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Sökning: WFRF:(Rovira Jesús Martínez Moratalla)

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1.
  • Amaral, Andre F. S., et al. (författare)
  • Changes in IgE sensitization and total IgE levels over 20 years of follow-up
  • 2016
  • Ingår i: Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology. - 0091-6749 .- 1097-6825. ; 137:6, s. 1788-1795
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background: Cross-sectional studies have reported a lower prevalence of sensitization in older adults, but few longitudinal studies have examined whether this is an aging or a year-of-birth cohort effect. Objective: We sought to assess changes in sensitization and total IgE levels in a cohort of European adults as they aged over a 20-year period. Methods: Levels of serum specific IgE to common aeroallergens (house dust mite, cat, and grass) and total IgE levels were measured in 3206 adults from 25 centers in the European Community Respiratory Health Survey on 3 occasions over 20 years. Changes in sensitization and total IgE levels were analyzed by using regression analysis corrected for potential differences in laboratory equipment and by using inverse sampling probability weights to account for nonresponse. Results: Over the 20-year follow-up, the prevalence of sensitization to at least 1 of the 3 allergens decreased from 29.4% to 24.8% (-4.6%; 95% CI, -7.0% to -2.1%). The prevalence of sensitization to house dust mite (-4.3%; 95% CI, -6.0% to -2.6%) and cat (-2.1%; 95% CI, -3.6% to -0.7%) decreased more than sensitization to grass (-0.6%; 95% CI, -2.5% to 1.3%). Age-specific prevalence of sensitization to house dust mite and cat did not differ between year-of-birth cohorts, but sensitization to grass was most prevalent in the most recent ones. Overall, total IgE levels decreased significantly (geometric mean ratio, 0.63; 95% CI, 0.58-0.68) at all ages in all year-of-birth cohorts. Conclusion: Aging was associated with lower levels of sensitization, especially to house dust mite and cat, after the age of 20 years.
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2.
  • Accordini, S., et al. (författare)
  • A three-generation study on the association of tobacco smoking with asthma
  • 2018
  • Ingår i: International Journal of Epidemiology. - : Oxford University Press. - 0300-5771 .- 1464-3685. ; 47:4, s. 1106-1117
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background: Mothers' smoking during pregnancy increases asthma risk in their offspring. There is some evidence that grandmothers' smoking may have a similar effect, and biological plausibility that fathers' smoking during adolescence may influence offspring's health through transmittable epigenetic changes in sperm precursor cells. We evaluated the three-generation associations of tobacco smoking with asthma. Methods: Between 2010 and 2013, at the European Community Respiratory Health Survey III clinical interview, 2233 mothers and 1964 fathers from 26 centres reported whether their offspring (aged <= 51 years) had ever had asthma and whether it had coexisted with nasal allergies or not. Mothers and fathers also provided information on their parents' (grandparents) and their own asthma, education and smoking history. Multilevel mediation models within a multicentre three-generation framework were fitted separately within the maternal (4666 offspring) and paternal (4192 offspring) lines. Results: Fathers' smoking before they were 15 [relative risk ratio (RRR) = 1.43, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.01-2.01] and mothers' smoking during pregnancy (RRR = 1.27, 95% CI: 1.01-1.59) were associated with asthma without nasal allergies in their offspring. Grandmothers' smoking during pregnancy was associated with asthma in their daughters [odds ratio (OR) = 1.55, 95% CI: 1.17-2.06] and with asthma with nasal allergies in their grandchildren within the maternal line (RRR = 1.25, 95% CI: 1.02-1.55). Conclusions: Fathers' smoking during early adolescence and grandmothers' and mothers' smoking during pregnancy may independently increase asthma risk in offspring. Thus, risk factors for asthma should be sought in both parents and before conception.
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3.
  • Accordini, S., et al. (författare)
  • Prenatal and prepubertal exposures to tobacco smoke in men may cause lower lung function in future offspring: a three-generation study using a causal modelling approach
  • 2021
  • Ingår i: European Respiratory Journal. - : European Respiratory Society (ERS). - 0903-1936 .- 1399-3003. ; 58:4
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Mechanistic research suggests that lifestyle and environmental factors impact respiratory health across generations by epigenetic changes transmitted through male germ cells. Evidence from studies on humans is very limited. We investigated multigeneration causal associations to estimate the causal effects of tobacco smoking on lung function within the paternal line. We analysed data from 383 adult offspring (age 18-47 years; 52.0% female) and their 274 fathers, who had participated in the European Community Respiratory Health Survey (ECRHS)/Respiratory Health in Northern Europe, Spain and Australia (RHINESSA) generation study and had provided valid measures of pre-bronchodilator lung function. Two counterfactual-based, multilevel mediation models were developed with: paternal grandmothers' smoking in pregnancy and fathers' smoking initiation in prepuberty as exposures; fathers' forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1) and forced vital capacity (FVC), or FEV1/FVC z-scores as potential mediators (proxies of unobserved biological mechanisms that are true mediators); and offspring's FEV1 and FVC, or FEV1/FVC z-scores as outcomes. All effects were summarised as differences (Delta) in expected z-scores related to fathers' and grandmothers' smoking history. Fathers' smoking initiation in prepuberty had a negative direct effect on both offspring's FEV1 (Delta z-score -0.36, 95% CI -0.63--0.10) and FVC (-0.50, 95% CI -0.80--0.20) compared with fathers' never smoking. Paternal grandmothers' smoking in pregnancy had a negative direct effect on fathers' FEV1/FVC -0.57, 95% CI -1.09--0.05) and a negative indirect effect on offspring's FEV1/FVC (-0.12, 95% CI -0.21--0.03) compared with grandmothers' not smoking before fathers' birth nor during fathers' childhood. Fathers' smoking in prepuberty and paternal grandmothers' smoking in pregnancy may cause lower lung function in offspring. Our results support the concept that lifestyle-related exposures during these susceptibility periods influence the health of future generations.
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4.
  • Janson, Christer, et al. (författare)
  • Pharmacological treatment of asthma in a cohort of adults during a 20-year period : results from the European Community Respiratory Health Survey I, II and III
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: ERJ open research. - : European Respiratory Society. - 2312-0541. ; 5:1
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Asthma often remains uncontrolled, despite the fact that the pharmacological treatment has undergone large changes. We studied changes in the treatment of asthma over a 20-year period and identified factors associated with the regular use of inhaled corticosteroid (ICS) treatment. Changes in the use of medication were determined in 4617 randomly selected subjects, while changes in adults with persistent asthma were analysed in 369 participants. The study compares data from three surveys in 24 centres in 11 countries. The use of ICSs increased from 1.7% to 5.9% in the general population and the regular use of ICSs increased from 19% to 34% among persistent asthmatic subjects. The proportion of asthmatic subjects reporting asthma attacks in the last 12 months decreased, while the proportion that had seen a doctor in the last 12 months remained unchanged (42%). Subjects with asthma who had experienced attacks or had seen a doctor were more likely to use ICSs on a regular basis. Although ICS use has increased, only one-third of subjects with persistent asthma take ICSs on a regular basis. Less than half had seen a doctor during the last year. This indicates that underuse of ICSs and lack of regular healthcare contacts remains a problem in the management of asthma.
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5.
  • Jarvis, Debbie, et al. (författare)
  • Prevalence of asthma-like symptoms with ageing
  • 2018
  • Ingår i: Thorax. - : BMJ Publishing Group Ltd. - 0040-6376 .- 1468-3296. ; 73:1, s. 37-48
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • BACKGROUND: Change in the prevalence of asthma-like symptoms in populations of ageing adults is likely to be influenced by smoking, asthma treatment and atopy.METHODS: The European Community Respiratory Health Survey collected information on prevalent asthma-like symptoms from representative samples of adults aged 20-44 years (29 centres in 13 European countries and Australia) at baseline and 10 and 20 years later (n=7844). Net changes in symptom prevalence were determined using generalised estimating equations (accounting for non-response through inverse probability weighting), followed by meta-analysis of centre level estimates.FINDINGS: Over 20 years the prevalence of 'wheeze' and 'wheeze in the absence of a cold' decreased (-2.4%, 95% CI -3.5 to -1.3%; -1.5%, 95% CI -2.4 to -0.6%, respectively) but the prevalence of asthma attacks, use of asthma medication and hay fever/nasal allergies increased (0.6%, 95% CI 0.1 to 1.11; 3.6%, 95% CI 3.0 to 4.2; 2.7%, 95% CI 1.7 to 3.7). Changes were similar in the first 10 years compared with the second 10 years, except for hay fever/nasal allergies (increase seen in the first 10 years only). Decreases in these wheeze-related symptoms were largely seen in the group who gave up smoking, and were seen in those who reported hay fever/nasal allergies at baseline.INTERPRETATION: European adults born between 1946 and 1970 have, over the last 20 years, experienced less wheeze, although they were more likely to report asthma attacks, use of asthma medication and hay fever. Decrease in wheeze is largely attributable to smoking cessation, rather than improved treatment of asthma. It may also be influenced by reductions in atopy with ageing.
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6.
  • Peralta, Gabriela P., et al. (författare)
  • Body mass index and weight change are associated with adult lung function trajectories : the prospective ECRHS study
  • 2020
  • Ingår i: Thorax. - : BMJ Publishing Group Ltd. - 0040-6376 .- 1468-3296. ; 75:4, s. 313-320
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • BACKGROUND: Previous studies have reported an association between weight increase and excess lung function decline in young adults followed for short periods. We aimed to estimate lung function trajectories during adulthood from 20-year weight change profiles using data from the population-based European Community Respiratory Health Survey (ECRHS).METHODS: We included 3673 participants recruited at age 20-44 years with repeated measurements of weight and lung function (forced vital capacity (FVC), forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1)) in three study waves (1991-93, 1999-2003, 2010-14) until they were 39-67 years of age. We classified subjects into weight change profiles according to baseline body mass index (BMI) categories and weight change over 20 years. We estimated trajectories of lung function over time as a function of weight change profiles using population-averaged generalised estimating equations.RESULTS: In individuals with normal BMI, overweight and obesity at baseline, moderate (0.25-1 kg/year) and high weight gain (>1 kg/year) during follow-up were associated with accelerated FVC and FEV1 declines. Compared with participants with baseline normal BMI and stable weight (±0.25 kg/year), obese individuals with high weight gain during follow-up had -1011 mL (95% CI -1.259 to -763) lower estimated FVC at 65 years despite similar estimated FVC levels at 25 years. Obese individuals at baseline who lost weight (<-0.25 kg/year) exhibited an attenuation of FVC and FEV1 declines. We found no association between weight change profiles and FEV1/FVC decline.CONCLUSION: Moderate and high weight gain over 20 years was associated with accelerated lung function decline, while weight loss was related to its attenuation. Control of weight gain is important for maintaining good lung function in adult life.
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7.
  • Krantz, C., et al. (författare)
  • Cross-sectional study on exhaled nitric oxide in relation to upper airway inflammatory disorders with regard to asthma and perennial sensitization
  • 2021
  • Ingår i: Clinical and Experimental Allergy. - 0954-7894 .- 1365-2222.
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background Fractional exhaled nitric oxide (FeNO) is a well-known marker of type-2 inflammation. FeNO is elevated in asthma and allergic rhinitis, with IgE sensitization as a major determinant. Objective We aimed to see whether there was an independent association between upper airway inflammatory disorders (UAID) and FeNO, after adjustment for asthma and sensitization, in a multi-centre population-based study. Methods A total of 741 subjects with current asthma and 4155 non-asthmatic subjects participating in the second follow-up of the European Community Respiratory Health Survey (ECRHS III) underwent FeNO measurements. Sensitization status was based on measurement of IgE against airborne allergens; information on asthma, UAID and medication was collected through interview-led questionnaires. Independent associations between UAID and FeNO were assessed in adjusted multivariate regression models and test for interaction with perennial sensitization and asthma on the relation between UAID and FeNO were made. Results UAID were associated with higher FeNO after adjusting for perennial sensitization, asthma and other confounders: with 4.4 (0.9-7.9) % higher FeNO in relation to current rhinitis and 4.8 (0.7-9.2) % higher FeNO in relation to rhinoconjunctivitis. A significant interaction with perennial sensitization was found in the relationship between current rhinitis and FeNO (p = .03) and between rhinoconjunctivitis and FeNO (p = .03). After stratification by asthma and perennial sensitization, the association between current rhinitis and FeNO remained in non-asthmatic subjects with perennial sensitization, with 12.1 (0.2-25.5) % higher FeNO in subjects with current rhinitis than in those without. Conclusions & Clinical Relevance Current rhinitis and rhinoconjunctivitis was associated with higher FeNO, with an interaction with perennial sensitization. This further highlights the concept of united airway disease, with correlations between symptoms and inflammation in the upper and lower airways and that sensitization needs to be accounted for in the relation between FeNO and rhinitis.
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8.
  • Olivieri, M., et al. (författare)
  • Effects of smoking bans on passive smoking exposure at work and at home. The European Community respiratory health survey
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: Indoor Air. - : Wiley-Blackwell. - 0905-6947 .- 1600-0668. ; 29:4, s. 670-679
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • This longitudinal study investigated whether smoking bans influence passive smoking at work and/or at home in the same subjects. Passive smoking at work and/or at home was investigated in random population samples (European Community Respiratory Health Survey) in 1990-1995, with follow-up interviews in 1998-2003 and 2010-2014. National smoking bans were classified as partial (restricted to public workplaces) or global (extended to private workplaces). Multivariable analysis was accomplished by three-level logistic regression models, where level-1, level-2, and level-3 units were, respectively, questionnaire responses, subjects, and centers. Passive smoking at work was reported by 31.9% in 1990-1995, 17.5% in 1998-2003, and 2.5% in 2010-2014. Concurrently, passive smoking at home decreased from 28.9% to 18.2% and 8.8%. When controlling for sex, age, education, smoking status, and ECHRS wave, the odds of passive smoking at work was markedly reduced after global smoking bans (OR = 0.45, 95% CI 0.25-0.81), particularly among non-smokers, while the protective effect of global smoking bans on passive smoking at home was only detected in non-smokers. Smoking bans both in public and private workplaces were effective in reducing passive smoking at work in Europe. However, given the inefficacy of smoking bans in current smokers' dwellings, better strategies are needed to avoid smoking indoors.
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9.
  • Triebner, K., et al. (författare)
  • Describing the status of reproductive ageing simply and precisely: A reproductive ageing score based on three questions and validated with hormone levels
  • 2020
  • Ingår i: PLoS ONE. - : Public Library Science. - 1932-6203. ; 15:6
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Equation 6. Quadratic logistic function approximating the function mu(B)(with age in years). Equation 1. Proportion of women who have regular menstruation for each number of reported menstruations in the last year(with period = number of periods per year, x = number of women answering "Yes" to the question: "Do you have regular periods?", y = number of women answering "No, they have been irregular for a few months" and z = number of women answering "No, my periods have stopped", e.g. x(11) = number of women reporting regular menstruation among those who report 11 menstruations in the last 12 months). Equation 5. Biquadratic exponential function mu(A)depending of the number of periods. Equation 3. Age modification by smoking and oophorectomy. Equation 2. Proportion of women whose menstruations have already stopped, for each reported year of age(with age = age in years, x = number of women answering "Yes" to the question: "Do you have regular periods?", y = number of women answering "No, they have been irregular for a few months", z = number of women answering "No, my periods have stopped", e.g. x(40) = number of women reporting regular menstruations among those who are 40 years old). Equation 7. Final formula to calculate the reproductive ageing score (RAS)(with period being the number of periods per year and age as the age in years, modified according to smoking status and oophorectomy). Objective Most women live to experience menopause and will spend 4-8 years transitioning from fertile age to full menstrual stop. Biologically, reproductive ageing is a continuous process, but by convention, it is defined categorically as pre-, peri- and postmenopause; categories that are sometimes supported by measurements of sex hormones in blood samples. We aimed to develop and validate a new tool, a reproductive ageing score (RAS), that could give a simple and yet precise description of the status of reproductive ageing, without hormone measurements, to be used by health professionals and researchers. Methods Questionnaire data on age, menstrual regularity and menstrual frequency was provided by the large multicentre population-based RHINE cohort. A continuous reproductive ageing score was developed from these variables, using techniques of fuzzy mathematics, to generate a decimal number ranging from 0.00 (nonmenopausal) to 1.00 (postmenopausal). The RAS was then validated with sex hormone measurements (follicle stimulating hormone and 17 beta-estradiol) and interview-data provided by the large population-based ECRHS cohort, using receiver-operating characteristics (ROC). Results The RAS, developed from questionnaire data of the RHINE cohort, defined with high precision and accuracy the menopausal status as confirmed by interview and hormone data in the ECRHS cohort. The area under the ROC curve was 0.91 (95% Confidence interval (CI): 0.90-0.93) to distinguish nonmenopausal women from peri- and postmenopausal women, and 0.85 (95% CI: 0.83-0.88) to distinguish postmenopausal women from nonmenopausal and perimenopausal women. Conclusions The RAS provides a useful and valid tool for describing the status of reproductive ageing accurately, on a continuous scale from 0.00 to 1.00, based on simple questions and without requiring blood sampling. The score allows for a more precise differentiation than the conventional categorisation in pre-, peri- and postmenopause. This is useful for epidemiological research and clinical trials. Equation 4. The reproductive ageing score as an aggregation function of mu(A)and mu(B).
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10.
  • Triebner, K., et al. (författare)
  • Menopause Is Associated with Accelerated Lung Function Decline
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine. - : AMER THORACIC SOC. - 1073-449X .- 1535-4970. ; 195:8, s. 1058-1065
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Rationale: Menopause is associated with changes in sex hormones, which affect immunity, inflammation, and osteoporosis and may impair lung function. Lung function decline has not previously been investigated in relation to menopause. Objectives: To study whether lung function decline, assessed by FVC and FEV1, is accelerated in women who undergo menopause. Methods: The population-based longitudinal European Community Respiratory Health Survey provided serum samples, spirometry, and questionnaire data about respiratory and reproductive health from three study waves (n = 1,438). We measured follicle-stimulating hormone and luteinizing hormone and added information on menstrual patterns to determine menopausal status using latent class analysis. Associations with lung function decline were investigated using linear mixed effects models, adjusting for age, height, weight, pack-years, current smoking, age at completed full-time education, spirometer, and including study center as random effect. Measurements and Main Results: Menopausal status was associated with accelerated lung function decline. The adjusted mean FVC decline was increased by -10.2 ml/yr (95% confidence interval [CI], -13.1 to -7.2) in transitional women and -12.5 ml/yr (95% CI, -16.2 to -8.9) in post-menopausal women, compared with women menstruating regularly. The adjusted mean FEV1 decline increased by -3.8 ml/yr (95% CI, -6.3 to -2.9) in transitional women and -5.2 ml/yr (95% CI, -8.3 to -2.0) in post-menopausal women. Conclusions: Lung function declined more rapidly among transitional and post-menopausal women, in particular for FVC, beyond the expected age change. Clinicians should be aware that respiratory health often deteriorates during reproductive aging.
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