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Sökning: WFRF:(Sánchez Mora Cristina)

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1.
  • Bernal, Ximena E., et al. (författare)
  • Empowering Latina scientists
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: Science. - 0036-8075. ; 363:6429, s. 825-826
  • Tidskriftsartikel (övrigt vetenskapligt)
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2.
  • Stahl, Eli A, et al. (författare)
  • Genome-wide association study identifies 30 loci associated with bipolar disorder
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: Nature Genetics. - 1061-4036. ; 51:5, s. 793-803
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Bipolar disorder is a highly heritable psychiatric disorder. We performed a genome-wide association study (GWAS) including 20,352 cases and 31,358 controls of European descent, with follow-up analysis of 822 variants with P < 1 × 10-4 in an additional 9,412 cases and 137,760 controls. Eight of the 19 variants that were genome-wide significant (P < 5 × 10-8) in the discovery GWAS were not genome-wide significant in the combined analysis, consistent with small effect sizes and limited power but also with genetic heterogeneity. In the combined analysis, 30 loci were genome-wide significant, including 20 newly identified loci. The significant loci contain genes encoding ion channels, neurotransmitter transporters and synaptic components. Pathway analysis revealed nine significantly enriched gene sets, including regulation of insulin secretion and endocannabinoid signaling. Bipolar I disorder is strongly genetically correlated with schizophrenia, driven by psychosis, whereas bipolar II disorder is more strongly correlated with major depressive disorder. These findings address key clinical questions and provide potential biological mechanisms for bipolar disorder.
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3.
  • Esteban-Cornejo, Irene, et al. (författare)
  • Fitness, cortical thickness and surface area in overweight/obese children: : The mediating role of body composition and relationship with intelligence
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: NeuroImage. - ACADEMIC PRESS INC ELSEVIER SCIENCE. - 1053-8119. ; 186, s. 771-781
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Cortical thickness and surface area are thought to be genetically unrelated and shaped by independent neurobiological events suggesting that they should be considered separately in morphometric analyses. Although the developmental trajectories of cortical thickness and surface area may differ across brain regions and ages, there is no consensus regarding the relationships of physical fitness with cortical thickness and surface area as well as for its subsequent influence on intelligence. Thus, this study examines: (i) the associations of physical fitness components (i.e., cardiorespiratory fitness, speed-agility and muscular fitness) with overall and regional cortical thickness and surface area; (ii) whether body composition indicators (i.e., body mass index, fat-free mass index and fat mass index) mediate these associations; and (iii) the association of physical fitness and cortical thickness with intelligence in overweight/obese children. A total of 101 overweight/obese children aged 8-11 years were recruited in Granada, Spain. The physical fitness components were assessed following the ALPHA health-related fitness test battery. T1-weighted images were acquired with a 3.0 Tesla Siemens Magnetom Tim Trio system. We used FreeSurfer software version 5.3.0 to assess cortical thickness (mm) and surface area (mm(2)). The main results showed that cardiorespiratory fitness and speed-agility were related to overall cortical thickness (beta = 0.321 and beta = 0.302, respectively; both P amp;lt; 0.05), and in turn, cortical thickness was associated with higher intelligence (beta = 0.198, P amp;lt; 0.05). Muscular fitness was not related to overall cortical thickness. None of the three physical fitness components were related to surface area (p amp;gt; 0.05). The associations of cardiorespiratory fitness and speed-agility with overall cortical thickness were mediated by fat mass index (56.86% amp; 62.28%, respectively). In conclusion, cardiorespiratory fitness and speed-agility, but not muscular fitness, are associated with overall cortical thickness, and in turn, thicker brain cortex is associated with higher intelligence in overweight/obese children. Yet, none of the three physical fitness components were related to surface area. Importantly, adiposity may hinder the benefits of cardiorespiratory fitness and speed-agility on cortical thickness. Understanding individual differences in brain morphology may have important implications for educators and policy makers who aim to determine policies and interventions to maximize academic learning and occupational success later in life.
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4.
  • Migueles, Jairo H., et al. (författare)
  • Accelerometer Data Collection and Processing Criteria to Assess Physical Activity and Other Outcomes: A Systematic Review and Practical Considerations
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: Sports Medicine. - ADIS INT LTD. - 0112-1642. ; 47:9, s. 1821-1845
  • Forskningsöversikt (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • Background Accelerometers are widely used to measure sedentary time, physical activity, physical activity energy expenditure (PAEE), and sleep-related behaviors, with the ActiGraph being the most frequently used brand by researchers. However, data collection and processing criteria have evolved in a myriad of ways out of the need to answer unique research questions; as a result there is no consensus. Objectives The purpose of this review was to: (1) compile and classify existing studies assessing sedentary time, physical activity, energy expenditure, or sleep using the ActiGraph GT3X/+ through data collection and processing criteria to improve data comparability and (2) review data collection and processing criteria when using GT3X/+ and provide age-specific practical considerations based on the validation/calibration studies identified. Methods Two independent researchers conducted the search in PubMed and Web of Science. We included all original studies in which the GT3X/+ was used in laboratory, controlled, or free-living conditions published from 1 January 2010 to the 31 December 2015. Results The present systematic review provides key information about the following data collection and processing criteria: placement, sampling frequency, filter, epoch length, non-wear-time, what constitutes a valid day and a valid week, cut-points for sedentary time and physical activity intensity classification, and algorithms to estimate PAEE and sleep-related behaviors. The information is organized by age group, since criteria are usually age-specific. Conclusion This review will help researchers and practitioners to make better decisions before (i.e., device placement and sampling frequency) and after (i.e., data processing criteria) data collection using the GT3X/? accelerometer, in order to obtain more valid and comparable data.
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5.
  • Migueles, Jairo H., et al. (författare)
  • Comparability of published cut-points for the assessment of physical activity: : Implications for data harmonization
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: Scandinavian Journal of Medicine and Science in Sports. - WILEY. - 0905-7188. ; 29:4, s. 566-574
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • This study aimed to compare estimations of sedentary time (SED) and time spent in physical activity (PA) intensities in children with overweight/obesity across different age-appropriate cut-points based on different body-worn attachment sites and acceleration metrics. A total of 104 overweight/obese children (10.1 +/- 1.1 years old, 43 girls) concurrently wore ActiGraph GT3X+ accelerometers on their right hip and non-dominant wrist for 7 days (24 hours). Euclidean norm -1 g (ENMO) and activity counts from both vertical axis (VACounts) and vector magnitude (VMCounts) were derived. We calculated estimates of SED and light, moderate, vigorous, and moderate-to-vigorous (MVPA) intensity PA using different published cut-points for children. The prevalence of children meeting the recommended 60 min/d of MVPA was calculated. The time spent in SED and the different PA intensities largely differed across cut-points based on different attachment sites and acceleration metrics (ie, SED = 11-252 min/d; light PA = 10-217 min/d; moderate PA = 1-48 min/d; vigorous PA = 1-35 min/d; MVPA = 4-66 min/d). Consequently, the prevalence of children meeting the recommended 60 min/d of MVPA varied from 8% to 96% of the study sample. The present study provides a comprehensive comparison between available cut-points for different attachment and acceleration metrics in children. Furthermore, our data clearly show that it is not possible (and probably will never be) to know the prevalence of meeting the PA guidelines based on accelerometer data since apparent differences range from almost zero to nearly everyone meeting the guidelines.
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6.
  • Mora-Gonzalez, Jose, et al. (författare)
  • Physical Fitness, Physical Activity, and the Executive Function in Children with Overweight and Obesity
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: Journal of Pediatric Surgery Case Reports. - MOSBY-ELSEVIER. - 0022-3476. ; 208, s. 50-
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Objective To examine the associations of physical fitness and physical activity with executive function in children with overweight and obesity. Study design A cross-sectional study involving 100 children with overweight and obesity (10.1 +/- 1.1 years old; 58.0% boys). We assessed physical fitness components (ie, muscular strength, speed-agility, and cardiorespiratory fitness) using the ALPHA battery, and physical activity and sedentary time by accelerometry. Cognitive flexibility was measured by the Design Fluency Test and Trail Making Test, inhibition by the Stroop test, and planning ability by the Zoo Map Test. Results Handgrip strength was positively associated with planning ability (P = .025). Speed-agility was positively related to cognitive flexibility and inhibition (P amp;lt; .05). Cardiorespiratory fitness and an overall fitness Z-score were positively associated with indicators of cognitive flexibility (P amp;lt; .05). No associations were found for physical activity and sedentary time with executive function (P amp;gt;= .05). Conclusions Muscular strength, speed agility, and cardiorespiratory fitness are associated with executive function in children with overweight and obesity. Cognitive flexibility seems to be more robustly associated with all fitness components, whereas planning ability and inhibition might depend on the component analyzed. The positive associations found in the present study in children with overweight and obesity call for more exercise-based randomized controlled trials in this population.
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7.
  • Musliner, Katherine L., et al. (författare)
  • Association of Polygenic Liabilities for Major Depression, Bipolar Disorder, and Schizophrenia With Risk for Depression in the Danish Population
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: JAMA psychiatry. - Chicago : American Medical Association. - 2168-6238. ; 76:5, s. 516-525
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • IMPORTANCE: Although the usefulness of polygenic risk scores as a measure of genetic liability for major depression (MD) has been established, their association with depression in the general population remains relatively unexplored.OBJECTIVE: To evaluate whether polygenic risk scores for MD, bipolar disorder (BD), and schizophrenia (SZ) are associated with depression in the general population and explore whether these polygenic liabilities are associated with heterogeneity in terms of age at onset and severity at the initial depression diagnosis.DESIGN SETTING AND PARTICIPANTS: Participants were drawn from the Danish iPSYCH2012 case-cohort study, a representative sample drawn from the population of Denmark born between May 1, 1981, and December 31, 2005. The hazard of depression was estimated using Cox regressions modified to accommodate the case-cohort design. Case-only analyses were conducted using linear and multinomial regressions. The data analysis was conducted from February 2017 to June 2018.EXPOSURES: Polygenic risk scores for MD, BD, and SZ trained using the most recent genome-wide association study results from the Psychiatric Genomics Consortium.MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES: The main outcome was first depressive episode (international Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems, Tenth Revision [ICD-10] code F32) treated in hospital-based psychiatric care. Severity at the initial diagnosis was measured using the ICD-10 code severity specifications (mild, moderate, severe without psychosis, and severe with psychosis) and treatment setting (inpatient, outpatient, and emergency).RESULTS: Of 34 573 participants aged 10 to 31 years at censoring, 68% of those with depression were female compared with 48.9% of participants without depression. Each SD increase in polygenic liability for MD, BD, and SZ was associated with 30% (hazard ratio [HR], 1.30; 95% CI, 1.27-1.33), 5% (HR, 1.05; 95% CI, 1.02-1.07), and 12% (HR, 1.12; 95% CI, 1.09-1.15) increases in the hazard of depression, respectively. Among cases, a higher polygenic liability for BD was associated with earlier depression onset (beta =-.07; SE =.02; P =.002).CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE: Polygenic ability for MD is associated with first depress on in the general population, which supports the idea that these scores tap into an underlying liability for developing the disorder. The fact that polygenic risk for BD and polygenic risk for SZ also were associated with depression is consistent with prior evidence that these disorders share some common genetic overlap. Variations in polygenic liability may contribute slightly to heterogeneity in clinical presentation, but these associations appear minimal.
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8.
  • Rodriguez-Ayllon, Maria, et al. (författare)
  • Role of Physical Activity and Sedentary Behavior in the Mental Health of Preschoolers, Children and Adolescents: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: Sports Medicine. - ADIS INT LTD. - 0112-1642. ; 49:9, s. 1383-1410
  • Forskningsöversikt (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • Background Evidence suggests that participation in physical activity may support young peoples current and future mental health. Although previous reviews have examined the relationship between physical activity and a range of mental health outcomes in children and adolescents, due to the large increase in published studies there is a need for an update and quantitative synthesis of effects. Objectives The objectives of this study were to determine the effect of physical activity interventions on mental health outcomes by conducting a systematic review and meta-analysis, and to systematically synthesize the observational evidence (both longitudinal and cross-sectional studies) regarding the associations between physical activity and sedentary behavior and mental health in preschoolers (2-5 years of age), children (6-11 years of age) and adolescents (12-18 years of age). Methods A systematic search of the PubMed and Web of Science electronic databases was performed from January 2013 to April 2018, by two independent researchers. Meta-analyses were performed to examine the effect of physical activity on mental health outcomes in randomized controlled trials (RCTs) and non-RCTs (i.e. quasi-experimental studies). A narrative synthesis of observational studies was conducted. Studies were included if they included physical activity or sedentary behavior data and at least one psychological ill-being (i.e. depression, anxiety, stress or negative affect) or psychological well-being (i.e. self-esteem, self-concept, self-efficacy, self-image, positive affect, optimism, happiness and satisfaction with life) outcome in preschoolers, children or adolescents. Results A total of 114 original articles met all the eligibility criteria and were included in the review (4 RCTs, 14 non-RCTs, 28 prospective longitudinal studies and 68 cross-sectional studies). Of the 18 intervention studies, 12 (3 RCTs and 9 non-RCTs) were included in the meta-analysis. There was a small but significant overall effect of physical activity on mental health in children and adolescents aged 6-18 years (effect size 0.173, 95% confidence interval 0.106-0.239, p amp;lt; 0.001, percentage of total variability attributed to between-study heterogeneity [I-2] = 11.3%). When the analyses were performed separately for children and adolescents, the results were significant for adolescents but not for children. Longitudinal and cross-sectional studies demonstrated significant associations between physical activity and lower levels of psychological ill-being (i.e. depression, stress, negative affect, and total psychological distress) and greater psychological well-being (i.e. self-image, satisfaction with life and happiness, and psychological well-being). Furthermore, significant associations were found between greater amounts of sedentary behavior and both increased psychological ill-being (i.e. depression) and lower psychological well-being (i.e. satisfaction with life and happiness) in children and adolescents. Evidence on preschoolers was nearly non-existent. Conclusions Findings from the meta-analysis suggest that physical activity interventions can improve adolescents mental health, but additional studies are needed to confirm the effects of physical activity on childrens mental health. Findings from observational studies suggest that promoting physical activity and decreasing sedentary behavior might protect mental health in children and adolescents. PROSPERO Registration Number: CRD42017060373.
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