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Sökning: WFRF:(Salonen Laura)

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1.
  • Alakukku, Laura, et al. (författare)
  • Maatalouden ympäristötuen vaikuttavuuden seurantatutkimus (MYTVAS 3) : loppuraportti
  • 2014
  • Rapport (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • Since 1995, agri-environmental support partly funded by the EU has formed the core of Finland’s agri-environmental policy. This system has had a variety of impacts on the relationship between agriculture and the environment. Today’s agri-environmental support is one of the packages included in the Rural Development Programme for Mainland Finland (2007–2013/2014), which both in itself and through the underlying EU legislation requires monitoring of the impacts of the measures implemented. The study monitoring the impact of the 2nd Finnish agri-environmental scheme (MYTVAS 3), which ran from 2008 to 2013, forms part of this monitoring. The MYTVAS 3 monitoring study was also financed by the Ministry of the Environment. The monitoring study was carried out by a consortium coordinated by MTT Agrifood Research Finland and including the Finnish Environment Institute (SYKE), the University of Helsinki, the Finnish Game and Fisheries Research Institute and the University of Turku.The purpose of the MYTVAS 3 monitoring study was to find out how agri-environmental support and its various measures have affected the state of the environment in agricultural areas, how agri-environmental support has affected the potential for farming and how agri-environmental support should be developed to increase its impact. The monitoring focused on the impacts of agri-environmental support on the nutrient load from agriculture on the waterways and on biodiversity. When evaluating the findings presented, we should remember that while monitoring data shows that something happened, it does not necessarily explain what caused it. It is not always possible to show that particular developments were a specific outcome of the current agri-environmental support system and the implementation of its measures. The delay between a measure and its observed impact is often long, and the cause-and-effect relationships are complicated and partly unknown. Also, other agricultural policy and fluctuations on the market may affect the state of the agricultural environment directly or indirectly.The monitoring data show that agri-environmental support has not had a detrimental impact on the potential for farming. Despite a slight increase in the incidence of weeds, they do not cause problems of the kind that would require amendments to the content of agri-environmental measures. Carbon levels in the surface stratum of arable land seems to be continuing their slow decline, and there is still need for measures to preserve organic material in the soil.Compliance with the fertilisation limits in the agri-environmental support system would seem to have had very little impact on crop quality. Variations in the weight and protein content per hectolitre and per 1,000 seeds were of the same order between 2006 and 2012 as they were between 1995 and 2005. Crop quantities have also not been noticeably affected by compliance with the fertilisation limits. Average crop yields remained stable between 1986 and 2013, and no clearly different crop years were observed in the 2000s. It is possible, however, that the lower fertilisation levels could have lowered crop potential in the years with advantageous weather conditions in the 2000s and that protein contents have been lower in advantageous years.The monitoring data also show that the nutrient load potential of agriculture, measured by nutrient balances, has decreased continuously for nitrogen and particularly for phosphorus. The decrease in the nutrient load potential is due above all to a decrease in the use of synthetic fertilisers. The decline in nitrogen fertilisation has bottomed out in recent years, and low protein levels measured in high crop yield years show that there is no point in further reducing nitrogen fertilisation. Optimising nitrogen fertilisation according to how advantageous the growing season is and effectively using the soluble nitrogen in cattle manure are key measures in achieving reasonable nitrogen balances and good crop quality despite fluctuations in growing season conditions. New crop variants have been found to make more efficient use of nitrogen than old ones, and thus the introduction of new variants should be promoted. Despite the decrease in the nutrient balances, there are indications that nutrient loads in runoff water from domestic animal production sites are becoming an increasing problem. Indeed, the fundamental problem with the nutrient load from agriculture is the diversification of livestock farming and crop farming, which has made it more difficult to use nutrients appropriately. Therefore attention must be paid to measures that both boost the use of nutrients in manure and reduce the levels of nutrients that end up in manure. Based on nutrient load monitoring in the catchment areas of rivers, the phosphorus load per hectare of cropland has decreased in each programme period, being about 80% of the level of the first period (1995–1999) in the third period (2007–2013). Because of the increase in the area of cropland, the nitrogen load on waterways from agriculture continued to grow during the second programme period (2000–2006) but peaked in the third (2007–2013). A similar trend was found in the nitrogen load per hectare of cropland.The most important threat to biodiversity is caused by the development of landscape structure, typically involving a decrease in the number of open or half-open areas excluded from actual cultivation. The consequence of the clearing of margins and ecological islands located in crop fields, drainage measures aimed at increasing arable land and all rationalisation of cultivated areas is the diminishing of exactly those areas that are the most important from the perspective of the biodiversity of the agricultural environment. However, the measure-specific findings in the monitoring study show that biodiversity benefits have been locally achieved where measures have been implemented on a broad enough scale (biodynamic farming, traditional biotopes, wetlands, buffer zones, green fallow / nature management areas). Particular care should therefore be taken that all cultivated land continues to have a sufficient percentage of non-cultivated areas, whether they be natural meadows, nature management areas, biodiversity strips, buffer zones, filter strips, headlands, ecological islands, etc. Including the rather popular nature management areas as a new voluntary measure under basic measures was a significant contribution to biodiversity.Regarding the rural landscape, it may be noted that by visual inspection the area of cropland has remained largely unchanged, at the level of the landscape as a whole it is far more common for the landscape to become more closed than to become more open. This trend was also observed in the visual inspection of traditional biotopes, even if the openness of the meadows monitored largely remained unchanged.The only measures that directly address the reduction of gaseous emissions in the agri-environmental support system are the longterm grass cultivation on peat fields and special aid agreements for slurry injection in cropland. While other measures have indirectly affected gaseous emissions, the impact of agri-environmental support as a whole on reducing gaseous emissions from agriculture has been negligible. In general, we may conclude that the goals, content and support levels of agri-environmental support measures must be increasingly adapted and customised by region, by type of farming and by farm, because both the state of the agricultural environment and the needs of society differ greatly between different types of rural area.
2.
  • Danaei, Goodarz, et al. (författare)
  • Effects of diabetes definition on global surveillance of diabetes prevalence and diagnosis: a pooled analysis of 96 population-based studies with 331288 participants
  • 2015
  • Ingår i: The Lancet Diabetes & Endocrinology. - Elsevier. - 2213-8595. ; 3:8, s. 624-637
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background Diabetes has been defined on the basis of different biomarkers, including fasting plasma glucose (FPG), 2-h plasma glucose in an oral glucose tolerance test (2hOGTT), and HbA(1c). We assessed the effect of different diagnostic definitions on both the population prevalence of diabetes and the classification of previously undiagnosed individuals as having diabetes versus not having diabetes in a pooled analysis of data from population-based health examination surveys in different regions. Methods We used data from 96 population-based health examination surveys that had measured at least two of the biomarkers used for defining diabetes. Diabetes was defined using HbA(1c) (HbA(1c) >= 6 . 5% or history of diabetes diagnosis or using insulin or oral hypoglycaemic drugs) compared with either FPG only or FPG-or-2hOGTT definitions (FPG >= 7 . 0 mmol/L or 2hOGTT >= 11 . 1 mmol/L or history of diabetes or using insulin or oral hypoglycaemic drugs). We calculated diabetes prevalence, taking into account complex survey design and survey sample weights. We compared the prevalences of diabetes using different definitions graphically and by regression analyses. We calculated sensitivity and specificity of diabetes diagnosis based on HbA1c compared with diagnosis based on glucose among previously undiagnosed individuals (ie, excluding those with history of diabetes or using insulin or oral hypoglycaemic drugs). We calculated sensitivity and specificity in each survey, and then pooled results using a random-effects model. We assessed the sources of heterogeneity of sensitivity by meta-regressions for study characteristics selected a priori. Findings Population prevalence of diabetes based on FPG- or-2hOGTT was correlated with prevalence based on FPG alone (r= 0 . 98), but was higher by 2-6 percentage points at different prevalence levels. Prevalence based on HbA(1c) was lower than prevalence based on FPG in 42 . 8% of age-sex-survey groups and higher in another 41 . 6%; in the other 15 . 6%, the two definitions provided similar prevalence estimates. The variation across studies in the relation between glucose-based and HbA(1c)-based prevalences was partly related to participants' age, followed by natural logarithm of per person gross domestic product, the year of survey, mean BMI, and whether the survey population was national, subnational, or from specific communities. Diabetes defined as HbA(1c) 6 . 5% or more had a pooled sensitivity of 52 . 8% (95% CI 51 . 3-54 . 3%) and a pooled specificity of 99 . 74% (99 . 71-99 . 78%) compared with FPG 7 . 0 mmol/L or more for diagnosing previously undiagnosed participants; sensitivity compared with diabetes defined based on FPG-or-2hOGTT was 30 . 5% (28 . 7-32 . 3%). None of the preselected study-level characteristics explained the heterogeneity in the sensitivity of HbA(1c) versus FPG. Interpretation Different biomarkers and definitions for diabetes can provide different estimates of population prevalence of diabetes, and differentially identify people without previous diagnosis as having diabetes. Using an HbA(1c)-based definition alone in health surveys will not identify a substantial proportion of previously undiagnosed people who would be considered as having diabetes using a glucose-based test.
3.
  • Aaltonen, Kirsimari, et al. (författare)
  • Reliability of cyclin A assessment on tissue microarrays in breast cancer compared to conventional histological slides
  • 2006
  • Ingår i: British Journal of Cancer. - 0007-0920 .- 1532-1827. ; 94:11, s. 1697-1702
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Cyclin A has in some studies been associated with poor breast cancer survival, although all studies have not confirmed this. Its prognostic significance in breast cancer needs evaluation in larger studies. Tissue microarray (TMA) technique allows a simultaneous analysis of large amount of tumours on a single microscopic slide. This makes a rapid screening of molecular markers in large amount of tumours possible. Because only a small tissue sample of each tumour is punched on an array, the question has arisen about the representativeness of TMA when studying markers that are expressed in only a small proportion of cells. For this reason, we wanted to compare cyclin A expression on TMA and on traditional large sections. Two breast cancer TMAs were constructed of 200 breast tumours diagnosed between 1997-1998. TMA slides and traditional large section slides of these 200 tumours were stained with cyclin A antibody and analysed by two independent readers. The reproducibility of the two readers' results was good or even very good, with kappa values 0.71-0.87. The agreement of TMA and large section results was good with kappa value 0.62-0.75. Cyclin A overexpression was significantly (P<0.001) associated with oestrogen receptor and progesterone receptor negativity and high grade both on TMA and large sections. Cyclin A overexpression was significantly associated with poor metastasis-free survival both on TMA and large sections. The relative risks for metastasis were similar on TMA and large sections. This study suggests that TMA technique could be useful to study histological correlations and prognostic significance of cyclin A on breast cancer on a large scale.
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4.
  • Amini, Rose-Marie, et al. (författare)
  • Mast cells and eosinophils in invasive breast carcinoma
  • 2007
  • Ingår i: BMC Cancer. - 1471-2407 .- 1471-2407. ; 7, s. 165
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • BACKGROUND: Inflammatory cells in the tumour stroma has gained increasing interest recently. Thus, we aimed to study the frequency and prognostic impact of stromal mast cells and tumour infiltrating eosinophils in invasive breast carcinomas. METHODS: Tissue microarrays containing 234 cases of invasive breast cancer were prepared and analysed for the presence of stromal mast cells and eosinophils. Tumour infiltrating eosinophils were counted on hematoxylin-eosin slides. Immunostaining for tryptase was done and the total number of mast cells were counted and correlated to the proliferation marker Ki 67, positivity for estrogen and progesterone receptors, clinical parameters and clinical outcome. RESULTS: Stromal mast cells were found to correlate to low grade tumours and estrogen receptor positivity. There was a total lack of eosinophils in breast cancer tumours. CONCLUSION: A high number of mast cells in the tumours correlated to low-grade tumours and estrogen receptor positivity. Eosinophils are not tumour infiltrating in breast cancers.
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5.
  • Haghighi, Mona, et al. (författare)
  • A Comparison of Rule-based Analysis with Regression Methods in Understanding the Risk Factors for Study Withdrawal in a Pediatric Study
  • 2016
  • Ingår i: Scientific Reports. - Nature Publishing Group. - 2045-2322. ; 6
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Regression models are extensively used in many epidemiological studies to understand the linkage between specific outcomes of interest and their risk factors. However, regression models in general examine the average effects of the risk factors and ignore subgroups with different risk profiles. As a result, interventions are often geared towards the average member of the population, without consideration of the special health needs of different subgroups within the population. This paper demonstrates the value of using rule-based analysis methods that can identify subgroups with heterogeneous risk profiles in a population without imposing assumptions on the subgroups or method. The rules define the risk pattern of subsets of individuals by not only considering the interactions between the risk factors but also their ranges. We compared the rule-based analysis results with the results from a logistic regression model in The Environmental Determinants of Diabetes in the Young (TEDDY) study. Both methods detected a similar suite of risk factors, but the rule-based analysis was superior at detecting multiple interactions between the risk factors that characterize the subgroups. A further investigation of the particular characteristics of each subgroup may detect the special health needs of the subgroup and lead to tailored interventions.
6.
  • Kurko, Johanna, et al. (författare)
  • Imbalance of plasma amino acids, metabolites and lipids in patients with lysinuric protein intolerance (LPI)
  • 2016
  • Ingår i: Metabolism : Clinical and Experimental. - Saunders Elsevier. - 0026-0495. ; 65:9, s. 1361-1375
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • BACKGROUND: Lysinuric protein intolerance (LPI [MIM 222700]) is an aminoaciduria with defective transport of cationic amino acids in epithelial cells in the small intestine and proximal kidney tubules due to mutations in the SLC7A7 gene. LPI is characterized by protein malnutrition, failure to thrive and hyperammonemia. Many patients also suffer from combined hyperlipidemia and chronic kidney disease (CKD) with an unknown etiology.METHODS: Here, we studied the plasma metabolomes of the Finnish LPI patients (n=26) and healthy control individuals (n=19) using a targeted platform for analysis of amino acids as well as two analytical platforms with comprehensive coverage of molecular lipids and polar metabolites.RESULTS: Our results demonstrated that LPI patients have a dichotomy of amino acid profiles, with both decreased essential and increased non-essential amino acids. Altered levels of metabolites participating in pathways such as sugar, energy, amino acid and lipid metabolism were observed. Furthermore, of these metabolites, myo-inositol, threonic acid, 2,5-furandicarboxylic acid, galactaric acid, 4-hydroxyphenylacetic acid, indole-3-acetic acid and beta-aminoisobutyric acid associated significantly (P<0.001) with the CKD status. Lipid analysis showed reduced levels of phosphatidylcholines and elevated levels of triacylglycerols, of which long-chain triacylglycerols associated (P<0.01) with CKD.CONCLUSIONS: This study revealed an amino acid imbalance affecting the basic cellular metabolism, disturbances in plasma lipid composition suggesting hepatic steatosis and fibrosis and novel metabolites correlating with CKD in LPI. In addition, the CKD-associated metabolite profile along with increased nitrite plasma levels suggests that LPI may be characterized by increased oxidative stress and apoptosis, altered microbial metabolism in the intestine and uremic toxicity.
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7.
  • Magana, José Rodrigo, et al. (författare)
  • Self-Assembly and Formation of Chromonic Liquid Crystals from the Dyes Quinaldine Red Acetate and Pyronin Y
  • 2016
  • Ingår i: The Journal of Physical Chemistry Part B. - The American Chemical Society (ACS). - 1520-5207. ; 120:1, s. 250-258
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The aqueous self-assembly behavior of the dyes Quinaldine red acetate and Pyronin Y in a wide range of concentrations is reported here for the first time. 1H NMR spectroscopy, polarized-light optical microscopy, and small and wide X-ray scattering were used to get insight into molecular interactions, phase boundaries and aggregate structure. Quinaldine red acetate and Pyronin Y self-organize into unimolecular stacks driven by attractive aromatic interactions. At high concentrations, spatial correlation among the molecular stacks gives rise to nematic liquid crystals in both systems. Quinaldine red acetate additionally produces a rare chromonic O phase built of columnar aggregates with anisotropic cross-section ordered in a rectangular lattice. The O phase changes into a columnar lamellar structure as a result of a temperature-induced phase transition. Results open the possibility of finding chromonic liquid crystals in other commercially available dyes with a similar molecular structure. This would eventually expand the availability of these unique soft materials and thus introduce new applications for marketed dyes.
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8.
  • Parducci, Laura, 1965-, et al. (författare)
  • Proxy comparison in ancient peat sediments pollen, macrofossil and plant DNA
  • 2015
  • Ingår i: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Biological Sciences. - 0962-8436 .- 1471-2970. ; 370:1660, s. 20130382
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • We compared DNA, pollen and macrofossil data obtained from Weichselian interstadial (age more than 40 kyr) and Holocene (maximum age 8400 cal yr BP) peat sediments from northern Europe and used them to reconstruct contemporary floristic compositions at two sites. The majority of the samples provided plant DNA sequences of good quality with success amplification rates depending on age. DNA and sequencing analysis provided five plant taxa from the older site and nine taxa from the younger site, corresponding to 7% and 15% of the total number of taxa identified by the three proxies together. At both sites, pollen analysis detected the largest (54) and DNA the lowest (10) number of taxa, but five of the DNA taxa were not detected by pollen and macrofossils. The finding of a larger overlap between DNA and pollen than between DNA and macrofossils proxies seems to go against our previous suggestion based on lacustrine sediments that DNA originates principally from plant tissues and less from pollen. At both sites, we also detected Quercus spp. DNA, but few pollen grains were found in the record, and these are normally interpreted as long-distance dispersal. We confirm that in palaeoecological investigations, sedimentary DNA analysis is less comprehensive than classical morphological analysis, but is a complementary and important tool to obtain a more complete picture of past flora.
9.
  • Parducci, Laura, 1965-, et al. (författare)
  • Shotgun Environmental DNA, Pollen, and Macrofossil Analysis of Lateglacial Lake Sediments From Southern Sweden
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: Frontiers in Ecology and Evolution. - Frontiers Media S.A.. - 2296-701X. ; 7
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The lake sediments of Hasseldala Port in south-east Sweden provide an archive of local and regional environmental conditions similar to 14.5-9.5 ka BP (thousand years before present) and allow testing DNA sequencing techniques to reconstruct past vegetation changes. We combined shotgun sequencing with plant micro- and macrofossil analyses to investigate sediments dating to the Allerod (14.1-12.7 ka BP), Younger Dryas (12.7-11.7 ka BP), and Preboreal (<11.7 ka BP). Number of reads and taxa were not associated with sample age or organic content. This suggests that, beyond the initial rapid degradation, DNA is still present. The proportion of recovered plant DNA was low, but allowed identifying an important number of plant taxa, thus adding valid information on the composition of the local vegetation. Importantly, DNA provides a stronger signal of plant community changes than plant micro- and plant macrofossil analyses alone, since a larger number of new taxa were recorded in Younger Dryas samples. A comparison between the three proxies highlights differences and similarities and supports earlier findings that plants growing close to or within a lake are recorded by DNA. Plant macrofossil remains moreover show that tree birch was present close to the ancient lake since the Allerod; together with the DNA results, this indicates that boreal to subarctic climatic conditions also prevailed during the cold Younger Dryas interval. Increasing DNA reference libraries and enrichment strategies prior to sequencing are necessary to improve the potential and accuracy of plant identification using the shotgun metagenomic approach.
10.
  • Parducci, Laura, et al. (författare)
  • Shotgun Environmental DNA, Pollen, and Macrofossil Analysis of Lateglacial Lake Sediments From Southern Sweden
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: Frontiers in Ecology and Evolution. - 2296-701X. ; 7
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The lake sediments of Hasseldala Port in south-east Sweden provide an archive of local and regional environmental conditions similar to 14.5-9.5 ka BP (thousand years before present) and allow testing DNA sequencing techniques to reconstruct past vegetation changes. We combined shotgun sequencing with plant micro- and macrofossil analyses to investigate sediments dating to the Allerod (14.1-12.7 ka BP), Younger Dryas (12.7-11.7 ka BP), and Preboreal (<11.7 ka BP). Number of reads and taxa were not associated with sample age or organic content. This suggests that, beyond the initial rapid degradation, DNA is still present. The proportion of recovered plant DNA was low, but allowed identifying an important number of plant taxa, thus adding valid information on the composition of the local vegetation. Importantly, DNA provides a stronger signal of plant community changes than plant micro- and plant macrofossil analyses alone, since a larger number of new taxa were recorded in Younger Dryas samples. A comparison between the three proxies highlights differences and similarities and supports earlier findings that plants growing close to or within a lake are recorded by DNA. Plant macrofossil remains moreover show that tree birch was present close to the ancient lake since the Allerod; together with the DNA results, this indicates that boreal to subarctic climatic conditions also prevailed during the cold Younger Dryas interval. Increasing DNA reference libraries and enrichment strategies prior to sequencing are necessary to improve the potential and accuracy of plant identification using the shotgun metagenomic approach.
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