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Sökning: WFRF:(Rylander C)

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2.
  • Deschasaux, M., et al. (författare)
  • Nutritional quality of food as represented by the FSAm-NPS nutrient profiling system underlying the Nutri-Score label and cancer risk in Europe: Results from the EPIC prospective cohort study
  • 2018
  • Ingår i: Plos Medicine. - : Public Library Science. - 1549-1676 .- 1549-1277. ; 15:9
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background Helping consumers make healthier food choices is a key issue for the prevention of cancer and other diseases. In many countries, political authorities are considering the implementation of a simplified labelling system to reflect the nutritional quality of food products. The Nutri-Score, a five-colour nutrition label, is derived from the Nutrient Profiling System of the British Food Standards Agency (modified version) (FSAm-NPS). How the consumption of foods with high/low FSAm-NPS relates to cancer risk has been studied in national/regional cohorts but has not been characterized in diverse European populations. This prospective analysis included 471,495 adults from the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC, 1992-2014, median follow-up: 15.3 y), among whom there were 49,794 incident cancer cases (main locations: breast, n = 12,063; prostate, n = 6,745; colon-rectum, n = 5,806). Usual food intakes were assessed with standardized country-specific diet assessment methods. The FSAm-NPS was calculated for each food/beverage using their 100-g content in energy, sugar, saturated fatty acid, sodium, fibres, proteins, and fruits/vegetables/legumes/nuts. The FSAm-NPS scores of all food items usually consumed by a participant were averaged to obtain the individual FSAm-NPS Dietary Index (DI) scores. Multi-adjusted Cox proportional hazards models were computed. A higher FSAm-NPS DI score, reflecting a lower nutritional quality of the food consumed, was associated with a higher risk of total cancer (HRQ5 versus (Q1) = 1.07; 95% CI 1.03-1.10, P-trend < 0.001). Absolute cancer rates in those with high and low (quintiles 5 and 1) FSAm-NPS DI scores were 81.4 and 69.5 cases/10,000 person-years, respectively. Higher FSAm-NPS DI scores were specifically associated with higher risks of cancers of the colon-rectum, upper aerodigestive tract and stomach, lung for men, and liver and postmenopausal breast for women (all P < 0.05). The main study limitation is that it was based on an observational cohort using self-reported dietary data obtained through a single baseline food frequency questionnaire; thus, exposure misclassification and residual confounding cannot be ruled out. In this large multinational European cohort, the consumption of food products with a higher FSAm-NPS score (lower nutritional quality) was associated with a higher risk of cancer. This supports the relevance of the FSAm-NPS as underlying nutrient profiling system for front-of-pack nutrition labels, as well as for other public health nutritional measures.
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3.
  • Dankiewicz, J., et al. (författare)
  • Hypothermia versus Normothermia after Out-of-Hospital Cardiac Arrest
  • 2021
  • Ingår i: New England Journal of Medicine. - : MASSACHUSETTS MEDICAL SOC. - 0028-4793 .- 1533-4406. ; 384:24, s. 2283-2294
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Hypothermia or Normothermia after Cardiac Arrest This trial randomly assigned patients with coma after out-of-hospital cardiac arrest to undergo targeted hypothermia at 33 degrees C or normothermia with treatment of fever. At 6 months, there were no significant between-group differences regarding death or functional outcomes. Background Targeted temperature management is recommended for patients after cardiac arrest, but the supporting evidence is of low certainty. Methods In an open-label trial with blinded assessment of outcomes, we randomly assigned 1900 adults with coma who had had an out-of-hospital cardiac arrest of presumed cardiac or unknown cause to undergo targeted hypothermia at 33 degrees C, followed by controlled rewarming, or targeted normothermia with early treatment of fever (body temperature, >= 37.8 degrees C). The primary outcome was death from any cause at 6 months. Secondary outcomes included functional outcome at 6 months as assessed with the modified Rankin scale. Prespecified subgroups were defined according to sex, age, initial cardiac rhythm, time to return of spontaneous circulation, and presence or absence of shock on admission. Prespecified adverse events were pneumonia, sepsis, bleeding, arrhythmia resulting in hemodynamic compromise, and skin complications related to the temperature management device. Results A total of 1850 patients were evaluated for the primary outcome. At 6 months, 465 of 925 patients (50%) in the hypothermia group had died, as compared with 446 of 925 (48%) in the normothermia group (relative risk with hypothermia, 1.04; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.94 to 1.14; P=0.37). Of the 1747 patients in whom the functional outcome was assessed, 488 of 881 (55%) in the hypothermia group had moderately severe disability or worse (modified Rankin scale score >= 4), as compared with 479 of 866 (55%) in the normothermia group (relative risk with hypothermia, 1.00; 95% CI, 0.92 to 1.09). Outcomes were consistent in the prespecified subgroups. Arrhythmia resulting in hemodynamic compromise was more common in the hypothermia group than in the normothermia group (24% vs. 17%, P<0.001). The incidence of other adverse events did not differ significantly between the two groups. Conclusions In patients with coma after out-of-hospital cardiac arrest, targeted hypothermia did not lead to a lower incidence of death by 6 months than targeted normothermia. (Funded by the Swedish Research Council and others; TTM2 ClinicalTrials.gov number, .)
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4.
  • Cordova, R., et al. (författare)
  • Dietary intake of advanced glycation end products (AGEs) and changes in body weight in European adults
  • 2020
  • Ingår i: European Journal of Nutrition. - : Springer Berlin/Heidelberg. - 1436-6207 .- 1436-6215. ; 59, s. 2893-2904
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Purpose: Advanced glycation end products (AGEs) can be formed in foods by the reaction of reducing sugars with proteins, and have been shown to induce insulin resistance and obesity in experimental studies. We examined the association between dietary AGEs intake and changes in body weight in adults over an average of 5 years of follow-up.Methods: A total of 255,170 participants aged 25–70 years were recruited in ten European countries (1992–2000) in the PANACEA study (Physical Activity, Nutrition, Alcohol, Cessation of smoking, Eating out of home in relation to Anthropometry), a sub-cohort of the EPIC (European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition). Body weight was measured at recruitment and self-reported between 2 and 11 years later depending on the study center. A reference database for AGEs was used containing UPLC–MS/MS-measured Nε-(carboxymethyl)-lysine (CML), Nε-(1-carboxyethyl)-lysine (CEL), and Nδ-(5-hydro-5-methyl-4-imidazolon-2-yl)-ornithine (MG-H1) in 200 common European foods. This reference database was matched to foods and decomposed recipes obtained from country-specific validated dietary questionnaires in EPIC and intake levels of CEL, CML, and MG-H1 were estimated. Associations between dietary AGEs intake and body weight change were estimated separately for each of the three AGEs using multilevel mixed linear regression models with center as random effect and dietary AGEs intake and relevant confounders as fixed effects.Results: A one-SD increment in CEL intake was associated with 0.111 kg (95% CI 0.087–0.135) additional weight gain over 5 years. The corresponding additional weight gain for CML and MG-H1 was 0.065 kg (0.041–0.089) and 0.034 kg (0.012, 0.057), respectively. The top six food groups contributing to AGEs intake, with varying proportions across the AGEs, were cereals/cereal products, meat/processed meat, cakes/biscuits, dairy, sugar and confectionary, and fish/shellfish.Conclusion: In this study of European adults, higher intakes of AGEs were associated with marginally greater weight gain over an average of 5 years of follow-up.
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5.
  • Dankiewicz, J., et al. (författare)
  • Targeted hypothermia versus targeted Normothermia after out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (TTM2): A randomized clinical trial - Rationale and design
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: American Heart Journal. - : Mosby. - 0002-8703 .- 1097-6744. ; 217, s. 23-31
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background: Less than 500 participants have been included in randomized trials comparing hypothermia with regular care for out-of-hospital cardiac arrest patients, and many of these trials were small and at a high risk of bias. Consequently, the accrued data on this potentially beneficial intervention resembles that of a drug following small phase II trials. A large confirmatory trial is therefore warranted. Methods: The TTM2-trial is an international, multicenter, parallel group, investigator-initiated, randomized, superiority trial in which a target temperature of 33°C after cardiac arrest will be compared with a strategy to maintain normothermia and early treatment of fever (≥37.8°C). Participants will be randomized within 3 hours of return of spontaneous circulation with the intervention period lasting 40 hours in both groups. Sedation will be mandatory for all patients throughout the intervention period. The clinical team involved with direct patient care will not be blinded to allocation group due to the inherent difficulty in blinding the intervention. Prognosticators, outcome-assessors, the steering group, the trial coordinating team, and trial statistician will be blinded. The primary outcome will be all-cause mortality at 180 days after randomization. We estimate a 55% mortality in the control group. To detect an absolute risk reduction of 7.5% with an alpha of 0.05 and 90% power, 1900 participants will be enrolled. The main secondary neurological outcome will be poor functional outcome (modified Rankin Scale 4–6) at 180 days after arrest. Discussion: The TTM2-trial will compare hypothermia to 33°C with normothermia and early treatment of fever (≥37.8°C) after out-of-hospital cardiac arrest. © 2019
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6.
  • Sanikini, Harinakshi, et al. (författare)
  • Anthropometric and reproductive factors and risk of esophageal and gastric cancer by subtype and subsite : Results from the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) cohort
  • 2020
  • Ingår i: International Journal of Cancer. - : John Wiley and Sons. - 0020-7136 .- 1097-0215. ; 146:4, s. 929-942
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Obesity has been associated with upper gastrointestinal cancers; however, there are limited prospective data on associations by subtype/subsite. Obesity can impact hormonal factors, which have been hypothesized to play a role in these cancers. We investigated anthropometric and reproductive factors in relation to esophageal and gastric cancer by subtype and subsite for 476,160 participants from the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition cohort. Multivariable hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were estimated using Cox models. During a mean follow-up of 14 years, 220 esophageal adenocarcinomas (EA), 195 esophageal squamous cell carcinomas, 243 gastric cardia (GC) and 373 gastric noncardia (GNC) cancers were diagnosed. Body mass index (BMI) was associated with EA in men (BMI ≥30 vs. 18.5–25 kg/m2: HR = 1.94, 95% CI: 1.25–3.03) and women (HR = 2.66, 95% CI: 1.15–6.19); however, adjustment for waist-to-hip ratio (WHR) attenuated these associations. After mutual adjustment for BMI and HC, respectively, WHR and waist circumference (WC) were associated with EA in men (HR = 3.47, 95% CI: 1.99–6.06 for WHR >0.96 vs. <0.91; HR = 2.67, 95% CI: 1.52–4.72 for WC >98 vs. <90 cm) and women (HR = 4.40, 95% CI: 1.35–14.33 for WHR >0.82 vs. <0.76; HR = 5.67, 95% CI: 1.76–18.26 for WC >84 vs. <74 cm). WHR was also positively associated with GC in women, and WC was positively associated with GC in men. Inverse associations were observed between parity and EA (HR = 0.38, 95% CI: 0.14–0.99; >2 vs. 0) and age at first pregnancy and GNC (HR = 0.54, 95% CI: 0.32–0.91; >26 vs. <22 years); whereas bilateral ovariectomy was positively associated with GNC (HR = 1.87, 95% CI: 1.04–3.36). These findings support a role for hormonal pathways in upper gastrointestinal cancers.
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7.
  • Fjalldal, S., et al. (författare)
  • Detailed assessment of hypothalamic damage in craniopharyngioma patients with obesity
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: International Journal of Obesity. - : Nature Publishing Group. - 0307-0565 .- 1476-5497. ; 43:3, s. 533-544
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background/objectives: Hypothalamic obesity (HO) occurs in 50% of patients with the pituitary tumor craniopharyngioma (CP). Attempts have been made to predict the risk of HO based on hypothalamic (HT) damage on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), but none have included volumetry. We performed qualitative and quantitative volumetric analyses of HT damage. The results were explored in relation to feeding related peptides and body fat. Subjects/methods: A cross-sectional study of childhood onset CPs involving 3 Tesla MRI, was performed at median 22 years after first operation; 41 CPs, median age 35 (range: 17–56), of whom 23 had HT damage, were compared to 32 controls. After exclusions, 35 patients and 31 controls remained in the MRI study. Main outcome measures were the relation of metabolic parameters to HT volume and qualitative analyses of HT damage. Results: Metabolic parameters scored persistently very high in vascular risk particularly among HT damaged patients. Patients had smaller HT volumes compared to controls 769 (35–1168) mm3 vs. 879 (775–1086) mm3; P < 0.001. HT volume correlated negatively with fat mass and leptin among CP patients (rs = −0.67; P <.001; rs = −0.53; P = 0.001), and explained 39% of the variation in fat mass. For every 100 mm3 increase in HT volume fat mass decreased by 2.7 kg (95% CI: 1.5–3.9; P < 0.001). Qualitative assessments revealed HT damage in three out of six patients with normal volumetry, but HT damage according to operation records. Conclusions: A decrease in HT volume was associated with an increase in fat mass and leptin. We present a method with a high inter-rater reliability (0.94) that can be applied by nonradiologists for the assessment of HT damage. The method may be valuable in the risk assessment of diseases involving the HT.
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8.
  • Hallqvist, A., et al. (författare)
  • Concurrent cetuximab and radiotherapy after docetaxel-cisplatin induction chemotherapy in stage III NSCLC: Satellite-A phase II study from the Swedish Lung Cancer Study Group
  • 2011
  • Ingår i: Lung Cancer. - : Elsevier. - 1872-8332 .- 0169-5002. ; 71:2, s. 166-172
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background: Several attempts to increase the locoregional control in locally advanced lung cancer including concurrent chemotherapy, accelerated fractionation and dose escalation have been made during the last years. As the EGFR directed antibody cetuximab has shown activity concurrent with radiotherapy in squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck, as well as in stage IV NSCLC combined with chemotherapy, we wanted to investigate radiotherapy with concurrent cetuximab in locally advanced NSCLC, a tumour type often over expressing the EGF-receptor. Methods: Between February 2006 and August 2007 75 patients in stage Ill NSCLC with good performance status (PS 0 or 1) and adequate lung function (FEV1 > 1.0) were enrolled in this phase II study at eight institutions. Treatment consisted of 2 cycles of induction chemotherapy, docetaxel 75 mg/m(2) and cisplatin 75 mg/m(2) with 3 weeks interval. An initial dose of cetuximab 400 mg/m(2) was given before start of 3D-CRT to 68 Gy with 2 Gy per fraction in 7 weeks concurrent with weekly cetuximab 250 mg/m(2). Toxicity was scored weekly during radiotherapy (CTC 3.0), and after treatment the patients were followed every third month with CT-scans, toxicity scoring and QLQ. Results: Seventy-one patients were eligible for analysis as four were incorrectly enrolled. Histology: adenocarcinoma 49%, squamous cell carcinoma 39% and other NSCLC 12%. The majority had PS 0 (62.5%), median age 62.2 (42-81), 50% were women and 37% had a pre-treatment weight loss > 5%. Toxicity: esophagitis grade 1-2: 72%; grade 3:1.4%. Hypersensitivity reactions grade 3-4: 5.6%. Febrile neutropenia grade 3-4: 15.4%. Skin reactions grade 1-2: 74%; grade 3: 4.2%. Diarrhoea grade 1-2: 38%; grade 3: 11.3%. Pneumonitis grade 1-2: 26.8%; grade 3: 4.2%; grade 5:1.4%. The median follow-up was 39 months for patients alive and the median survival was 17 months with a 1-, 2- and 3-year OS of 66%, 37% and 29% respectively. Until now local or regional failure has occurred in 20 patients and 22 patients have developed distant metastases. Weight loss, PS and stage were predictive for survival in univariate as well as in multivariate analysis. Conclusion: Induction chemotherapy followed by concurrent cetuximab and RT to 68 Gy is clearly feasible with promising survival. Toxicity, e.g. pneumonitis and esophagitis is low compared to most schedules with concurrent chemotherapy. This treatment strategy should be evaluated in a randomised manner vs. concurrent chemoradiotherapy to find out if it is a valid treatment option. (C) 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
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9.
  • Jakobsen, Janus Christian, et al. (författare)
  • Targeted hypothermia versus targeted normothermia after out-of-hospital cardiac arrest: a statistical analysis plan.
  • 2020
  • Ingår i: Trials. - : BioMed Central (BMC). - 1745-6215. ; 21:1
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • To date, targeted temperature management (TTM) is the only neuroprotective intervention after resuscitation from cardiac arrest that is recommended by guidelines. The evidence on the effects of TTM is unclear.The Targeted Hypothermia Versus Targeted Normothermia After Out-of-hospital Cardiac Arrest (TTM2) trial is an international, multicentre, parallel group, investigator-initiated, randomised, superiority trial in which TTM with a target temperature of 33 °C after cardiac arrest will be compared with a strategy to maintain normothermia and active treatment of fever (≥ 37.8 °C). Prognosticators, outcome assessors, the steering group, the trial coordinating team, and trial statisticians will be blinded to treatment allocation. The primary outcome will be all-cause mortality at 180 days after randomisation. We estimate a 55% mortality in the targeted normothermia group. To detect an absolute risk reduction of 7.5% with an alpha of 0.05 and 90% power, 1900 participants will be enrolled. The secondary neurological outcome will be poor functional outcome (modified Rankin scale 4-6) at 180 days after cardiac arrest. In this paper, a detailed statistical analysis plan is presented, including a comprehensive description of the statistical analyses, handling of missing data, and assessments of underlying statistical assumptions. Final analyses will be conducted independently by two qualified statisticians following the present plan.This SAP, which was prepared before completion of enrolment, should increase the validity of the TTM trial by mitigation of analysis-bias.
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10.
  • Jones, C, et al. (författare)
  • Precipitants of post-traumatic stress disorder following intensive care: a hypothesis generating study of diversity in care.
  • 2007
  • Ingår i: Intensive care medicine. - 0342-4642 .- 1432-1238. ; 33:6, s. 978-85
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • This prospective observational study was designed to explore the relationships between post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), patients' memories of the intensive care unit (ICU) and sedation practices.Prospective multi-centre follow-up study out to 3 months after ICU discharge.Two district general hospitals and three teaching hospitals across Europe.Two hundred and thirty-eight recovering, post-ventilated ICU patients.None.Assessment of patients' memories of ICU was undertaken at 1-2 weeks post ICU discharge. Patients' psychological recovery was assessed by examining the level of PTSD-related symptoms and rate of PTSD by 3 months post ICU. The rate of defined PTSD was 9.2%, ranging from 3.2% to 14.8% in the different study ICUs. Independent of case mix and illness severity, the factors found to be related to the development of PTSD were recall of delusional memories, prolonged sedation, and physical restraint with no sedation.The development of PTSD following critical illness is associated with a number of different precipitating factors that are in part related to how patients are cared for within intensive care. This study raises the hypothesis that the impact of care within the ICU has an impact on subsequent psychological morbidity and therefore must be assessed in future studies looking at the way patients are sedated in the ICU and how physical restraint is used.
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