fatal, neurodegenerative disorder that presents as progressive dementia with concurrent motor symptoms and myoclonia. The pathophysiology involves prion protein misfolding and spreading in a self-catalyzed manner. It has been shown to be transmissible through tissue transplants. Variant CJD (vCJD), a subtype of the disease is also transmissible through transfusion of blood products. This study aims to corroborate the scarce data that suggest that sporadic CJD (sCJD) is not transmitted via blood transfusion. METHODS AND STUDY DESIGN A retrospective cohort study was performed, using data from the bi-national Scandinavian Donations and Transfusions (SCANDAT2) database containing data on blood donors, donations, transfusions, and transfused patients in Sweden and Denmark since 1968 and 1982, respectively. Mortality and medical data were collected from nationwide health care and population registries. Donors with subsequent CJD were identified, as well as recipients of blood products from these donors. A second analysis was performed, screening for clustering of CJD cases from donors without a CJD diagnosis. RESULTS We identified 39 donors with a subsequent diagnosis of sCJD. No cases of CJD occurred among the 883 recipients of blood products from these donors. A total of 89 CJD cases were identified among recipients of transfusions. No clustering of cases from the same donor occurred. DISCUSSION Using data from a large, bi-national database of transfused patients, we find no evidence of sCJD transmission. Our data adds to the growing body of evidence indicating that sCJD is not transfusion transmitted.
  • van Roekel, Eline H., et al. (författare)
  • Circulating metabolites associated with alcohol intake in the european prospective investigation into cancer and nutrition cohort
  • Ingår i: Nutrients. - : MDPI AG. - 2072-6643. ; 10:5
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Identifying the metabolites associated with alcohol consumption may provide insights into the metabolic pathways through which alcohol may affect human health. We studied associations of alcohol consumption with circulating concentrations of 123 metabolites among 2974 healthy participants from the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) study. Alcohol consumption at recruitment was self-reported through dietary questionnaires. Metabolite concentrations were measured by tandem mass spectrometry (BIOCRATES AbsoluteIDQTMp180 kit). Data were randomly divided into discovery (2/3) and replication (1/3) sets. Multivariable linear regression models were used to evaluate confounder-adjusted associations of alcohol consumption withmetabolite concentrations. Metabolites significantly related to alcohol intake in the discovery set (FDR q-value < 0.05) were further tested in the replication set (Bonferroni-corrected p-value < 0.05). Of the 72metabolites significantly related to alcohol intake in the discovery set, 34 were also significant in the replication analysis, including three acylcarnitines, the amino acid citrulline, four lysophosphatidylcholines, 13 diacylphosphatidylcholines, seven acyl-alkylphosphatidylcholines, and six sphingomyelins. Our results confirmed earlier findings that alcohol consumption was associated with several lipid metabolites, and possibly also with specific acylcarnitines and amino acids. This provides further leads for future research studies aiming at elucidating the mechanisms underlying the effects of alcohol in relation to morbid conditions.
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