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Sökning: WFRF:(Sørensen Øystein)

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1.
  • Fjell, Anders M., et al. (författare)
  • Poor Self-Reported Sleep is Related to Regional Cortical Thinning in Aging but not Memory Decline-Results From the Lifebrain Consortium
  • 2021
  • Ingår i: Cerebral Cortex. - : Oxford University Press. - 1047-3211 .- 1460-2199. ; 31:4, s. 1953-1969
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • We examined whether sleep quality and quantity are associated with cortical and memory changes in cognitively healthy participants across the adult lifespan. Associations between self-reported sleep parameters (Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index, PSQI) and longitudinal cortical change were tested using five samples from the Lifebrain consortium (n = 2205, 4363 MRIs, 18-92 years). In additional analyses, we tested coherence with cell-specific gene expression maps from the Allen Human Brain Atlas, and relations to changes in memory performance. "PSQI # 1 Subjective sleep quality" and "PSQI #5 Sleep disturbances" were related to thinning of the right lateral temporal cortex, with lower quality and more disturbances being associated with faster thinning. The association with "PSQI #5 Sleep disturbances" emerged after 60 years, especially in regions with high expression of genes related to oligodendrocytes and S1 pyramidal neurons. None of the sleep scales were related to a longitudinal change in episodic memory function, suggesting that sleep-related cortical changes were independent of cognitive decline. The relationship to cortical brain change suggests that self-reported sleep parameters are relevant in lifespan studies, but small effect sizes indicate that self-reported sleep is not a good biomarker of general cortical degeneration in healthy older adults.
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2.
  • Fjell, Anders M., et al. (författare)
  • Self-reported sleep relates to hippocampal atrophy across the adult lifespan : results from the Lifebrain consortium
  • 2020
  • Ingår i: Sleep. - : Oxford University Press. - 0161-8105 .- 1550-9109. ; 43:5
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Objectives: Poor sleep is associated with multiple age-related neurodegenerative and neuropsychiatric conditions. The hippocampus plays a special role in sleep and sleep-dependent cognition, and accelerated hippocampal atrophy is typically seen with higher age. Hence, it is critical to establish how the relationship between sleep and hippocampal volume loss unfolds across the adult lifespan.Methods: Self-reported sleep measures and MRI-derived hippocampal volumes were obtained from 3105 cognitively normal participants (18–90 years) from major European brain studies in the Lifebrain consortium. Hippocampal volume change was estimated from 5116 MRIs from 1299 participants for whom longitudinal MRIs were available, followed up to 11 years with a mean interval of 3.3 years. Cross-sectional analyses were repeated in a sample of 21,390 participants from the UK Biobank.Results: No cross-sectional sleep—hippocampal volume relationships were found. However, worse sleep quality, efficiency, problems, and daytime tiredness were related to greater hippocampal volume loss over time, with high scorers showing 0.22% greater annual loss than low scorers. The relationship between sleep and hippocampal atrophy did not vary across age. Simulations showed that the observed longitudinal effects were too small to be detected as age-interactions in the cross-sectional analyses.Conclusions: Worse self-reported sleep is associated with higher rates of hippocampal volume decline across the adult lifespan. This suggests that sleep is relevant to understand individual differences in hippocampal atrophy, but limited effect sizes call for cautious interpretation.
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3.
  • Fjell, Anders M., et al. (författare)
  • The genetic organization of longitudinal subcortical volumetric change is stable throughout the lifespan running title: Genetics of subcortical lifespan change
  • 2021
  • Ingår i: eLIFE. - : eLife Sciences Publications. - 2050-084X. ; 10
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Development and aging of the cerebral cortex show similar topographic organization and are governed by the same genes. It is unclear whether the same is true for subcortical regions, which follow fundamentally different ontogenetic and phylogenetic principles. We tested the hypothesis that genetically governed neurodevelopmental processes can be traced throughout life by assessing to which degree brain regions that develop together continue to change together through life. Analyzing over 6000 longitudinal MRIs of the brain, we used graph theory to identify five clusters of coordinated development, indexed as patterns of correlated volumetric change in brain structures. The clusters tended to follow placement along the cranial axis in embryonic brain development, suggesting continuity from prenatal stages, and correlated with cognition. Across independent longitudinal datasets, we demonstrated that developmental clusters were conserved through life. Twin-based genetic correlations revealed distinct sets of genes governing change in each cluster. Single nucleotide polymorphisms-based analyses of 38127 cross-sectional MRIs showed a similar pattern of genetic volume-volume correlations. In conclusion, coordination of subcortical change adheres to fundamental principles of lifespan continuity and genetic organization.
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4.
  • Gorbach, Tetiana, 1991-, et al. (författare)
  • Longitudinal association between hippocampus atrophy and episodic-memory decline in non-demented APOE ε4 carriers
  • 2020
  • Ingår i: Alzheimer’s & Dementia: Diagnosis, Assessment & Disease Monitoring. - : John Wiley & Sons. - 2352-8729. ; 12:1
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Introduction: The apolipoprotein E (APOE) ε4 allele is the main genetic risk factor for Alzheimer's disease (AD), accelerated cognitive aging, and hippocampal atrophy, but its influence on the association between hippocampus atrophy and episodic-memory decline in non-demented individuals remains unclear.Methods: We analyzed longitudinal (two to six observations) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)–derived hippocampal volumes and episodic memory from 748 individuals (55 to 90 years at baseline, 50% female) from the European Lifebrain consortium.Results: The change-change association for hippocampal volume and memory was significant only in ε4 carriers (N = 173, r = 0.21, P = .007; non-carriers: N = 467, r = 0.073,P = .117). The linear relationship was significantly steeper for the carriers [t(629) =2.4, P = .013]. A similar trend toward a stronger change-change relation for carriers was seen in a subsample with more than two assessments.Discussion: These findings provide evidence for a difference in hippocampus-memory association between ε4 carriers and non-carriers, thus highlighting how genetic factors modulate the translation of the AD-related pathophysiological cascade into cognitive deficits.
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6.
  • Lee, Craig M., et al. (författare)
  • A Framework for the Development, Design and Implementation of a Sustained Arctic Ocean Observing System
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: Frontiers in Marine Science. - 2296-7745. ; 6
  • Forskningsöversikt (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Rapid Arctic warming drives profound change in the marine environment that have significant socio-economic impacts within the Arctic and beyond, including climate and weather hazards, food security, transportation, infrastructure planning and resource extraction. These concerns drive efforts to understand and predict Arctic environmental change and motivate development of an Arctic Region Component of the Global Ocean Observing System (ARCGOOS) capable of collecting the broad, sustained observations needed to support these endeavors. This paper provides a roadmap for establishing the ARCGOOS. ARCGOOS development must be underpinned by a broadly endorsed framework grounded in high-level policy drivers and the scientific and operational objectives that stem from them. This should be guided by a transparent, internationally accepted governance structure with recognized authority and organizational relationships with the national agencies that ultimately execute network plans. A governance model for ARCGOOS must guide selection of objectives, assess performance and fitness-to-purpose, and advocate for resources. A requirements-based framework for an ARCGOOS begins with the Societal Benefit Areas (SBAs) that underpin the system. SBAs motivate investments and define the system's science and operational objectives. Objectives can then be used to identify key observables and their scope. The domains of planning/policy, strategy, and tactics define scope ranging from decades and basins to focused observing with near real time data delivery. Patterns emerge when this analysis is integrated across an appropriate set of SBAs and science/operational objectives, identifying impactful variables and the scope of the measurements. When weighted for technological readiness and logistical feasibility, this can be used to select Essential ARCGOOS Variables, analogous to Essential Ocean Variables of the Global Ocean Observing System. The Arctic presents distinct needs and challenges, demanding novel observing strategies. Cost, traceability and ability to integrate region-specific knowledge have to be balanced, in an approach that builds on existing and new observing infrastructure. ARCGOOS should benefit from established data infrastructures following the Findable, Accessible, Interoperable, Reuseable Principles to ensure preservation and sharing of data and derived products. Linking to the Sustaining Arctic Observing Networks (SAON) process and involving Arctic stakeholders, for example through liaison with the International Arctic Science Committee (IASC), can help ensure success.
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9.
  • Nyberg, Lars, et al. (författare)
  • Educational attainment does not influence brain aging
  • 2021
  • Ingår i: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. - 0027-8424 .- 1091-6490. ; 118:18
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Education has been related to various advantageous lifetime outcomes. Here, using longitudinal structural MRI data (4,422 observations), we tested the influential hypothesis that higher education translates into slower rates of brain aging. Cross-sectionally, education was modestly associated with regional cortical volume. However, despite marked mean atrophy in the cortex and hippocampus, education did not influence rates of change. The results were replicated across two independent samples. Our findings challenge the view that higher education slows brain aging.
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10.
  • Opedal, Øystein H., et al. (författare)
  • Herbivores reduce seedling recruitment in alpine plant communities
  • 2021
  • Ingår i: Nordic Journal of Botany. - : Wiley-Blackwell. - 0107-055X. ; 39:2
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Through changes in climate and other environmental factors, alpine tundra ecosystems are subject to increased cover of erect shrubs, reduced predictability of rodent dynamics and changes in wild and domesticated herbivore densities. To predict the dynamics of these ecosystems, we need to understand how these simultaneous changes affect alpine vegetation. In the long term, vegetation dynamics may depend critically on seedling recruitment. To study drivers of alpine plant seedling recruitment, we set up a field experiment where we manipulated the opportunity for plant–plant interactions through vegetation removal and introduction of willow transplants, the occurrence of herbivory through caging of plots, and then sowed 14 species into the plots. We replicated the experiment in three common alpine vegetation types (heath, meadow and Salix shrubland) and recorded seedling emergence and survival over five years. Strong effects of vegetation removal and substantial differences in recruitment among dominant vegetation types suggested important effects of local vegetation on the recruitment success of vascular-plant seedlings. Similarly, herbivore exclusion had strong positive effects on recruitment success. This effect arose primarily via reduced seedling mortality in plots from which herbivores had been experimentally excluded and became noticeably stronger over time. In contrast, we detected no consistent effects of experimental willow shrub introduction on seedling recruitment. These results demonstrate that large and small herbivores can affect alpine plant seedling recruitment negatively by trampling and feeding on seedlings. Importantly, the effects became stronger over time, suggesting that effects of herbivory on seedling recruitment accumulates over time and may relate to recruitment phases beyond initial seedling emergence.
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