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Sökning: WFRF:(Saal Lao)

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1.
  • Cirenajwis, Helena, et al. (författare)
  • Molecular stratification of metastatic melanoma using gene expression profiling: prediction of survival outcome and benefit from molecular targeted therapy.
  • 2015
  • Ingår i: Oncotarget. - Impact Journals, LLC. - 1949-2553. ; 6:14, s. 12297-12309
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Melanoma is currently divided on a genetic level according to mutational status. However, this classification does not optimally predict prognosis. In prior studies, we have defined gene expression phenotypes (high-immune, pigmentation, proliferative and normal-like), which are predictive of survival outcome as well as informative of biology. Herein, we employed a population-based metastatic melanoma cohort and external cohorts to determine the prognostic and predictive significance of the gene expression phenotypes. We performed expression profiling on 214 cutaneous melanoma tumors and found an increased risk of developing distant metastases in the pigmentation (HR, 1.9; 95% CI, 1.05-3.28; P=0.03) and proliferative (HR, 2.8; 95% CI, 1.43-5.57; P=0.003) groups as compared to the high-immune response group. Further genetic characterization of melanomas using targeted deep-sequencing revealed similar mutational patterns across these phenotypes. We also used publicly available expression profiling data from melanoma patients treated with targeted or vaccine therapy in order to determine if our signatures predicted therapeutic response. In patients receiving targeted therapy, melanomas resistant to targeted therapy were enriched in the MITF-low proliferative subtype as compared to pre-treatment biopsies (P=0.02). In summary, the melanoma gene expression phenotypes are highly predictive of survival outcome and can further help to discriminate patients responding to targeted therapy.
2.
  • Holm, Karolina, et al. (författare)
  • Global H3K27 trimethylation and EZH2 abundance in breast tumor subtypes
  • 2012
  • Ingår i: Molecular Oncology. - Elsevier. - 1574-7891 .- 1878-0261. ; 6:5, s. 494-506
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • <p>Polycomb repressive complex 2 (PRC2) and its core member enhancer of zeste homolog 2 (EZH2) mediate the epigenetic gene silencing mark: trimethylation of lysine 27 on histone 3 (H3K27me3). H3K27me3 is characteristic of the chromatin at genes involved in developmental regulation in undifferentiated cells. Overexpression of EZH2 has been found in several cancer types such as breast, prostate, melanoma and bladder cancer. Moreover, overexpression is associated with highly proliferative and aggressive types of breast and prostate tumors. We have analyzed the abundance of EZH2 and H3K27me3 using immunohistochemistry in two large and Well-characterized breast tumor data sets encompassing more than 400 tumors. The results have been analyzed in relation to the molecular subtypes of breast tumors (basal-like, luminal A, luminal B, HER2-enriched and normal-like), as well as in subtypes defined by clinical markers (triple negative, ER+/HER2-/Ki67low, ER+/HER2-/Ki67high and HER2+), and were validated in representative breast cancer cell lines by western blot. We found significantly different expression of both EZH2 and H3K27me3 across all subtypes with high abundance of EZH2 in basal-like, triple negative and HER2-enriched tumors, and high H3K27me3 in luminal A, HER2-enriched and normal-like tumors. Intriguingly, the two markers show an inverse correlation, particularly for the basal-like and triple negative tumors. Consequently, high expression of EZH2 was associated with poor distant disease-free survival whereas high expression of H3K27me3 was associated with better survival. Additionally, none of 182 breast tumors was found to carry a previously described EZH2 mutation affecting Tyr641. Our observation that increased expression of EZH2 does not necessarily correlate with increased abundance of H3K27me3 supports the idea that EZH2 can have effects beyond epigenetic silencing of target genes in breast cancer.</p>
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3.
  • Maurer, Matthew, et al. (författare)
  • 3-Phosphoinositide-dependent kinase 1 potentiates upstream lesions on the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase pathway in breast carcinoma
  • 2009
  • Ingår i: Cancer Research. - American Association for Cancer Research Inc.. - 1538-7445. ; 69:15, s. 306-6299
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Lesions of ERBB2, PTEN, and PIK3CA activate the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) pathway during cancer development by increasing levels of phosphatidylinositol-3,4,5-triphosphate (PIP(3)). 3-Phosphoinositide-dependent kinase 1 (PDK1) is the first node of the PI3K signal output and is required for activation of AKT. PIP(3) recruits PDK1 and AKT to the cell membrane through interactions with their pleckstrin homology domains, allowing PDK1 to activate AKT by phosphorylating it at residue threonine-308. We show that total PDK1 protein and mRNA were overexpressed in a majority of human breast cancers and that 21% of tumors had five or more copies of the gene encoding PDK1, PDPK1. We found that increased PDPK1 copy number was associated with upstream pathway lesions (ERBB2 amplification, PTEN loss, or PIK3CA mutation), as well as patient survival. Examination of an independent set of breast cancers and tumor cell lines derived from multiple forms of human cancers also found increased PDK1 protein levels associated with such upstream pathway lesions. In human mammary cells, PDK1 enhanced the ability of upstream lesions to signal to AKT, stimulate cell growth and migration, and rendered cells more resistant to PDK1 and PI3K inhibition. After orthotopic transplantation, PDK1 overexpression was not oncogenic but dramatically enhanced the ability of ERBB2 to form tumors. Our studies argue that PDK1 overexpression and increased PDPK1 copy number are common occurrences in cancer that potentiate the oncogenic effect of upstream lesions on the PI3K pathway. Therefore, we conclude that alteration of PDK1 is a critical component of oncogenic PI3K signaling in breast cancer.
4.
  • Nilsson, Martin P., et al. (författare)
  • Germline mutations in BRCA1 and BRCA2 incidentally revealed in a biobank research study : : experiences from re-contacting mutation carriers and relatives
  • 2018
  • Ingår i: Journal of Community Genetics. - Springer. - 1868-310X. ; 9:3, s. 201-208
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Once an incidental finding (IF) is discovered in the course of genomic research, the researchers are faced with the question of whether or not that finding should be reported back to the study participant. A large number of hypothetical studies and policy documents on this issue have been published, but there are very few empirical studies to inform the bioethics debate. Within a biobank research study of somatic mutations in breast carcinomas, ten germline BRCA1/2 mutations were incidentally detected. After thorough discussions within a group of experts, the mutation carriers (n = 7) or relatives of deceased carriers (n = 3) were re-contacted and informed about the findings. Eight out of ten accepted to receive the information and underwent confirmatory testing. One year later, semi-structured interviews were undertaken with three of the study participants. All of them felt that BRCA mutations discovered in the course of research should be reported back to the individual study participants. In this paper, we report our step-by-step experiences of the re-contacting process. We hope that our detailed reporting will be helpful for other researchers and clinicians that are faced with similar situations. The results of our study lend empirical support to opinion that IFs that meet the three baseline criteria of analytic validity, clinical significance, and actionability should be reported back to the individual study participants.
5.
  • Roswall, Pernilla, et al. (författare)
  • Microenvironmental control of breast cancer subtype elicited through paracrine platelet-derived growth factor-CC signaling
  • 2018
  • Ingår i: Nature Medicine. - Nature Publishing Group. - 1546-170X. ; 24, s. 463-473
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Breast tumors of the basal-like, hormone receptor-negative subtype remain an unmet clinical challenge, as there is high rate of recurrence and poor survival in patients following treatment. Coevolution of the malignant mammary epithelium and its underlying stroma instigates cancer-associated fibroblasts (CAFs) to support most, if not all, hallmarks of cancer progression. Here we delineate a previously unappreciated role for CAFs as determinants of the molecular subtype of breast cancer. We identified paracrine crosstalk between cancer cells expressing platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF)-CC and CAFs expressing the cognate receptors in human basal-like mammary carcinomas. Genetic or pharmacological intervention of PDGF-CC activity in mouse models of cancer resulted in conversion of basal-like breast cancers into a hormone receptor-positive state that enhanced sensitivity to endocrine therapy in previously resistant tumors. We conclude that specification of breast cancer to the basal-like subtype is under microenvironmental control and is therapeutically actionable.
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6.
7.
  • Brueffer, Christian, et al. (författare)
  • Abstract P4-09-03: On the development and clinical value of RNA-sequencing-based classifiers for prediction of the five conventional breast cancer biomarkers: A report from the population-based multicenter SCAN-B study
  • 2018
  • Ingår i: San Antonio Breast Cancer Symposium, 2017,San Antonio, United States,2017-12-05 - 2017-12-09. - American Association for Cancer Research Inc..
  • Konferensbidrag (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background:In early breast cancer, five histopathological biomarkers are part of current clinical routines and used for determining prognosis and treatment: estrogen receptor (ER), progesterone receptor (PgR), human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (ERBB2/HER2), Ki67, and Nottingham histological grade (NHG). We aimed to develop classifiers for these biomarkers based on tumor mRNA-sequencing (RNA-seq), compare classification performance to conventional histopathology, and test whether RNA-seq-based predictors could add value for patient risk-stratification.Patients and Methods:In total, 3678 breast tumors were studied. For 405 breast tumors in the training cohort, a comprehensive histopathological biomarker evaluation was performed by three pathology readings to estimate inter-pathologist variability on the original diagnostic slides as well as on repeat immunostains for this study, and the consensus biomarker status for all five conventional biomarkers was determined. Whole transcriptome gene expression profiling was performed by RNA-sequencing on the Illumina platform. Using RNA-seq-derived tumor gene expression data as input, single-gene classifiers (SGC) and multi-gene classifiers (MGC) were trained on the consensus pathology biomarker labels. The trained classifiers were tested on an independent prospective population-based series of 3273 primary breast cancer cases from the multicenter SCAN-B study with median 41 months follow-up (ClinicalTrials.gov identifier NCT02306096), and classifications were evaluated by agreement statistics and by Kaplan-Meier and Cox regression survival analyses.Results:For the histopathological evaluation, pathologist evaluation concordance was high for ER, PgR, and HER2 (average kappa values of .920, .891, and .899, respectively), but moderate for Ki67 and NHG (.734 and .581). Classification concordance between RNA-seq classifiers and histopathology for the independent 3273-cohort was similar to that within histopathology assessments, with SGCs slightly outperforming MGCs. Importantly, patients with discordant results, classified as hormone responsive (HoR+) by histopathology but non-hormone responsive by MGC, presented with significantly inferior overall survival compared to patients with concordant results. These results extended to patients with no adjuvant systemic therapy (hazard ratio, HR, 4.54; 95% confidence interval, CI, 1.42-14.5), endocrine therapy alone (HR 3.46; 95% CI, 2.01-5.95), or receiving chemotherapy (HR 2.57; 95% CI 1.13-5.86). For HoR+ cases receiving endocrine therapy alone, the MGC HoR classifier remained significant after multivariable adjustment (HR 3.14; 95% CI, 1.75-5.65).Conclusions:RNA-seq-based classifiers for the five key early breast cancer biomarkers were generally equivalent to conventional histopathology with regards to classification error rate. However, when benchmarked using overall survival, our RNA-seq classifiers provided added clinical value in particular for cases that are determined by histopathology to be hormone-responsive but by RNA-seq appear hormone-insensitive and have a significantly poorer outcome when treated with endocrine therapy alone
8.
  • Brueffer, Christian, et al. (författare)
  • Clinical Value of RNA Sequencing–Based Classifiers for Prediction of the Five Conventional Breast Cancer Biomarkers: A Report From the Population-Based Multicenter Sweden Cancerome Analysis Network—Breast Initiative
  • 2018
  • Ingår i: JCO Precision Oncology. - American Society of Clinical Oncology. - 2473-4284. ; 2, s. 1-18
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • PurposeIn early breast cancer (BC), five conventional biomarkers—estrogen receptor (ER), progesterone receptor (PgR), human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2), Ki67, and Nottingham histologic grade (NHG)—are used to determine prognosis and treatment. We aimed to develop classifiers for these biomarkers that were based on tumor mRNA sequencing (RNA-seq), compare classification performance, and test whether such predictors could add value for risk stratification.MethodsIn total, 3,678 patients with BC were studied. For 405 tumors, a comprehensive multi-rater histopathologic evaluation was performed. Using RNA-seq data, single-gene classifiers and multigene classifiers (MGCs) were trained on consensus histopathology labels. Trained classifiers were tested on a prospective population-based series of 3,273 BCs that included a median follow-up of 52 months (Sweden Cancerome Analysis Network—Breast [SCAN-B], ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT02306096), and results were evaluated by agreement statistics and Kaplan-Meier and Cox survival analyses.ResultsPathologist concordance was high for ER, PgR, and HER2 (average κ, 0.920, 0.891, and 0.899, respectively) but moderate for Ki67 and NHG (average κ, 0.734 and 0.581). Concordance between RNA-seq classifiers and histopathology for the independent cohort of 3,273 was similar to interpathologist concordance. Patients with discordant classifications, predicted as hormone responsive by histopathology but non–hormone responsive by MGC, had significantly inferior overall survival compared with patients who had concordant results. This extended to patients who received no adjuvant therapy (hazard ratio [HR], 3.19; 95% CI, 1.19 to 8.57), or endocrine therapy alone (HR, 2.64; 95% CI, 1.55 to 4.51). For cases identified as hormone responsive by histopathology and who received endocrine therapy alone, the MGC hormone-responsive classifier remained significant after multivariable adjustment (HR, 2.45; 95% CI, 1.39 to 4.34).ConclusionClassification error rates for RNA-seq–based classifiers for the five key BC biomarkers generally were equivalent to conventional histopathology. However, RNA-seq classifiers provided added clinical value in particular for tumors determined by histopathology to be hormone responsive but by RNA-seq to be hormone insensitive.
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