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1.
  • Norling, Rikke, et al. (författare)
  • Radiological imaging of the neck for initial decision-making in oral squamous cell carcinomas-A questionnaire survey in the Nordic countries
  • 2012
  • Ingår i: Acta Oncologica. - : Taylor & Francis. - 1651-226X .- 0284-186X. ; 51:3, s. 355-361
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background. Fast and accurate work-up is crucial to ensure the best possible treatment and prognosis for patients with head and neck cancer. The presence or absence of neck lymph node metastases is important for the prognosis and the choice of treatment. Clinical lymph node (N)-staging is done by palpation and diagnostic imaging of the neck. We investigated the current practice of the initial radiological work-up of patients with oral squamous cell carcinomas (OSCC) in the Nordic countries. Methods. A questionnaire regarding the availability and use of guidelines and imaging modalities for radiological N-staging in OSCC was distributed to 21 Head and Neck centres in Denmark (n = 4), Finland (n = 5), Iceland (n = 1), Norway (n = 4) and Sweden (n = 7). We also asked for a description of the radiological criteria for determining the lymph nodes as clinical positive (cN+) or negative (cN0). Results. All 21 Head and Neck centres responded to the questionnaire. Denmark and Finland have national guidelines, while Norway and Sweden have local or regional guidelines. Seventeen of the 19 centres with available guidelines recommended computed tomography (CT) of the cN0 neck. The waiting time may influence the imaging modalities used. Lymph node size was the most commonly used criteria for radiological cN+, but the cut-off measures vary from 0.8 to 2.0 cm. Conclusion. Overall, CT is the most commonly recommended and used imaging modality for OSCC. Despite availability of national guidelines the type and number of radiological examinations vary between centres within a country, but the implementation of a fast-track programme may facilitate fast access to imaging. The absence of uniform criteria for determining the lymph nodes of the neck as cN+ complicates the comparison of the accuracy of the imaging modalities. Well-defined radiological strategies and criteria are needed to optimise the radiological work-up in OSCC.
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2.
  • Nilsson, Karl, et al. (författare)
  • Airfoil data sensitivity analysis for actuator disc simulations used in wind turbine applications
  • 2014
  • Ingår i: ; , s. 012135-, s. 012135-
  • Konferensbidrag (refereegranskat)abstract
    • To analyse the sensitivity of blade geometry and airfoil characteristics on the prediction of performance characteristics of wind farms, large-eddy simulations using an actuator disc (ACD) method are performed for three different blade/airfoil configurations. The aim of the study is to determine how the mean characteristics of wake flow, mean power production and thrust depend on the choice of airfoil data and blade geometry. In order to simulate realistic conditions, pre-generated turbulence and wind shear are imposed in the computational domain. Using three different turbulence intensities and varying the spacing between the turbines, the flow around 4-8 aligned turbines is simulated. The analysis is based on normalized mean streamwise velocity, turbulence intensity, relative mean power production and thrust. From the computations it can be concluded that the actual airfoil characteristics and blade geometry only are of importance at very low inflow turbulence. At realistic turbulence conditions for an atmospheric boundary layer the specific blade characteristics play an minor role on power performance and the resulting wake characteristics. The results therefore give a hint that the choice of airfoil data in ACD simulations is not crucial if the intention of the simulations is to compute mean wake characteristics using a turbulent inflow.
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3.
  • Nilsson, Karl, et al. (författare)
  • Large-eddy simulations of the Lillgrund wind farm
  • 2015
  • Ingår i: ; 18:3, s. 449-467
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The power production of the Lillgrund wind farm is determined numerically using large-eddy simulations and compared with measurements. In order to simulate realistic atmospheric conditions, pre-generated turbulence and wind shear are imposed in the computational domain. The atmospheric conditions are determined from data extracted from a met mast, which was erected prior to the establishment of the farm. In order to allocate most of the computational power to the simulations of the wake flow, the turbines are modeled using an actuator disc method where the discs are imposed in the computational domain as body forces which for every time step are calculated from tabulated airfoil data. A study of the influence of imposed upstream ambient turbulence is performed and shows that higher levels of turbulence results in slightly increased total power production and that it is of great importance to include ambient turbulence in the simulations. By introducing ambient atmospheric turbulence, the simulations compare very well with measurements at the studied inflow angles. A final study aiming at increasing the farm production by curtailing the power output of the front row turbines and thus letting more kinetic energy pass downstream is performed. The results, however, show that manipulating only the front row turbines has no positive effect on the farm production, and therefore, more complex curtailment strategies are needed to be tested.
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8.
  • Framke, Elisabeth, et al. (författare)
  • Contribution of income and job strain to the association between education and cardiovascular disease in 1.6 million Danish employees
  • 2020
  • Ingår i: European Heart Journal. - 0195-668X .- 1522-9645. ; 41:11, s. 1164-1178
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Aims: We examined the extent to which associations between education and cardiovascular disease (CVD) morbidity and mortality are attributable to income and work stress.Methods and results: We included all employed Danish residents aged 30–59 years in 2000. Cardiovascular disease morbidity analyses included 1 638 270 individuals, free of cardiometabolic disease (CVD or diabetes). Mortality analyses included 41 944 individuals with cardiometabolic disease. We assessed education and income annually from population registers and work stress, defined as job strain, with a job-exposure matrix. Outcomes were ascertained until 2014 from health registers and risk was estimated using Cox regression. During 10 957 399 (men) and 10 776 516 person-years (women), we identified 51 585 and 24 075 incident CVD cases, respectively. For men with low education, risk of CVD was 1.62 [95% confidence interval (CI) 1.58–1.66] before and 1.46 (95% CI 1.42–1.50) after adjustment for income and job strain (25% reduction). In women, estimates were 1.66 (95% CI 1.61–1.72) and 1.53 (95% CI 1.47–1.58) (21% reduction). Of individuals with cardiometabolic disease, 1736 men (362 234 person-years) and 341 women (179 402 person-years) died from CVD. Education predicted CVD mortality in both sexes. Estimates were reduced with 54% (men) and 33% (women) after adjustment for income and job strain.Conclusion: Low education predicted incident CVD in initially healthy individuals and CVD mortality in individuals with prevalent cardiometabolic disease. In men with cardiometabolic disease, income and job strain explained half of the higher CVD mortality in the low education group. In healthy men and in women regardless of cardiometabolic disease, these factors explained 21–33% of the higher CVD morbidity and mortality.
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10.
  • Magnusson, Peter, et al. (författare)
  • PET med O-15-vatten påvisade myokard­ischemi där övrig utredning gick bet.
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: Läkartidningen. - 0023-7205 .- 1652-7518. ; 116
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Elevation of troponin reflects myocardial infarction. The underlying causes should be assessed, as treatment and prognosis may differ widely. Myocardial damage with non-obstructive coronary arteries requires further evaluation including magnetic resonance tomography. We report a case of significant myocardial ischemia which was unnoticed by myocardial scintigraphy but detected by positron emission tomography (PET). The 15O-water tracer allows for quantitative assessment of myocardial perfusion including regional abnormalities and may thus diagnose microvascular dysfunction.
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