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1.
  • Henriksnäs, Johanna, et al. (författare)
  • Acute effects of Helicobacter pylori extracts on gastric mucosal blood flow in the mouse
  • 2009
  • Ingår i: World Journal of Gastroenterology. - 1007-9327 .- 2219-2840. ; 15:2, s. 219-225
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • AIM: To investigate the mechanisms underlying the reduction in gastric blood flow induced by a luminal water extract of Helicobacter pylori (HPE).METHODS: The stomachs of isoflurane-anesthetized mice were exteriorized, and the mucosal surface exposed. Blood flow was measured with the laser-Doppler technique, and systemic arterial blood pressure monitored. C57BL/6 mice were exposed to water extract produced from H pylori strain 88-23. To investigate the role of a nerve- or iNOS-mediated pathway, we used intraluminal lidocaine and iNOS-/- mice. Blood flow response to the endogenous nitric oxide synthase inhibitor asymmetric dimethyl arginine (ADMA) was also assessed.RESULTS: In wild-type mice, HPE decreased mucosal blood flow by approximately 30%. This reduction was abolished in iNOS-deficient mice, and by pre-treatment with lidocaine. Luminally applied ADMA resulted in reduction in blood flow similar to that observed in wild-type mice exposed to HPE.CONCLUSION: A H pylori water extract reduces gastric mucosal blood flow acutely through iNOS- and nerve-mediated pathways.
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2.
  • Hässler, Signe, et al. (författare)
  • Aire deficiency causes increased susceptibility to streptozotocin-induced murine type 1 diabetes
  • 2008
  • Ingår i: Scandinavian Journal of Immunology. - 0300-9475 .- 1365-3083. ; 67:6, s. 569-580
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Aire-deficient mice are a model of the human monogenic disorder autoimmune polyendocrine syndrome type I (APS I) characterized by a progressive autoimmune destruction of multiple endocrine glands such as the adrenal cortex, the parathyroids and the beta-cells of the pancreas. The disease is caused by mutations in the autoimmune regulator (AIRE) gene, a putative transcription factor expressed in thymic medullary epithelial cells and in antigen-presenting cells of the myeloid lineage in peripheral lymphoid organs. As Aire(-/-) mice do not spontaneously develop endocrinopathies, we wanted to evaluate the autoimmune multiple low-dose streptozotocin (MLDSTZ) diabetes model in Aire(-/-) mice. Surprisingly, Aire heterozygote mice were most susceptible to MLDSTZ-induced diabetes, whereas Aire(-/-) mice displayed an intermediate sensitivity to diabetes. Furthermore, Aire(-/-) macrophages produced higher levels of TNF-alpha and lower levels of IL-10 following streptozotocin stimulation, and Aire(-/-) mice developed a higher frequency of islet cells autoantibodies as a sign of increased activation. However, the number of islet infiltrating F4/80(+) Aire(-/-) macrophages was significantly decreased which was attributed to an increased susceptibility to streptozotocin cytotoxicity of Aire(-/-) macrophages. In conclusion, Aire(-/-) macrophages display an increased activation after STZ stimuli, but suffer from increased susceptibility to STZ cytotoxicity. These results support an important function of Aire in the control of peripheral tolerance through myeloid antigen-presenting cells.
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4.
  • Lindgren, Stefan, et al. (författare)
  • Medical education in Sweden.
  • 2011
  • Ingår i: Medical Teacher. - London : Taylor & Francis. - 0142-159X .- 1466-187X. ; 33:10, s. 798-803
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Undergraduate medical education in Sweden has moved from nationally regulated, subject-based courses to programmes integrated either around organ systems or physiological and patho-physiological processes, or organised around basic medical science in conjunction with clinical specialities, with individual profiles at the seven medical schools. The national regulations are restricted to overall academic and professional outcomes. The 5½ year long university undergraduate curriculum is followed by a mandatory 18 months internship, delivered by the County Councils. While quality control and accreditation for the university curriculum is provided by the Swedish National Agency for Higher Education, no such formal control exists for the internship; undergraduate medical education is therefore in conflict with EU directives from 2005. The Government is expected to move towards 6 years long university undergraduate programmes, leading to licence, which will facilitate international mobility of both Swedish and foreign medical students and doctors. Ongoing academic development of undergraduate education is strengthened by the Bologna process. It includes outcome (competence)-based curricula, university Masters level complying with international standards, progression of competence throughout the curriculum, student directed learning, active participation and roles in practical clinical education and a national assessment model to assure professional competence. In the near future, the dimensioning of Swedish undergraduate education is likely to be decided more by international demands and aspects of quality than by national demands for doctors.
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5.
  • Niklasson, Bo, et al. (författare)
  • Prenatal viral exposure followed by adult stress produces glucose intolerance in a mouse model
  • 2006
  • Ingår i: Diabetologia. - 0012-186X .- 1432-0428. ; 49:9, s. 2192-2199
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Aims/hypothesis: It has been suggested that the uterine environment may influence metabolic disease occurring later in adult life, and that adult stress may promote disease outcome. Using a mouse model, we tested whether in utero exposure to Ljungan virus (LV) followed by adult exposure to stress produces diabetes. The influence of the timing of viral exposure over the course of pregnancy was also tested. Materials and methods: Pregnant CD-1 mice were exposed i.p. to LV on pregnancy days 4, 8, 12 or 17. Adult male mice from these pregnancies were stressed by being kept in shared cages. Stress only, LV exposure in utero only, and no-stress/no virus exposure groups were also followed. Outcome variables included bodyweight, epididymal fat weight, baseline glucose, glucose tolerance tests (60 and 120 min) and serum insulin. Results: We demonstrated that male mice developed a type 2-like diabetes, including obesity, as adults if infected during pregnancy with LV. Diabetes at the age of 11 weeks was more severe in mice whose mothers were infected earlier than in those whose mothers were infected later in pregnancy. Only animals infected in utero and kept under stress developed diabetes; infection or stress alone did not cause disease. Conclusions/interpretation: This work demonstrates that a type 2 diabetes-like disease can be virus-induced in a mouse model. Early in utero viral insults can set the stage for disease occurring during adult life, but the final manifestation of diabetes is dependent on the combination of early viral exposure and stress in adult life.
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6.
  • Rydgren, Tobias, et al. (författare)
  • Simvastatin Protects against Multiple Low-Dose Streptozotocin-Induced Type 1 Diabetes in CD-1 Mice and Recurrence of Disease in Nonobese Diabetic Mice
  • 2007
  • Ingår i: Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics. - 0022-3565 .- 1521-0103. ; 323:1, s. 180-185
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Statins are drugs well known for their cholesterol-lowering properties. Lately, statins have been shown to possess antiinflammatory properties that might be attributed to inhibition of leukocyte adhesion and migration to sites of inflammation. Therefore, we have explored the effects of administration of simvastatin (30 mg/kg body weight given i.p. once a day, from days 4-14) on the development of diabetes induced by multiple low-dose streptozotocin (MLDS) in CD-1 mice, a type 1 diabetes model. We found that treatment with simvastatin could delay and in certain mice fully protect against MLDS-induced diabetes. The protective effect could last up to 3 weeks after simvastatin treatment was ended. Morphological examinations of the pancreas suggest that simvastatin might reduce the islet inflammation. Based on experiments in vitro, using isolated pancreatic islets, we conclude that the protective effect of simvastatin is not mediated by a direct effect on streptozotocin action but rather the result of an immunomodulatory effect. This was reinforced by the finding that simvastatin treatment also prolonged islet function in the recurrence of disease model in diabetic nonobese diabetic mice.
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7.
  • Sällström, Johan, et al. (författare)
  • High-protein-induced glomerular hyperfiltration is independent of the tubuloglomerular feedback mechanism and nitric oxide synthases
  • 2010
  • Ingår i: American Journal of Physiology. Regulatory Integrative and Comparative Physiology. - 0363-6119 .- 1522-1490. ; 299:5, s. R1263-R1268
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • A high protein intake is associated with increased glomerular filtration rate (GFR), which has been suggested to be mediated by reduced signaling of the tubuloglomerular feedback (TGF) mechanism. Nitric oxide (NO) has been shown to contribute to high protein-induced glomerular hyperfiltration, but the specific NO synthase (NOS) isoform responsible is not clear. In this study, a model for high-proteininduced hyperfiltration in conscious mice was developed. Using this model, we investigated the role of TGF using adenosine A(1)-receptor knockout mice lacking the TGF mechanism. Furthermore, the role of the different NOS isoforms was studied using neuronal-, inducible-, and endothelial-NOS knockout mice, and furthermore, wild-type mice acutely administered with the unspecific NOS inhibitor N-omega-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (100 mg/kg). GFR was measured consecutively in mice given a low-protein diet (8% casein) for 10 days, followed by a high-protein diet (50% casein) for 10 days. All mice developed high protein-induced hyperfiltration to a similar degree. These results demonstrate that high protein-induced glomerular hyperfiltration is independent of the TGF mechanism and NOS isoforms.
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9.
  • Thorvaldson, Lina, et al. (författare)
  • Impact of plastic adhesion in vitro on analysis of Th1 and Th2 cytokines and immune cell distribution from mice with multiple low-dose streptozotocin-induced diabetes
  • 2005
  • Ingår i: JIM - Journal of Immunological Methods. - 0022-1759 .- 1872-7905. ; 307:1-2, s. 73-81
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Cytokines produced by Th1 or Th2 cells have been postulated to be important in the development of type 1 diabetes in humans and animal models, such as murine multiple low-dose streptozotocin (MLDSTZ)-induced diabetes. The aim of this study was to investigate cytokine production with or without in vitro depletion of plastic adherent cells from spleens isolated after MLDSTZ treatment. Spleen cells were prepared on day 14 from MLDSTZ- and saline-treated mice and divided into two fractions. One cell fraction was depleted of adherent cells by plastic adherence and the other was not. Both cell fractions were analysed by FACS for the distribution of immune cells. In other experiments, the cells were cultured for 48 h with concanavalin A stimulation. Supernatant samples were analysed by ELISA for TNFalpha, IFNgamma and IL-10 production. Either before or after the 48-h culture cytokine mRNA expression was determined by RT-PCR. Plastic adhesion decreased the macrophage numbers by approximately 30% and CD4(+)CD25(+) cells by about 60%. This was accompanied by increased medium levels of TNFalpha, IFNgamma and IL-10, which suggest that either CD4(+)CD25(+) cells, macrophages, or both, down-regulate production of both Th1 and certain Th2 cytokines. Depletion of adherent cells also decreased IL-4 mRNA amounts. MLDSTZ treatment increased the production of Th1 cytokines mainly at the protein level, and IL-10 mainly at the mRNA level. This indicates a sustained increase in Th1 production after MLDSTZ treatment and an increase in IL-10 that might reflect an attempt to counteract the MLDSTZ-induced immune damage. Plastic adhesion during cell preparation may affect the relative distribution of certain immune cells.
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