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Sökning: WFRF:(Samland Matthias)

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1.
  • Gratton, R., et al. (författare)
  • Investigating three Sirius-like systems with SPHERE
  • 2021
  • Ingår i: Astronomy and Astrophysics. - 0004-6361 .- 1432-0746. ; 646
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Context. Sirius-like systems are relatively wide binaries with a separation from a few to hundreds of au; they are composed of a white dwarf (WD) and a companion of a spectral type earlier than M0. Here we consider main sequence (MS) companions, where the WD progenitor evolves in isolation, but its wind during the former asymptotic giant branch (AGB) phase pollutes the companion surface and transfers some angular momentum. They are rich laboratories to constrain stellar models and binary evolution.Aims. Within the SpHere INfrared survey for Exoplanet survey that uses the Spectro-Polarimetric High-contrast Exoplanet REsearch (SPHERE) instrument at the Very Large Telescope, our goal is to acquire high contrast multi-epoch observations of three Sirius-like systems, HD 2133, HD 114174, and CD-56 7708 and to combine this data with archive high resolution spectra of the primaries, TESS archive, and literature data.Methods. These WDs are easy targets for SPHERE and were used as spectrophotometric standards. We performed very accurate abundance analyses for the MS stars using methods considered for solar analogs. Whenever possible, WD parameters and orbits were obtained using Monte Carlo Markov chain methods.Results. We found brighter J and K magnitudes for HD 114174B than obtained previously and extended the photometry down to 0.95 μm. Our new data indicate a higher temperature and then shorter cooling age (5.57 ± 0.02 Gyr) and larger mass (0.75 ± 0.03 M⊙) for this WD than previously assumed. Together with the oldest age for the MS star connected to the use of the Gaia DR2 distance, this solved the discrepancy previously found with the age of the MS star. The two other WDs are less massive, indicating progenitors of ∼1.3 M⊙ and 1.5 − 1.8 M⊙ for HD 2133B and CD-56 7708B, respectively. In spite of the rather long periods, we were able to derive useful constraints on the orbit for HD 114174 and CD-56 7708. They are both seen close to edge-on, which is in agreement with the inclination of the MS stars that are obtained coupling the rotational periods, stellar radii, and the projected rotational velocity from spectroscopy. The composition of the MS stars agrees fairly well with expectations from pollution by the AGB progenitors of the WDs: HD 2133A has a small enrichment of n-capture elements, which is as expected for pollution by an AGB star with an initial mass < 1.5 M⊙; CD-56 7708A is a previously unrecognized mild Ba-star, which is also expected due to pollution by an AGB star with an initial mass in the range of 1.5 − 3.0 M⊙; and HD 114174 has a very moderate excess of n-capture elements, which is in agreement with the expectation for a massive AGB star to have an initial mass > 3.0 M⊙.Conclusions. On the other hand, none of these stars show the excesses of C that are expected to go along with those of n-capture elements. This might be related to the fact that these stars are at the edges of the mass range where we expect nucleosynthesis related to thermal pulses. More work, both theoretical and observational, is required to better understand this issue.
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2.
  • Konishi, Mihoko, et al. (författare)
  • A substellar companion to Pleiades HII 3441
  • 2016
  • Ingår i: Publications of the Astronomical Society of Japan. - 0004-6264. ; 68:6
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • We find a new substellar companion to the Pleiades member star, Pleiades HII 3441, using the Subaru telescope with adaptive optics. The discovery is made as part of the high-contrast imaging survey to search for planetary-mass and substellar companions in the Pleiades and young moving groups. The companion has a projected separation of 0.'' 49 +/- 0.'' 02 (66 +/- 2 au) and a mass of 68 +/- 5 M-J based on three observations in the J-, H-, and K-s-bands. The spectral type is estimated to be M7 (similar to 2700 K), and thus no methane absorption is detected in the H band. Our Pleiades observations result in the detection of two substellar companions including one previously reported among 20 observed Pleiades stars, and indicate that the fraction of substellar companions in the Pleiades is about 10.0(-8.8)(+26.1)%. This is consistent with multiplicity studies of both the Pleiades stars and other open clusters.
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3.
  • Launhardt, R., et al. (författare)
  • ISPY-NACO Imaging Survey for Planets around Young stars : Survey description and results from the first 2.5 years of observations
  • 2020
  • Ingår i: Astronomy and Astrophysics. - 0004-6361 .- 1432-0746. ; 635
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Context. The occurrence rate of long-period (a greater than or similar to 50 au) giant planets around young stars is highly uncertain since it is not only governed by the protoplanetary disc structure and planet formation process, but also reflects both dynamical re-structuring processes after planet formation as well as possible capture of planets not formed in situ. Direct imaging is currently the only feasible method to detect such wide-orbit planets and constrain their occurrence rate.Aims. We aim to detect and characterise wide-orbit giant planets during and shortly after their formation phase within protoplanetary and debris discs around nearby young stars.Methods. We carry out a large L-band high-contrast direct imaging survey for giant planets around 200 young stars with protoplanetary or debris discs using the NACO instrument at the ESO Very Large Telescope on Cerro Paranal in Chile. We use very deep angular differential imaging observations with typically >60 degrees field rotation, and employ a vector vortex coronagraph where feasible to achieve the best possible point source sensitivity down to an inner working angle of about 100 mas. This paper introduces the NACO Imaging Survey for Planets around Young stars (NACO-ISPY), its goals and strategy, the target list, and data reduction scheme, and presents preliminary results from the first 2.5 survey years.Results. We achieve a mean 5 sigma contrast of Delta L ' = 6.4 +/- 0.1 mag at 150 mas and a background limit of L ' (bg) = 16.5 +/- 0.2 textual-form L bg ' =16.5 +/- 0.2 mag at 1.' ' 5. Our detection probability is 50% for companions with greater than or similar to 8 M-Jup at semi-major axes of 80-200 au and >13 M-Jup at 30-250 au. It thus compares well to the detection space of other state-of-the-art high-contrast imaging surveys. We have already contributed to the characterisation of two new planets originally discovered by VLT/SPHERE, but we have not yet independently discovered new planets around any of our target stars. We have discovered two new close-in low-mass stellar companions around R CrA and HD 193571 and report in this paper the discovery of close co-moving low-mass stellar companions around HD 72660 and HD 92536. Furthermore, we report L ' -band scattered light images of the discs around eleven stars, six of which have never been imaged at L ' -band before.Conclusions. The first 2.5 yr of the NACO-ISPY survey have already demonstrated that VLT/NACO combined with our survey strategy can achieve the anticipated sensitivity to detect giant planets and reveal new close stellar companions around our target stars.
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4.
  • Le Coroller, H., et al. (författare)
  • K-Stacker : an algorithm to hack the orbital parameters of planets hidden in high-contrast imaging
  • 2020
  • Ingår i: Astronomy and Astrophysics. - 0004-6361 .- 1432-0746. ; 639
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Context. Recent high-contrast imaging surveys, using the Spectro-Polarimetic High contrast imager for Exoplanets REsearch (SPHERE) or the Gemini Planet Imager in search of planets in young, nearby systems, have shown evidence of a small number ofgiant planets at relatively large separation beyond 10–30 au, where those surveys are the most sensitive. Access to smaller physical separations between 5 and 30 au is the next step for future planet imagers on 10 m telescopes and the next generation of extremely large telescopes in order to bridge the gap with indirect techniques such as radial velocity, transit, and soon astrometry with Gaia. In addition to new technologies and instruments, the development of innovative observing strategies combined with optimized data processing tools is participating in the improvement of detection capabilities at very close angular separation. In that context, we recently proposed a new algorithm, Keplerian-Stacker, which combines multiple observations acquired at different epochs and takes into account the orbital motion of a potential planet present in the images to boost the ultimate detection limit. We showed that this algorithm is able to find planets in time series of simulated images of the SPHERE InfraRed Dual-band Imager and Spectrograph (IRDIS) even when a planet remains undetected at one epoch.Aims. Our goal is to test and validate the K-Stacker algorithm performances on real SPHERE datasets to demonstrate the resilience of this algorithm to instrumental speckles and the gain offered in terms of true detection. This will motivate future dedicated multi-epoch observation campaigns of well-chosen, young, nearby systems and very nearby stars carefully selected to search for planets in emitted and reflected light, respectively, to open a new path concerning the observing strategy used with current and future planet imagers.Methods. To test K-Stacker, we injected fake planets and scanned the low signal-to-noise ratio (S/N) regime in a series of raw observations obtained by the SPHERE/IRDIS instrument in the course of the SPHERE High-contrast ImagiNg survey for Exoplanets. We also considered the cases of two specific targets intensively monitored during this campaign: β Pictoris and HD 95086. For each target and epoch, the data were reduced using standard angular differential imaging processing techniques and then recombined with K-Stackerto recover the fake planetary signals. In addition, the known exoplanets β Pictoris b and HD 95086 b previously identified at lower S/N in single epochs have also been recovered by K-Stacker.Results. We show that K-Stacker achieves a high success rate of ≈100% when the S/N of the planet in the stacked image reaches≈9. The improvement of the S/N is given as the square root of the total exposure time contained in the data being combined. At S/N<6−7, the number of false positives is high near the coronagraphic mask, but a chromatic study or astrophysical criteria can help to disentangle between a bright speckle and a true detection. During the blind test and the redetection of HD 95086 b, and β Pic b, we highlight the ability of K-Stacker to find orbital solutions consistent with those derived by the current Markov chain Monte Carlo orbital fitting techniques. This confirms that in addition to the detection gain, K-Stacker offers the opportunity to characterize the most probable orbital solutions of the exoplanets recovered at low S/N.
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5.
  • Mesa, D., et al. (författare)
  • Limits on the presence of planets in systems with debris discs : HD92945 and HD107146
  • 2021
  • Ingår i: Monthly notices of the Royal Astronomical Society. - 0035-8711 .- 1365-2966. ; 503:1, s. 1276-1289
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Recent observations of resolved cold debris discs at tens of au have revealed that gaps could be a common feature in these Kuiper-belt analogues. Such gaps could be evidence for the presence of planets within the gaps or closer in near the edges of the disc. We present SPHERE observations of HD 92945 and HD 107146, two systems with detected gaps. We constrained the mass of possible companions responsible for the gap to 1–2 MJup for planets located inside the gap and to less than 5 MJup for separations down to 20 au from the host star. These limits allow us to exclude some of the possible configurations of the planetary systems proposed to explain the shape of the discs around these two stars. In order to put tighter limits on the mass at very short separations from the star, where direct-imaging data are less effective, we also combined our data with astrometric measurements from Hipparcos and Gaia and radial-velocity measurements. We were able to limit the separation and the mass of the companion potentially responsible for the proper-motion anomaly of HD 107146 to values of 2–7 au and 2–5 MJup, respectively.
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6.
  • Mesa, D., et al. (författare)
  • VLT/SPHERE exploration of the young multiplanetary system PDS70
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: Astronomy and Astrophysics. - 0004-6361 .- 1432-0746. ; 632
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Context. PDS 70 is a young (5.4 Myr), nearby (similar to 113 pc) star hosting a known transition disk with a large gap. Recent observations with SPHERE and NACO in the near-infrared (NIR) allowed us to detect a planetary mass companion, PDS 70 b, within the disk cavity. Moreover, observations in H-alpha with MagAO and MUSE revealed emission associated to PDS 70 b and to another new companion candidate, PDS 70 c, at a larger separation from the star. PDS 70 is the only multiple planetary system at its formation stage detected so far through direct imaging.Aims. Our aim is to confirm the discovery of the second planet PDS 70 c using SPHERE at VLT, to further characterize its physical properties, and search for additional point sources in this young planetary system.Methods. We re-analyzed archival SPHERE NIR observations and obtained new data in Y, J, H and K spectral bands for a total of four different epochs. The data were reduced using the data reduction and handling pipeline and the SPHERE data center. We then applied custom routines (e.g., ANDROMEDA and PACO) to subtract the starlight.Results. We re-detect both PDS 70 b and c and confirm that PDS 70 c is gravitationally bound to the star. We estimate this second planet to be less massive than 5 M-Jup and with a T-eff around 900 K. Also, it has a low gravity with log g between 3.0 and 3.5 dex. In addition, a third object has been identified at short separation (similar to 0.12 '') from the star and gravitationally bound to the star. Its spectrum is however very blue, meaning that we are probably seeing stellar light reflected by dust and our analysis seems to demonstrate that it is a feature of the inner disk. We cannot however completely exclude the possibility that it is a planetary mass object enshrouded by a dust envelope. In this latter case, its mass should be of the order of a few tens of M-circle plus. Moreover, we propose a possible structure for the planetary system based on our data, and find that this structure cannot be stable on a long timescale.
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7.
  • Samland, Matthias, et al. (författare)
  • TRAP : a temporal systematics model for improved direct detection of exoplanets at small angular separations
  • 2021
  • Ingår i: Astronomy and Astrophysics. - 0004-6361 .- 1432-0746. ; 646
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Context. High-contrast imaging surveys for exoplanet detection have shown that giant planets at large separations are rare. Thus, it is of paramount importance to push towards detections at smaller separations, which is the part of the parameter space containing the greatest number of planets. The performance of traditional methods for the post-processing of pupil-stabilized observations decreases at smaller separations due to the larger field-rotation required to displace a source on the detector in addition to the intrinsic difficulty of higher stellar contamination.Aims. Our goal is to develop a method of extracting exoplanet signals, which improves performance at small angular separations.Methods. A data-driven model of the temporal behavior of the systematics for each pixel can be created using reference pixels at a different positions, on the condition that the underlying causes of the systematics are shared across multiple pixels, which is mostly true for the speckle pattern in high-contrast imaging. In our causal regression model, we simultaneously fit the model of a planet signal “transiting” over detector pixels and non-local reference light curves describing the shared temporal trends of the speckle pattern to find the best-fitting temporal model describing the signal.Results. With our implementation of a spatially non-local, temporal systematics model, called TRAP, we show that it is possible to gain up to a factor of six in contrast at close separations (<3λ∕D), as compared to a model based on spatial correlations between images displaced in time. We show that the temporal sampling has a large impact on the achievable contrast, with better temporal sampling resulting in significantly better contrasts. At short integration times, (4 s) for β Pic data, we increase the signal-to-noise ratio of the planet by a factor of four compared to the spatial systematics model. Finally, we show that the temporal model can be used on unaligned data that has only been dark- and flat-corrected, without the need for further pre-processing.
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