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Sökning: WFRF:(S Subramanian)

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  • Ederle, Joerg, et al. (författare)
  • Carotid artery stenting compared with endarterectomy in patients with symptomatic carotid stenosis (International Carotid Stenting Study): an interim analysis of a randomised controlled trial
  • 2010
  • Ingår i: The Lancet. - : Elsevier. - 1474-547X. ; 375:9719, s. 985-997
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background Stents are an alternative treatment to carotid endarterectomy for symptomatic carotid stenosis, but previous trials have not established equivalent safety and efficacy. We compared the safety of carotid artery stenting with that of carotid endarterectomy. Methods The International Carotid Stenting Study (ICSS) is a multicentre, international, randomised controlled trial with blinded adjudication of outcomes. Patients with recently symptomatic carotid artery stenosis were randomly assigned in a 1:1 ratio to receive carotid artery stenting or carotid endarterectomy. Randomisation was by telephone call or fax to a central computerised service and was stratified by centre with minimisation for sex, age, contralateral occlusion, and side of the randomised artery. Patients and investigators were not masked to treatment assignment. Patients were followed up by independent clinicians not directly involved in delivering the randomised treatment. The primary outcome measure of the trial is the 3-year rate of fatal or disabling stroke in any territory, which has not been analysed yet. The main outcome measure for the interim safety analysis was the 120-day rate of stroke, death, or procedural myocardial infarction. Analysis was by intention to treat (ITT). This study is registered, number ISRCTN25337470. Findings The trial enrolled 1713 patients (stenting group, n=855; endarterectomy group, n=858). Two patients in the stenting group and one in the endarterectomy group withdrew immediately after randomisation, and were not included in the ITT analysis. Between randomisation and 120 days, there were 34 (Kaplan-Meier estimate 4.0%) events of disabling stroke or death in the stenting group compared with 27 (3.2%) events in the endarterectomy group (hazard ratio [HR] 1.28, 95% CI 0.77-2.11). The incidence of stroke, death, or procedural myocardial infarction was 8.5% in the stenting group compared with 5.2% in the endarterectomy group (72 vs 44 events; HR 1.69, 1.16-2.45, p=0.006), Risks of any stroke (65 vs 35 events; HR 1.92, 1.27-2.89) and all-cause death (19 vs seven events; HR 2.76, 1.16-6.56) were higher in the stenting group than in the endarterectomy group. Three procedural myocardial infarctions were recorded in the stenting group, all of which were fatal, compared with four, all non-fatal, in the endarterectomy group. There was one event of cranial nerve palsy in the stenting group compared with 45 in the endarterectomy group. There were also fewer haematomas of any severity in the stenting group than in the endarterectomy group (31 vs 50 events; p=0.0197). Interpretation Completion of long-term follow-up is needed to establish the efficacy of carotid artery stenting compared with endarterectomy. In the meantime, carotid endarterectomy should remain the treatment of choice for patients suitable for surgery.
  • Cheung, K. H., et al. (författare)
  • Extending gene ontology in the context of extracellular RNA and vesicle communication
  • 2016
  • Ingår i: Journal of Biomedical Semantics. - 2041-1480. ; 7
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background: To address the lack of standard terminology to describe extracellular RNA (exRNA) data/metadata, we have launched an inter-community effort to extend the Gene Ontology (GO) with subcellular structure concepts relevant to the exRNA domain. By extending GO in this manner, the exRNA data/metadata will be more easily annotated and queried because it will be based on a shared set of terms and relationships relevant to extracellular research. Methods: By following a consensus-building process, we have worked with several academic societies/consortia, including ERCC, ISEV, and ASEMV, to identify and approve a set of exRNA and extracellular vesicle-related terms and relationships that have been incorporated into GO. In addition, we have initiated an ongoing process of extractions of gene product annotations associated with these terms from Vesiclepedia and ExoCarta, conversion of the extracted annotations to Gene Association File (GAF) format for batch submission to GO, and curation of the submitted annotations by the GO Consortium. As a use case, we have incorporated some of the GO terms into annotations of samples from the exRNA Atlas and implemented a faceted search interface based on such annotations. Results: We have added 7 new terms and modified 9 existing terms (along with their synonyms and relationships) to GO. Additionally, 18,695 unique coding gene products (mRNAs and proteins) and 963 unique non-coding gene products (ncRNAs) which are associated with the terms: "extracellular vesicle", "extracellular exosome", "apoptotic body", and "microvesicle" were extracted from ExoCarta and Vesiclepedia. These annotations are currently being processed for submission to GO. Conclusions: As an inter-community effort, we have made a substantial update to GO in the exRNA context. We have also demonstrated the utility of some of the new GO terms for sample annotation and metadata search.
  • Rosengren, Annika, 1951, et al. (författare)
  • Education and risk for acute myocardial infarction in 52 high, middle and low-income countries: INTERHEART case-control study
  • 2009
  • Ingår i: Heart. - 1468-201X. ; 95:24, s. 2014-22
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • OBJECTIVE: To determine the effect of education and other measures of socioeconomic status (SES) on risk of acute myocardial infarction (AMI) in patients and controls from countries with diverse economic circumstances (high, middle, and low income countries). DESIGN: Case-control study. SETTING: 52 countries from all inhabited regions of the world. PARTICIPANTS: 12242 cases and 14622 controls. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: First non-fatal AMI. RESULTS: SES was measured using education, family income, possessions in the household and occupation. Low levels of education (< or =8 years) were more common in cases compared to controls (45.0% and 38.1%; p<0.0001). The odds ratio (OR) for low education adjusted for age, sex and region was 1.56 (95% confidence interval 1.47 to 1.66). After further adjustment for psychosocial, lifestyle, other factors and mutually for other socioeconomic factors, the OR associated with education < or =8 years was 1.31 (1.20 to 1.44) (p<0.0001). Modifiable lifestyle factors (smoking, exercise, consumption of vegetables and fruits, alcohol and abdominal obesity) explained about half of the socioeconomic gradient. Family income, numbers of possessions and non-professional occupation were only weakly or not at all independently related to AMI. In high-income countries (World Bank Classification), the risk factor adjusted OR associated with low education was 1.61 (1.33 to 1.94), whereas it was substantially lower in low-income and middle-income countries: 1.25 (1.14 to 1.37) (p for interaction 0.045). CONCLUSION: Of the SES measures we studied, low education was the marker most consistently associated with increased risk for AMI globally, most markedly in high-income countries.
  • Teufel, Felix, et al. (författare)
  • Analysis of Attained Height and Diabetes Among 554,122 Adults Across 25 Low- and Middle-Income Countries
  • Ingår i: Diabetes Care. - : American Diabetes Association. - 1935-5548. ; 43:10, s. 2403-2410
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • OBJECTIVE: The prevalence of type 2 diabetes is rising rapidly in low-income and middle-income countries (LMICs), but the factors driving this rapid increase are not well understood. Adult height, in particular shorter height, has been suggested to contribute to the pathophysiology and epidemiology of diabetes and may inform how adverse environmental conditions in early life affect diabetes risk. We therefore systematically analyzed the association of adult height and diabetes across LMICs, where such conditions are prominent.RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: We pooled individual-level data from nationally representative surveys in LMICs that included anthropometric measurements and diabetes biomarkers. We calculated odds ratios (ORs) for the relationship between attained adult height and diabetes using multilevel mixed-effects logistic regression models. We estimated ORs for the pooled sample, major world regions, and individual countries, in addition to stratifying all analyses by sex. We examined heterogeneity by individual-level characteristics.RESULTS: Our sample included 554,122 individuals across 25 population-based surveys. Average height was 161.7 cm (95% CI 161.2-162.3), and the crude prevalence of diabetes was 7.5% (95% CI 6.9-8.2). We found no relationship between adult height and diabetes across LMICs globally or in most world regions. When stratifying our sample by country and sex, we found an inverse association between adult height and diabetes in 5% of analyses (2 out of 50). Results were robust to alternative model specifications.CONCLUSIONS: Adult height is not associated with diabetes across LMICs. Environmental factors in early life reflected in attained adult height likely differ from those predisposing individuals for diabetes.
  • Corsi, D. J., et al. (författare)
  • Prospective Urban Rural Epidemiology (PURE) study: Baseline characteristics of the household sample and comparative analyses with national data in 17 countries
  • 2013
  • Ingår i: American Heart Journal. - 0002-8703 .- 1097-6744. ; 166:4, s. 636-646 e4
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • BACKGROUND: The PURE study was established to investigate associations between social, behavioural, genetic, and environmental factors and cardiovascular diseases in 17 countries. In this analysis we compare the age, sex, urban/rural, mortality, and educational profiles of the PURE participants to national statistics. METHODS: PURE employed a community-based sampling and recruitment strategy where urban and rural communities were selected within countries. Within communities, representative samples of adults aged 35 to 70 years and their household members (n = 424,921) were invited for participation. RESULTS: The PURE household population compared to national statistics had more women (sex ratio 95.1 men per 100 women vs 100.3) and was older (33.1 years vs 27.3), although age had a positive linear relationship between the two data sources (Pearson's r = 0.92). PURE was 59.3% urban compared to an average of 63.1% in participating countries. The distribution of education was less than 7% different for each category, although PURE households typically had higher levels of education. For example, 37.8% of PURE household members had completed secondary education compared to 31.3% in the national data. Age-adjusted annual mortality rates showed positive correlation for men (r = 0.91) and women (r = 0.92) but were lower in PURE compared to national statistics (7.9 per 1000 vs 8.7 for men; 6.7 vs 8.1 for women). CONCLUSIONS: These findings indicate that modest differences exist between the PURE household population and national data for the indicators studied. These differences, however, are unlikely to have much influence on exposure-disease associations derived in PURE. Further, incidence estimates from PURE, stratified according to sex and/or urban/rural location will enable valid comparisons of the relative rates of various cardiovascular outcomes across countries.
  • Juratli, Tareq A., et al. (författare)
  • Targeted treatment of papillary craniopharyngiomas harboring BRAF V600E mutations
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: Cancer. - : WILEY. - 0008-543X .- 1097-0142. ; 125:17, s. 2910-2914
  • Tidskriftsartikel (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • Papillary craniopharyngiomas (PCPs) are characterized by the presence of BRAF V600E mutations, which are emerging as a useful guide for diagnosis and treatment decision making. The ongoing multicenter phase 2 Alliance A071601 trial is evaluating the efficacy of BRAF and mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase (MEK) inhibitors for patients with PCPs. With continued successful responses, it is proposed that BRAF (and MEK) inhibitors be evaluated for the neoadjuvant treatment of patients with PCPs.
  • Malmberg, Bo, et al. (författare)
  • Links between ill health and regional economic performance : Evidence from Swedish longitudinal data
  • 2010
  • Ingår i: Environment and planning A. - 0308-518X .- 1472-3409. ; 42:5, s. 1210-1220
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • While poor health has been associated with economic outcomes at the national level, its effect on economic outcomes at the individual and local level remains less well known. Using nationally representative longitudinal data from Sweden, we examined the extent to which an individual’s poor health leads to poor economic outcomes for that individual. In order to understand the effects of poor health at a regional level, we also examined the spillover effects of the individual’s poor health on the economic outcomes of the people linked to the individual. We report an association between an individual’s poor health and both that individual’s subsequent adverse economic outcomes and adverse economic outcomes of the individual’s network. Our study highlights the importance of the association between health and economic well-being as well as potential adverse spillover effects of poor health on local economies.
  • Merlo, Juan, et al. (författare)
  • General and specific contextual effects in multilevel regression analyses and their paradoxical relationship : A conceptual tutorial
  • 2018
  • Ingår i: ; 5, s. 33-37
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • To be relevant for public health, a context (e.g., neighborhood, school, hospital) should influence or affect the health status of the individuals included in it. The greater the influence of the shared context, the higher the correlation of subject outcomes within that context is likely to be. This intra-context or intra-class correlation is of substantive interest and has been used to quantify the magnitude of the general contextual effect (GCE). Furthermore, ignoring the intra-class correlation in a regression analysis results in spuriously narrow 95% confidence intervals around the estimated regression coefficients of the specific contextual variables entered as covariates and, thereby, overestimates the precision of the estimated specific contextual effects (SCEs). Multilevel regression analysis is an appropriate methodology for investigating both GCEs and SCEs. However, frequently researchers only report SCEs and disregard the study of the GCE, unaware that small GCEs lead to more precise estimates of SCEs so, paradoxically, the less relevant the context is, the easier it is to detect (and publish) small but "statistically significant" SCEs. We describe this paradoxical situation and encourage researchers performing multilevel regression analysis to consider simultaneously both the GCE and SCEs when interpreting contextual influences on individual health.
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