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Sökning: WFRF:(Ruediger Thomas)

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  • Haiman, Christopher A., et al. (författare)
  • A common variant at the TERT-CLPTM1L locus is associated with estrogen receptor-negative breast cancer
  • 2011
  • Ingår i: Nature Genetics. - Nature Publishing Group. - 1546-1718. ; 43:12, s. 61-1210
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Estrogen receptor (ER)-negative breast cancer shows a higher incidence in women of African ancestry compared to women of European ancestry. In search of common risk alleles for ER-negative breast cancer, we combined genome-wide association study (GWAS) data from women of African ancestry (1,004 ER-negative cases and 2,745 controls) and European ancestry (1,718 ER-negative cases and 3,670 controls), with replication testing conducted in an additional 2,292 ER-negative cases and 16,901 controls of European ancestry. We identified a common risk variant for ER-negative breast cancer at the TERT-CLPTM1L locus on chromosome 5p15 (rs10069690: per-allele odds ratio (OR) = 1.18 per allele, P = 1.0 x 10(-10)). The variant was also significantly associated with triple-negative (ER-negative, progesterone receptor (PR)-negative and human epidermal growth factor-2 (HER2)-negative) breast cancer (OR = 1.25, P = 1.1 x 10(-9)), particularly in younger women (<50 years of age) (OR = 1.48, P = 1.9 x 10(-9)). Our results identify a genetic locus associated with estrogen receptor negative breast cancer subtypes in multiple populations.
  • Horn, Lars-Christian, et al. (författare)
  • Immunostaining for p16(INK4a) used as a conjunctive tool improves interobserver agreement of the histologic diagnosis of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia
  • 2008
  • Ingår i: American Journal of Surgical Pathology. - Lippincott Williams & Wilkins. - 1532-0979. ; 32:4, s. 502-512
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The quality of cervical histopathology is critical to cervical cancer prevention, cancer treatment, and research programs. On the basis of the histology results further patient management is determined. However, the diagnostic interpretation of histologic hematoxylin-eosin (H&E)-stained slides is affected by substantial rates of discordance among pathologists. Overexpression of the cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor p16(INK4a), a cell cycle regulating protein, has been shown to be strongly correlated with dysplastic lesions of the cervix uteri. In this study.. we assessed whether p16(INK4a) immunohistochemistry may increase the performance of pathologists in diagnosing squamous lesions in cervical punch and cone biopsies. When using a consecutive p 16(INK4a)-stained slide in conjunction to the H&E-stained slide, interobserver agreement between 6 pathologists improved significantly for both cervical punch and cone biopsies (P < 0.001). For punch biopsies (n = 247), K value increased from 0.49 (moderate agreement) to 0.64 indicating substantial agreement, and interobserver agreement for cone biopsies (n = 249) improved from 0.63 (conventional H&E slide reading) to 0.70 when H&E-stained slides were read conjunctively with p16(INK4a)-stained slides. In comparison to a common consensus diagnosis established by 3 independent experts, 4 pathologists reached an improvement with the conjunctive p16(INK4a) test, 2 of them showing significantly better agreement (P < 0.001 and P = 0.002, respectively). P-16INK4a immunohistochemistry as an adjunct to conventional H&E-stained specimens thus contributes to a more reproducible diagnosis of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia, and may be a valuable aid for the interpretation of cervical histology.
  • Stevens, Kristen N., et al. (författare)
  • Common Breast Cancer Susceptibility Loci Are Associated with Triple-Negative Breast Cancer
  • 2011
  • Ingår i: Cancer Research. - American Association for Cancer Research Inc.. - 1538-7445. ; 71:19, s. 6240-6249
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Triple-negative breast cancers are an aggressive subtype of breast cancer with poor survival, but there remains little known about the etiologic factors that promote its initiation and development. Commonly inherited breast cancer risk factors identified through genome-wide association studies display heterogeneity of effect among breast cancer subtypes as defined by the status of estrogen and progesterone receptors. In the Triple Negative Breast Cancer Consortium (TNBCC), 22 common breast cancer susceptibility variants were investigated in 2,980 Caucasian women with triple-negative breast cancer and 4,978 healthy controls. We identified six single-nucleotide polymorphisms, including rs2046210 (ESR1), rs12662670 (ESR1), rs3803662 (TOX3), rs999737 (RAD51L1), rs8170 (19p13.1), and rs8100241 (19p13.1), significantly associated with the risk of triple-negative breast cancer. Together, our results provide convincing evidence of genetic susceptibility for triple-negative breast cancer. Cancer Res; 71(19); 6240-9. (C)2011 AACR.
  • Antoniou, Antonis C., et al. (författare)
  • A locus on 19p13 modifies risk of breast cancer in BRCA1 mutation carriers and is associated with hormone receptor-negative breast cancer in the general population
  • 2010
  • Ingår i: Nature Genetics. - Nature Publishing Group. - 1546-1718. ; 42:10, s. 885-892
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Germline BRCA1 mutations predispose to breast cancer. To identify genetic modifiers of this risk, we performed a genome-wide association study in 1,193 individuals with BRCA1 mutations who were diagnosed with invasive breast cancer under age 40 and 1,190 BRCA1 carriers without breast cancer diagnosis over age 35. We took forward 96 SNPs for replication in another 5,986 BRCA1 carriers (2,974 individuals with breast cancer and 3,012 unaffected individuals). Five SNPs on 19p13 were associated with breast cancer risk (P-trend = 2.3 x 10(-9) to Ptrend = 3.9 x 10(-7)), two of which showed independent associations (rs8170, hazard ratio (HR) = 1.26, 95% CI 1.17-1.35; rs2363956 HR = 0.84, 95% CI 0.80-0.89). Genotyping these SNPs in 6,800 population-based breast cancer cases and 6,613 controls identified a similar association with estrogen receptor-negative breast cancer (rs2363956 per-allele odds ratio (OR) = 0.83, 95% CI 0.75-0.92, P-trend = 0.0003) and an association with estrogen receptor-positive disease in the opposite direction (OR = 1.07, 95% CI 1.01-1.14, P-trend = 0.016). The five SNPs were also associated with triple-negative breast cancer in a separate study of 2,301 triple-negative cases and 3,949 controls (Ptrend = 1 x 10(-7) to Ptrend = 8 x 10(-5); rs2363956 per-allele OR = 0.80, 95% CI 0.74-0.87, P-trend = 1.1 x 10(-7)).
  • Meyer, Kerstin B., et al. (författare)
  • Fine-Scale Mapping of the FGFR2 Breast Cancer Risk Locus: Putative Functional Variants Differentially Bind FOXA1 and E2F1
  • 2013
  • Ingår i: American Journal of Human Genetics. - Cell Press. - 0002-9297. ; 93:6, s. 1046-1060
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The 10q26 locus in the second intron of FGFR2 is the locus most strongly associated with estrogen-receptor-positive breast cancer in genome-wide association studies. We conducted fine-scale mapping in case-control studies genotyped with a custom chip (iCOGS), comprising 41 studies (n = 89,050) of European ancestry, 9 Asian ancestry studies (n = 13,983), and 2 African ancestry studies (n = 2,028) from the Breast Cancer Association Consortium. We identified three statistically independent risk signals within the locus. Within risk signals 1 and 3, genetic analysis identified five and two variants, respectively, highly correlated with the most strongly associated SNPs. By using a combination of genetic fine mapping, data on DNase hypersensitivity, and electrophoretic mobility shift assays to study protein-DNA binding, we identified rs35054928, rs2981578, and rs45631563 as putative functional SNPs. Chromatin immunoprecipitation showed that FOXA1 preferentially bound to the risk-associated allele (C) of rs2981578 and was able to recruit ER alpha to this site in an allele-specific manner, whereas E2F1 preferentially bound the risk variant of rs35054928. The risk alleles were preferentially found in open chromatin and bound by Ser5 phosphorylated RNA polymerase II, suggesting that the risk alleles are associated with changes in transcription. Chromatin conformation capture demonstrated that the risk region was able to interact with the promoter of FGFR2, the likely target gene of this risk region. A role for FOXA1 in mediating breast cancer susceptibility at this locus is consistent with the finding that the FGFR2 risk locus primarily predisposes to estrogen-receptor-positive disease.
  • Scheer, Monika, et al. (författare)
  • Desmoplastic small round cell tumors Multimodality treatment and new risk factors
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: Cancer Medicine. - WILEY. - 2045-7634 .- 2045-7634. ; 8:2, s. 527-542
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background: To evaluate optimal therapy and potential risk factors.Methods: Data of DSRCT patients &lt;40 years treated in prospective CWS trials 1997‐2015 were analyzed.Results: Median age of 60 patients was 14.5 years. Male:female ratio was 4:1. Tumors were abdominal/retroperitoneal in 56/60 (93%). 6/60 (10%) presented with a localized mass, 16/60 (27%) regionally disseminated nodes, and 38/60 (63%) with extraperitoneal metastases. At diagnosis, 23/60 (38%) patients had effusions, 4/60 (7%) a thrombosis, and 37/54 (69%) elevated CRP. 40/60 (67%) patients underwent tumor resection, 21/60 (35%) macroscopically complete. 37/60 (62%) received chemotherapy according to CEVAIE (ifosfamide, vincristine, actinomycin D, carboplatin, epirubicin, etoposide), 15/60 (25%) VAIA (ifosfamide, vincristine, adriamycin, actinomycin D) and, 5/60 (8%) P6 (cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine, ifosfamide, etoposide). Nine received high‐dose chemotherapy, 6 received regional hyperthermia, and 20 received radiotherapy. Among 25 patients achieving complete remission, 18 (72%) received metronomic therapies. Three‐year event‐free (EFS) and overall survival (OS) were 11% (±8 confidence interval [CI] 95%) and 30% (±12 CI 95%), respectively, for all patients and 26.7% (±18.0 CI 95%) and 56.9% (±20.4 CI 95%) for 25 patients achieving remission. Extra‐abdominal site, localized disease, no effusion or ascites only, absence of thrombosis, normal CRP, complete tumor resection, and chemotherapy with VAIA correlated with EFS in univariate analysis. In multivariate analysis, significant factors were no thrombosis and chemotherapy with VAIA. In patients achieving complete remission, metronomic therapy with cyclophosphamide/vinblastine correlated with prolonged time to relapse.Conclusion: Pleural effusions, venous thrombosis, and CRP elevation were identified as potential risk factors. The VAIA scheme showed best outcome. Maintenance therapy should be investigated further.
  • Barkhordarian, Gagik, et al. (författare)
  • Formation of Ca(BH4)(2) from hydrogenation of CaH2+MgB2 composite
  • 2008
  • Ingår i: Journal of Physical Chemistry C. - The American Chemical Society (ACS). - 1932-7447. ; 112:7, s. 2743-2749
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The hydrogenation of the CaH2+MgB2 Composite and the dehydrogenation of the resulting products are investigated in detail by in situ time-resolved synchrotron radiation powder X-ray diffraction, high-pressure differential scanning calorimetry, infrared, and thermovolumetric measurements. It is demonstrated that a Ca(BH4)(2)+MgH2 composite is formed by hydrogenating a CaH2+MgB2 composite, at 350 degrees C and 140 bar of hydrogen. Two phases of Ca(BH4)(2) were characterized: alpha- and beta-Ca(BH4)(2). alpha-Ca(BH4)(2) transforms to beta-Ca(BH4)(2) at about 130 degrees C. Under the conditions used in the present study, beta-Ca(BH4)(2) decomposes first to CaH2, Ca3Mg4H14, Mg, B (or MgB2 depending on experimental conditions), and hydrogen at 360 degrees C, before complete decomposition to CaH2, Mg, B (or MgB2), and hydrogen at 400 degrees C. During hydrogenation under 140 bar of hydrogen, beta-Ca(BH4)(2) is formed at 250 degrees C, and alpha-Ca(BH4)(2) is formed when the sample is cooled to less than 130 degrees C. Ti isopropoxide improves the kinetics of the reactions, during both hydrogenation and dehydrogenation. The dehydrogenation temperature decreases to 250 degrees C, with 1 wt % of this additive, and hydrogenation starts already at 200 degrees C. We propose that the improved kinetics of the above reactions with MgB2 (compared to pure boron) can be explained by the different boron bonding within the crystal structure of MgB2 and pure boron.
  • Boesenberg, Ulrike, et al. (författare)
  • Hydrogen sorption properties of MgH2-LiBH4 composites
  • 2007
  • Ingår i: Acta Materialia. - Elsevier. - 1873-2453. ; 55:11, s. 3951-3958
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • A detailed analysis of the reaction mechanism of the reactive hydride composite (RHC) MgH2 + 2LiBH(4) <-> MgB2 + 2LiH + 4H(2) was performed using high-pressure differential scanning calorimetry (HP-DSC) measurements and in situ synchrotron powder X-ray diffraction (XRD) measurements along with kinetic investigations using a Sievert-type apparatus. For the desorption the following two-step reaction has been observed: MgH2 + 2LiBH(4) <-> Mg + 2LiBH(4) + H-2 <-> MgB2 + 2LiH + 4H(2). However, this reaction is kinetically restricted and proceeds only at elevated temperatures. In contrast to the desorption reaction, LiBH4 and MgH2 are found to form simultaneously under fairly moderate conditions of 50 bar hydrogen pressure in the temperature range of 250-300 degrees C. As found in pure light metal hydrides, significant improvement of sorption kinetics is possible if suitable additives are used. (c) 2007 Acta Materialia Inc. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
  • Dantonello, Tobias M, et al. (författare)
  • Challenges in the Local Treatment of Large Abdominal Embryonal Rhabdomyosarcoma
  • 2014
  • Ingår i: Annals of Surgical Oncology. - 1068-9265 .- 1534-4681. ; 21:11, s. 3579-3586
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • BACKGROUND:Embryonal rhabdomyosarcoma is the most common pediatric soft tissue sarcoma. The best local treatment in large, nonmetastatic primary unresected nongenitourinary embryonal rhabdomyosarcoma of the abdomen (LARME) is however unclear.METHODS:We analyzed patients with LARME treated in four consecutive CWS trials. All diagnoses were confirmed by reference reviews. Treatment included multiagent chemotherapy and local treatment of the primary tumor with surgery and/or radiotherapy. The impact of primary debulking surgery (PDS) also was studied.RESULTS:One hundred patients &lt;21 years with a median age of 4 years had LARME. Sixty-one of them had a tumor &gt;10 cm in diameter at diagnosis. PDS was performed in 19 of 100 children. The outcomes of patients with PDS were similar to those of the other patients. In 36 children, the tumor was resected after induction chemotherapy; 60 RME were irradiated. The toxic effects of radiochemotherapy were not significantly increased compared with the nonirradiated patients. With a median follow-up of 10 years, the 5-year EFS and OS were 52 ± 10 and 65 ± 9 %, respectively. Significant risk factors in multivariate analysis were age &gt;10 years; no achievement of complete remission; and inadequate secondary local treatment, defined as incomplete secondary resection or no radiation.CONCLUSIONS:Children with LARME have a fair prognosis, despite an often huge tumor size and unfavorable primary site, if the tumors can either be resected or irradiated following induction chemotherapy. PDS was only performed in a small subgroup. Radiation performed concomitantly with chemotherapy did not increase the acute toxicity significantly.
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