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1.
  • Jonsson, Ulf, et al. (författare)
  • Psychological Treatment of Depression in People Aged 65 Years and Over A Systematic Review of Efficacy, Safety, and Cost-Effectiveness.
  • 2016
  • Ingår i: PLoS ONE. - Public Library of Science. - 1932-6203. ; 11:8
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • OBJECTIVES: Depression in elderly people is a major public health concern. As response to antidepressants is often unsatisfactory in this age group, there is a need for evidence-based non-pharmacological treatment options. Our objectives were twofold: firstly, to synthesize published trials evaluating efficacy, safety and cost-effectiveness of psychological treatment of depression in the elderly and secondly, to assess the quality of evidence.METHOD: The electronic databases PubMed, EMBASE, Cochrane Library, CINAL, Scopus, and PsycINFO were searched up to 23 May 2016 for randomized controlled trials (RCTs) of psychological treatment for depressive disorders or depressive symptoms in people aged 65 years and over. Two reviewers independently assessed relevant studies for risk of bias. Where appropriate, the results were synthesized in meta-analyses. The quality of the evidence was graded according to GRADE (Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation).RESULTS: Twenty-two relevant RCTs were identified, eight of which were excluded from the synthesis due to a high risk of bias. Of the remaining trials, six evaluated problem-solving therapy (PST), five evaluated other forms of cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT), and three evaluated life review/reminiscence therapy. In frail elderly with depressive symptoms, the evidence supported the efficacy of PST, with large but heterogeneous effect sizes compared with treatment as usual. The results for life-review/reminiscence therapy and CBT were also promising, but because of the limited number of trials the quality of evidence was rated as very low. Safety data were not reported in any included trial. The only identified cost-effectiveness study estimated an incremental cost per additional point reduction in Beck Depression Inventory II score for CBT compared with talking control and treatment as usual.CONCLUSION: Psychological treatment is a feasible option for frail elderly with depressive symptoms. However, important questions about efficacy, generalizability, safety and cost-effectiveness remain.
2.
  • Tham, Anne, et al. (författare)
  • Efficacy and tolerability of antidepressants in people aged 65 years or older with major depressive disorder - A systematic review and a meta-analysis
  • 2016
  • Ingår i: Journal of Affective Disorders. - 0165-0327 .- 1573-2517. ; 205, s. 1-12
  • Forskningsöversikt (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • Background: There has been a steady increase in the prescription of antidepressants for the elderly. This study comprises a systematic review of randomized, placebo-controlled trials of antidepressants for treatment of depressive disorder in people aged 65 years or more. Methods: PubMed, EMBASE, Cochrane Library, CINAL, and PsycINFO were searched until May 2016. Where appropriate, the results were synthesized in meta-analyses. Results: Twelve trials met the inclusion criteria. For patients with major depressive disorder, selective serotonin re-uptake inhibitors (SSRI) were not superior to placebo in achieving remission (OR: 0.79, 95% CI: 0.61-1.03) or response (OR=0.86, 95% CI: 0.51-1.10) after 8 weeks of treatment (three trials). However, maintenance treatment with SSRIs was superior to placebo in preventing relapse (OR: 0.22, 95% CI: 0.13-0.36; NNT=5, 95% CI: 3-6; two trials). Duloxetine was superior to placebo in achieving remission (OR: 1.78, 95% CI: 1.20-2.65; NNT=9, 95% CI: 6-20; three trials) and response (OR: 1.83, 95% CI: 1.96-4.08; two trials) in recurrent major depression after 8 weeks, but increased the risk of adverse events that can be problematic in the elderly. Limitations: The quality of evidence was generally low or moderate, emphasizing the uncertainty of the results. Study populations only partly covered the heterogeneous population of elderly with depressed mood, limiting the generalizability. Conclusion: The results underscore the importance of close monitoring of the effects of antidepressants in treatment of elderly patients with a depressive disorder. Methods for early detection of non-responders and effective treatment options for this group are needed.
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3.
  • Engquist, Markus, et al. (författare)
  • Factors Affecting the Outcome of Surgical Versus Nonsurgical Treatment of Cervical Radiculopathy
  • 2015
  • Ingår i: Spine. - 0362-2436 .- 1528-1159. ; 40:20, s. 1553-1563
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Study Design. Prospective randomized controlled trial. Objective. To analyze factors that may influence the outcome of anterior cervical decompression and fusion (ACDF) followed by physiotherapy versus physiotherapy alone for treatment of patients with cervical radiculopathy. Summary of Background Data. An understanding of patient-related factors affecting the outcome of ACDF is important for preoperative patient selection. No previous prospective, randomized study of treatment effect modifiers relating to outcome of ACDF compared with physiotherapy has been carried out. Methods. 60 patients with cervical radiculopathy were randomized to ACDF followed by physiotherapy or physiotherapy alone. Data for possible modifiers of treatment outcome at 1 year, such as sex, age, duration of pain, pain intensity, disability (Neck Disability Index, NDI), patient expectations of treatment, anxiety due to neck/arm pain, distress (Distress and Risk Assessment Method), self-efficacy (Self-Efficacy Scale) health status (EQ-5D), and magnetic resonance imaging findings were collected. A multivariate analysis was performed to find treatment effect modifiers affecting the outcome regarding arm/neck pain intensity and NDI. Results. Factors that significantly altered the treatment effect between treatment groups in favor of surgery were: duration of neck pain less than 12 months (P = 0.007), duration of arm pain less than 12 months (P = 0.01) and female sex (P = 0.007) (outcome: arm pain), low EQ-5D index (outcome: neck pain, P = 0.02), high levels of anxiety due to neck/arm pain (outcome: neck pain, P = 0.02 and NDI, P = 0.02), low Self-Efficacy Scale score (P = 0.05), and high Distress and Risk Assessment Method score (P = 0.04) (outcome: NDI). No factors were found to be associated with better outcome with physiotherapy alone. Conclusion. In this prospective, randomized study of patients with cervical radiculopathy, short duration of pain, female sex, low health quality, high levels of anxiety due to neck/arm pain, low self-efficacy, and a high level of distress before treatment were associated with better outcome from surgery. No factors were found to be associated with better outcome from physiotherapy alone.
4.
  • Engquist, M., et al. (författare)
  • Surgery versus nonsurgical treatment of cervical radiculopathy A prospective, randomized study comparing surgery plus physiotherapy with physiotherapy alone with a 2-year follow-up
  • 2013
  • Ingår i: Spine. - 0362-2436. ; 38:20, s. 1715-1722
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • STUDY DESIGN.: Prospective randomized controlled trial. OBJECTIVE.: To study the outcome of anterior cervical decompression and fusion combined with a structured physiotherapy program compared with the same physiotherapy program alone for patients with cervical radiculopathy. SUMMARY OF BACKGROUND DATA.: Knowledge concerning the effects of interventions for patients with cervical radiculopathy is scarce due to a lack of randomized studies. METHODS.: Sixty-three patients were randomized to surgery with postoperative physiotherapy (n = 31) or physiotherapy alone (n = 32). The surgical group was treated with anterior cervical decompression and fusion. The physiotherapy program included general/specific exercises and pain-coping strategies. The outcome measures were disability (Neck Disability Index), neck and arm pain intensity (visual analogue scale), and the patient's global assessment. Patients were followed for 24 months. RESULTS.: The result from the repeated-measures analysis of variance showed no significant between-group difference for Neck Disability Index (P = 0.23). For neck pain intensity, the repeated-measures analysis of variance showed a significant between-group difference during the study period in favor of the surgical group (P = 0.039). For arm pain intensity, no significant between-group differences were found according to the repeated-measures analysis of variance (P = 0.580). Eighty-seven percent of the patients in the surgical group rated their symptoms as "better/much better" at the 12-month follow-up compared with 62% in the nonsurgical group (P < 0.05). At 24 months, the corresponding figures were 81% and 69% (P = 0.28). The difference was significant only at the 12-month follow-up in favor of the surgical group. Significant reduction in Neck Disability Index, neck pain, and arm pain compared with baseline was seen in both groups (P < 0.001). CONCLUSION.: In this prospective, randomized study of patients with cervical radiculopathy, it was shown that surgery with physiotherapy resulted in a more rapid improvement during the first postoperative year, with significantly greater improvement in neck pain and the patient's global assessment than physiotherapy alone, but the differences between the groups decreased after 2 years. Structured physiotherapy should be tried before surgery is chosen. Copyright © 2013 Lippincott Williams & Wilkins. Unauthorized reproduction of this article is prohibited.
5.
  • Peolsson, Anneli, et al. (författare)
  • Physical Function Outcome in Cervical Radiculopathy Patients After Physiotherapy Alone Compared With Anterior Surgery Followed by Physiotherapy A Prospective Randomized Study With a 2-Year Follow-up
  • 2013
  • Ingår i: Spine. - 0362-2436. ; 38:4, s. 300-307
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • STUDY DESIGN.: Prospective randomized study. OBJECTIVE.: To investigate differences in physical functional outcome in patients with radiculopathy due to cervical disc disease, after structured physiotherapy alone (consisting of neck-specific exercises with a cognitive-behavioral approach) versus after anterior cervical decompression and fusion (ACDF) followed by the same structured physiotherapy program. SUMMARY OF BACKGROUND DATA.: No earlier studies have evaluated the effectiveness of a structured physiotherapy program or postoperative physical rehabilitation after ACDF for patients with magnetic resonance imaging-verified nerve compression due to cervical disc disease. METHODS.: Our prospective randomized study included 63 patients with radiculopathy and magnetic resonance imaging-verified nerve root compression, who were randomized to receive either ACDF in combination with physiotherapy or physiotherapy alone. For 49 of these patients, an independent examiner measured functional outcomes, including active range of neck motion, neck muscle endurance, and hand-related functioning before treatment and at 3-, 6-, 12-, and 24-month follow-ups. RESULTS.: There were no significant differences between the 2 treatment alternatives in any of the measurements performed (P = 0.17-0.91). Both groups showed improvements over time in neck muscle endurance (P = 0.01), manual dexterity (P = 0.03), and right-handgrip strength (P = 0.01). CONCLUSION.: Compared with a structured physiotherapy program alone, ACDF followed by physiotherapy did not result in additional improvements in neck active range of motion, neck muscle endurance, or hand-related function in patients with radiculopathy. We suggest that a structured physiotherapy program should precede a decision for ACDF intervention in patients with radiculopathy, to reduce the need for surgery.
6.
  • Söderlund, Anne, et al. (författare)
  • Classification of patients with whiplash associated disorders (WAD) : reliable and valid subgroups based on the Multidimensional Pain Inventory (MPI-S).
  • 2006
  • Ingår i: European Journal of Pain. - 1090-3801. ; 10:2, s. 113-119
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • BACKGROUND: Classification of patients with chronic whiplash associated disorders (WAD) into homogenous subgroups is an important objective in order to tailor interventions and to control for subgroup differences when evaluating treatment outcome. AIMS: The aims of this study were to investigate if it was possible to replicate and describe the three cluster solution and profiles found in other pain groups and describe cluster profiles based on self-reported Multidimensional Pain Inventory-scores for patients with WAD three months after the injury, describe characteristics of the clusters in relation to disability, self-efficacy and coping at the same point in time and to validate the cluster solution by comparing clusters in disability, self-efficacy and coping over time. METHODS: Ninety-one WAD-patients three months after the accident took part in the study. The measures used were the Multidimensional Pain Inventory-Swedish version (MPI-S), The Self-Efficacy Scale, The Coping Strategies Questionnaire and The Pain Disability Index. Cluster analysis was conducted for the total sample MPI-S subscale scores. RESULTS: The adaptive copers cluster represented 42% of the sample, dysfunctional 34% of the sample, and interpersonally distressed 24% of the sample. The external validation of cluster solution showed that there were several significant differences between clusters in self-efficacy, disability and coping measures. There was also a significant interaction effect (clusterxtime) in disability (PDI). Patients in dysfunctional cluster reported a decreased disability over time. CONCLUSIONS: These results support the presence of different subgroups among patients with whiplash associated disorders. This classification can be seen as a complement to a classification based on medical condition.
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7.
  • Akhavan, Sharareh, et al. (författare)
  • Blev det ett genombrott? Utvärdering av det nationella lärandeprojektet – Vård på lika villkor
  • 2014
  • Rapport (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • Sjukvården i Sverige är i dag inte jämlik, har brister i tillgänglighet och erbjuds inte på likvärdiga villkor trots Hälso- och sjukvårdslagens mål om en god hälsa och en vård på lika villkor för hela befolkningen.För att bryta den pågående trenden och öka jämlikheten gjordes en överenskommelse mellan regeringen och SKL om lärandeprojektet Vård på lika villkor (under åren 2011–2014). Syftet med projektets har varit att inom socioekonomiskt resurssvaga bostadsområden öka jämlikheten i första linjens vård. Detta genom att testa, utveckla och identifiera effektiva arbetssätt och metoder vid sju primärvårdsverksamheter från fem landsting i Sverige.Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för hälsa, vård och välfärd, fick av SKL i uppdrag att svara för forskarstöd och att genomföra en utvärdering av de metoder och arbetssätt som utvecklades och testades i lärandeprojektet.Resultatet från den genomförda utvärderingen som belyser den genomförda processen, mål- och resultat samt hälsoekonomiska aspekter beskrivs närmare i denna rapport.
8.
  • Akhavan, Sharareh, 1963-, et al. (författare)
  • Practice and Policy in Promoting Health and Equity –experiences from a national project in primary health care in Sweden
  • 2016
  • Konferensbidrag (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Introduction: The Swedish Health Care Law requires the health system to provide good care on equal terms to all. However, several reports from different governmental agencies have revealed that health care is uneven in quality, lacking in accessibility, and not offered on equal terms to all people. Recent public health reports show that inequalities in health in the population have increased. To provide health care on equal terms has become a challenge for health care.In order to apply methods for developing practice and policy in promoting health and equity the Swedish Association of Local Authorities and Regions developed and implemented a national project entitled Care on Equal Terms. The project began in 2011 and was completed in 2014 at seven Primary Health Care Units (PHCUs) in five regions. The aim of this study was to evaluate the outcomes of this project.Methods: Based on a program theoretical approach an evaluation design was developed which included process, results and economical evaluation. In the data collection and analysis mixed methods were applied.Results: According to the process evaluation, seven different strategies were applied in the process to develop primary health care on equal terms. One of the key observations was that in order to achieve health on more equal terms, health care needs to be provided on unequal terms, i. e. more needs to be done to reach those who need more assistance to access health services. Health promotion was one of the applied strategies and it was the most common strategy at some of the health care centers with the aim of developing patients' knowledge, awareness and understanding about health, care and self-care. The results evaluation showed that the PHCUs staff identified structural and organizational factors in health care as important factors for developing health promotion and equity in access. The health economic evaluation showed that the costs for implementing the activities for an improved equity were limited. Yet the majority of the PHCUs thought that the detailed regulation of their financing and reporting requirements were a limitation in their work for improved equity. Four of five county councils have recently introduced a primary care provider payment system (ACG) which may not be supportive of efforts to improve equity in access.Conclusions: It is possible to develop and maintain practices that can contribute to more equitable care and increase health care personnel’s awareness about practice and policy in promoting health and equity.
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9.
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10.
  • Arkkukangas, Marina, et al. (författare)
  • A feasibility study of a randomised controlled trial comparing fall prevention using exercise with or without the support of motivational interviewing
  • 2015
  • Ingår i: Preventive Medicine Reports. - 2211-3355. ; 2, s. 134-140
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Objective: The aim of this investigation was to study the feasibility of a randomised controlled trial (RCT) based on a multicentre fall prevention intervention including exercise with or without motivational interviewing compared to standard care in community-living people 75. years and older. Method: The feasibility of a three-armed, randomised controlled trial was evaluated according to the following: process, resources, management by questionnaire, and treatment outcomes. The outcome measures were fall frequency, physical performance and falls self-efficacy evaluated after three months. Twelve physiotherapists conducted the measurements and treatments and responded to the questionnaire. The first 45 participants recruited to the ongoing RCT were included: 16 individuals in the Otago Exercise Program group (OEP), 16 individuals in the OEP combined with motivational interviewing group (MI), and 13 individuals in the control group. The study was conducted from November 2012 to December 2013. Results: The feasibility of the study process, resources and management reached the set goals in most aspects; however, the set goal regarding the MI guide and planned exercise for the participating older people was not completely reached. No significant differences were found between the groups regarding the outcome measures. Conclusion: This study confirmed the acceptable feasibility for the study protocol in the ongoing RCT.
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