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  • Lindner, Philip, et al. (författare)
  • Experiences of Gamified and Automated Virtual Reality Exposure Therapy for Spider Phobia : Qualitative Study
  • 2020
  • Ingår i: JMIR Serious Games. - Toronto, ON, Canada : JMIR PUBLICATIONS, INC. - 2291-9279. ; 8:2
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background: Virtual reality exposure therapy is an efficacious treatment of anxiety disorders, and recent research suggests that such treatments can be automated, relying on gamification elements instead of a real-life therapist directing treatment. Such automated, gamified treatments could be disseminated without restrictions, helping to close the treatment gap for anxiety disorders. Despite initial findings suggesting high efficacy, very is little is known about how users experience this type of intervention.Objective: The aim of this study was to examine user experiences of automated, gamified virtual reality exposure therapy using in-depth qualitative methods.Methods: Seven participants were recruited from a parallel clinical trial comparing automated, gamified virtual reality exposure therapy for spider phobia against an in vivo exposure equivalent. Participants received the same virtual reality treatment as in the trial and completed a semistructured interview afterward. The transcribed material was analyzed using thematic analysis.Results: Many of the uncovered themes pertained directly or indirectly to a sense of presence in the virtual environment, both positive and negative. The automated format was perceived as natural and the gamification elements appear to have been successful in framing the experience not as psychotherapy devoid of a therapist but rather as a serious game with a psychotherapeutic goal.Conclusions: Automated, gamified virtual reality exposure therapy appears to be an appealing treatment modality and to work by the intended mechanisms. Findings from the current study may guide the next generation of interventions and inform dissemination efforts and future qualitative research into user experiences.
  • Rozental, Alexander, et al. (författare)
  • A randomized controlled trial of Internet-based cognitive behavior therapy for perfectionism including an investigation of outcome predictors
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: Behaviour Research and Therapy. - : Elsevier. - 0005-7967 .- 1873-622X. ; 95, s. 79-86
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Being highly attentive to details can be a positive feature. However, for some individuals, perfectionism can lead to distress and is associated with many psychiatric disorders. Cognitive behavior therapy has been shown to yield many benefits for those experiencing problems with perfectionism, but the access to evidence-based care is limited. The current study investigated the efficacy of guided Internet-based Cognitive Behavior Therapy (ICBT) and predictors of treatment outcome. In total, 156 individuals were included and randomized to an eight-week treatment or wait-list control. Self-report measures of perfectionism, depression, anxiety, self-criticism, self-compassion, and quality of life were distributed during screening and at post-treatment. Intention-to-treat were used for all statistical analyses. Moderate to large between-group effect sizes were obtained for the primary outcome measures, Frost Multidimensional Perfectionism Scale, subscales Concerns over Mistakes and Personal Standards, Cohen's d = 0.68–1.00, 95% Confidence Interval (CI) [0.36–1.33], with 35 (44.9%) of the patients in treatment being improved. Predictors were also explored, but none were related to treatment outcome. In sum, guided ICBT can be helpful for addressing problems with clinical perfectionism, but research of its long-term benefits is warranted.
  • Andersson, Gerhard, et al. (författare)
  • Internet‐delivered psychological treatments : from innovation to implementation
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: World Psychiatry. - : WILEY. - 1723-8617 .- 2051-5545. ; 18:1, s. 20-28
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Internet interventions, and in particular Internet‐delivered cognitive behaviour therapy (ICBT), have existed for at least 20 years. Here we review the treatment approach and the evidence base, arguing that ICBT can be viewed as a vehicle for innovation. ICBT has been developed and tested for several psychiatric and somatic conditions, and direct comparative studies suggest that therapist‐guided ICBT is more effective than a waiting list for anxiety disorders and depression, and tends to be as effective as face‐to‐face CBT. Studies on the possible harmful effects of ICBT are also reviewed: a significant minority of people do experience negative effects, although rates of deterioration appear similar to those reported for face‐to‐face treatments and lower than for control conditions. We further review studies on change mechanisms and conclude that few, if any, consistent moderators and mediators of change have been identified. A recent trend to focus on knowledge acquisition is considered, and a discussion on the possibilities and hurdles of implementing ICBT is presented. The latter includes findings suggesting that attitudes toward ICBT may not be as positive as when using modern information technology as an adjunct to face‐to‐face therapy (i.e., blended treatment). Finally, we discuss future directions, including the role played by technology and machine learning, blended treatment, adaptation of treatment for minorities and non‐Western settings, other therapeutic approaches than ICBT (including Internet‐delivered psychodynamic and interpersonal psychotherapy as well as acceptance and commitment therapy), emerging regulations, and the importance of reporting failed trials.
  • Andersson, Gerhard, et al. (författare)
  • Long-term effects of internet-supported cognitive behaviour therapy
  • 2018
  • Ingår i: Expert Review of Neurotherapeutics. - : TAYLOR & FRANCIS LTD. - 1473-7175 .- 1744-8360. ; 18:1, s. 21-28
  • Forskningsöversikt (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Introduction: Internet-supported and therapist-guided cognitive behaviour therapy (ICBT) is effective for a range of problems in the short run, but less is known about the long-term effects with follow-ups of two years or longer.Areas covered: This paper reviews studies in which the long-term effects of guided ICBT were investigated. Following literature searches in PubMed and other sources meta-analytic statistics were calculated for 14 studies involving a total of 902 participants, and an average follow-up period of three years. Studies were from Sweden (n = 11) or the Netherlands (n = 3). Long-term outcome studies were found for panic disorder, social anxiety disorder, generalized anxiety disorder, depression, mixed anxiety and depression, obsessive-compulsive disorder, pathological gambling, stress and chronic fatigue. The duration of the treatments was usually short (8–15 weeks). The pre-to follow-up effect size was Hedge’s g = 1.52, but with a significant heterogeneity. The average symptom improvement across studies was 50%. Treatment seeking in the follow-up period was not documented and few studies mentioned negative effects.Expert commentary: While effects may be overestimated, it is likely that therapist-supported ICBT can have enduring effects. Long-term follow-up data should be collected for more conditions and new technologies like smartphone-delivered treatments.
  • Andersson, Gerhard, et al. (författare)
  • Response and Remission Rates in Internet-Based Cognitive Behavior Therapy : An Individual Patient Data Meta-Analysis
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: Frontiers in Psychiatry. - : Frontiers Media S.A.. - 1664-0640 .- 1664-0640. ; 10
  • Forskningsöversikt (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background: Internet-delivered cognitive behavior therapy (ICBT) was developed over 20 years ago and has since undergone a number of controlled trials, as well as several systematic reviews and meta-analyses. However, the crucial question of response rates remains to be systematically investigated. The aim of this individual patient meta-analysis (IPDMA) was to use a large dataset of trials conducted in Sweden to determine reliable change and recovery rates across trials for a range of conditions.Methods: We used previously collected and aggregated data from 2,866 patients in 29 Swedish clinical trials of ICBT for three categories of conditions: anxiety disorders, depression, and others. Raw scores at pre-treatment and post-treatment were used in an IPDMA to determine the rate of reliable change and recovery. Jacobson and Truax’s, (1991) reliable change index (RCI) was calculated for each primary outcome measure in the trials as well as the recovery rates for each patient, with the additional requirement of having improved substantially. We subsequently explored potential predictors using binomial logistic regression.Results: In applying an RCI of z = 1.96, 1,162 (65.6%) of the patients receiving treatment were classified as achieving recovery, and 620 (35.0%) were classified as reaching remission. In terms of predictors, patients with higher symptom severity on the primary outcome measure at baseline [odds ratio (OR) = 1.36] and being female (OR = 2.22) increased the odds of responding to treatment. Having an anxiety disorder was found to decrease the response to treatment (OR = 0.51). Remission was predicted by diagnosis in the same direction (OR = 0.28), whereas symptom severity was inversely predictive of worse outcome (OR = 0.81). Conclusions: Response seems to occur among approximately half of all clients administered ICBT, whereas about a third reach remission. This indicates that the efficacy of ICBT is in line with that of CBT based in prior trials, with a possible caveat being the lower remission rates. Having more symptoms and being female might increase the chances of improvement, and a small negative effect of having anxiety disorder versus depression and other conditions may also exist. A limitation of the IPDMA was that only studies conducted in Sweden were included.
  • Berg, Matilda, et al. (författare)
  • Knowledge About Treatment, Anxiety, and Depression in Association With Internet-Based Cognitive Behavioral Therapy for Adolescents : Development and Initial Evaluation of a New Test
  • 2020
  • Ingår i: SAGE Open. - : Sage Publications. - 2158-2440 .- 2158-2440. ; 10:1
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Evaluating knowledge and learning in psychotherapy is a growing field of research. Studies that develop and evaluate valid tests are lacking, however. Here, in the context of internet-based cognitive behavioral therapy (ICBT) for adolescents, a new test was developed using subject matter experts, consensus among researchers, self-reports by youths, and a literature review. An explorative factor analysis was performed on 93 adolescents between 15 and 19 years old, resulting in a three-factor solution with 20 items, accounting for 41% of the total variance. The factors were Act in aversive states, Using positive reinforcement, and Shifting attention. The internal consistency for the whole instrument was good (alpha = .84). Hopefully, the procedure presented here can contribute to the field by illustrating one way of evaluating knowledge in ICBT. The clinical use of the knowledge test needs further investigation.
  • Berg, Matilda, et al. (författare)
  • Knowledge gain and usage of knowledge learned during internet-based CBT treatment for adolescent depression : a qualitative study
  • 2020
  • Ingår i: BMC Psychiatry. - : BioMed Central. - 1471-244X .- 1471-244X. ; 20:1
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • BackgroundThe role of explicit learning of treatment content in internet-based cognitive-behavioural treatment (ICBT) is an emerging field of research. The objective of this study was to explore clients experiences of their ICBT treatment for depression with a focus on knowledge gain and usage of knowledge learned during treatment.MethodsA strategic sample of ten adolescents, aged between 15 and 19 years, who had received ICBT for major depression within a clinical controlled trial were recruited for the study. Semi-structured interviews were conducted 6 months following trial completion. Data were transcribed and analysed using thematic analysis. The participants had a general adherence rate of 6–8 opened modules out of 8 possible.ResultsTwo main themes were identified; “Active agents of CBT” and “Passive agents of CBT”, with each theme consisting of three and two sub-themes. Active agents of CBT reflect a tendency to specifically remember and actively apply specific CBT principles in present life situations. Passive agents of CBT reflect a tendency to remember CBT treatment principles vaguely and express a passive or reactive usage of learned therapy content.ConclusionThe findings suggest that young clients can remember and apply CBT principles 6 months after their treatment. However, while experiencing benefits of treatment, clients recall and application of treatment strategies vary. The study emphasizes the importance of exploring client recall of CBT components and how valuable it is to explicitly remember contents of a treatment in order to improve and maintain improvement. Further studies on the role of knowledge and memory of ICBT for adolescent populations are warranted.
  • Berg, Matilda, et al. (författare)
  • The role of knowledge in internet-based cognitive behavioural therapy for adolescent depression : Results from a randomised controlled study
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: Internet Interventions. - : Elsevier. - 2214-7829. ; 15, s. 10-17
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background and objectivesClients' knowledge about their condition and treatment is considered crucial for general health improvement, and knowledge acquisition is an essential part in internet-based cognitive behavioural therapy (ICBT). Yet, little is known about the role of knowledge and how it influences treatment outcome. This study aimed to examine if explicit knowledgeincreased following ICBT for adolescent depression, if knowledge gainwould be associated with symptom reduction, and if pre-existing knowledge predicted changes in depressive symptoms.MethodsSeventy-one adolescents were randomised to a therapist-supported ICBT or a attention control condition. A measure of depression (BDI-II) and a knowledge test dealing with depression, comorbid anxiety, and its CBT-treatment were administered before and after treatment.ResultsSignificant improvements in knowledge were observed following ICBT compared to the attention control (between-group Cohen's d = 1.25, 95% CI [0.67–1.79]). On average, participants in the treatment group answered 1.4 more questions correctly at post treatment compared to the control group. No relation between change in knowledge and change in depressive symptoms could be observed. Knowledge scores at baseline were high for both groups, with participants answering approximately 75% of the questions correct. A higher level of initial knowledge level predicted poorer treatment response (Parson's r = −0.38, p = .048).ConclusionsThe findings indicate that knowledge about basic concepts and principles about depression, anxiety, and CBT increases following ICBT. This increase in knowledge was not related to change in depressive symptoms, indicating that knowledge is a different construct. The results also suggest that clients who are more knowledgeable prior to treatment might benefit less from ICBT. In sum, the results highlight the need to further examine the role of knowledge in ICBT.
  • Berg, Matilda, et al. (författare)
  • The Role of Learning Support and Chat-Sessions in Guided Internet-Based Cognitive Behavioral Therapy for Adolescents With Anxiety: A Factorial Design Study
  • 2020
  • Ingår i: Frontiers in Psychiatry. - : FRONTIERS MEDIA SA. - 1664-0640 .- 1664-0640. ; 11
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background Increased awareness of anxiety in adolescents emphasises the need for effective interventions. Internet-based cognitive behavioural therapy (ICBT) could be a resource-effective and evidence-based treatment option, but little is known about how to optimize ICBT or which factors boost outcomes. Recently, the role of knowledge in psychotherapy has received increased focus. Further, chat-sessions are of interest when trying to optimize ICBT for youths. This study aimed to evaluate the role of learning support and chat-sessions during ICBT for adolescent anxiety, using a factorial design. Method A total of 120 adolescents were randomised to one of four treatment groups, in a 2x2 design with two factors: with or without learning support and/or chat-sessions. Results Anxiety and depressive symptoms were reduced (Beck Anxiety Inventory- BAI; Cohensd=0.72; Beck Depression Inventory- BDI;d=0.97). There was a main effect of learning support on BAI (d=0.38), and learning support increased knowledge gain (d =0.42). There were no main effects or interactions related to the chat-sessions. Treatment effects were maintained at 6-months, but the added effect of learning support had by then vanished. Conclusion ICBT can be an effective alternative when treating adolescents with anxiety. Learning support could be of importance to enhance short-term treatment effects, and should be investigated further.
  • Buhrman, Monica, 1974-, et al. (författare)
  • Treating perfectionism using internet-based cognitive behavior therapy : A study protocol for a randomized controlled trial comparing two types of treatment
  • 2020
  • Ingår i: Internet Interventions. - : ELSEVIER. - 2214-7829. ; 21
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Perfectionism is characterized by setting high standards and striving for achievement, sometimes at the expense of social relationships and wellbeing. Despite sometimes being viewed as a positive feature by others, people with perfectionism tend to be overly concerned about their performance and how they are being perceived by people around them. This tends to create inflexible standards, cognitive biases, and performance-related behaviors that maintain a belief that self-worth is linked to accomplishments. Cognitive behavior therapy has been shown to be a viable treatment for perfectionism, both in terms of reducing levels of perfectionism and improving psychiatric symptoms. Furthermore, a number of recent studies indicate that it can be successfully delivered via the Internet, both with regular support and guidance on demand from a therapist. In the present study protocol, a clinical trial for perfectionism is described and outlined. In total, 128 participants will be recruited and randomized to either a treatment that has already been demonstrated to have many benefits, Internet-based Cognitive Behavior Therapy for perfectionism (iCBT-P), or an active comparison condition, Internet-based Unified Protocol (iUP), targeting the emotions underlying depression and anxiety disorders. The results will be investigated with regard to self-reported outcomes of perfectionism, psychiatric symptoms, self-compassion, and quality of life, at post-treatment and at six- and 12-month follow-up. Both iCBT-P and iUP are expected to have a positive impact, but the difference between the two conditions in terms of their specific effects and adherence are currently unknown and will be explored. The clinical trial is believed to lead to a better understanding of how perfectionism can be treated and the specificity of different treatments.
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