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Sökning: WFRF:(Sauvaud J. A)

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1.
  • Lavraud, B., et al. (författare)
  • Currents and associated electron scattering and bouncing near the diffusion region at Earth's magnetopause
  • 2016
  • Ingår i: Geophysical Research Letters. - 0094-8276 .- 1944-8007. ; 43:7, s. 3042-3050
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Based on high-resolution measurements from NASA's Magnetospheric Multiscale mission, we present the dynamics of electrons associated with current systems observed near the diffusion region of magnetic reconnection at Earth's magnetopause. Using pitch angle distributions (PAD) and magnetic curvature analysis, we demonstrate the occurrence of electron scattering in the curved magnetic field of the diffusion region down to energies of 20 eV. We show that scattering occurs closer to the current sheet as the electron energy decreases. The scattering of inflowing electrons, associated with field-aligned electrostatic potentials and Hall currents, produces a new population of scattered electrons with broader PAD which bounce back and forth in the exhaust. Except at the center of the diffusion region the two populations are collocated and appear to behave adiabatically: the inflowing electron PAD focuses inward (toward lower magnetic field), while the bouncing population PAD gradually peaks at 90 degrees away from the center (where it mirrors owing to higher magnetic field and probable field-aligned potentials).
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2.
  • Jakosky, B. M., et al. (författare)
  • MAVEN observations of the response of Mars to an interplanetary coronal mass ejection
  • 2015
  • Ingår i: Science. - 0036-8075 .- 1095-9203. ; 350:6261
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Coupling between the lower and upper atmosphere, combined with loss of gas from the upper atmosphere to space, likely contributed to the thin, cold, dry atmosphere of modern Mars. To help understand ongoing ion loss to space, the Mars Atmosphere and Volatile Evolution (MAVEN) spacecraft made comprehensive measurements of the Mars upper atmosphere, ionosphere, and interactions with the Sun and solar wind during an interplanetary coronal mass ejection impact in March 2015. Responses include changes in the bow shock and magnetosheath, formation of widespread diffuse aurora, and enhancement of pick-up ions. Observations and models both show an enhancement in escape rate of ions to space during the event. Ion loss during solar events early in Mars history may have been a major contributor to the long-term evolution of the Mars atmosphere.
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3.
  • Jakosky, B. M., et al. (författare)
  • The Mars Atmosphere and Volatile Evolution (MAVEN) Mission
  • 2015
  • Ingår i: Space Science Reviews. - 0038-6308 .- 1572-9672. ; 195:1-4, s. 3-48
  • Forskningsöversikt (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The MAVEN spacecraft launched in November 2013, arrived at Mars in September 2014, and completed commissioning and began its one-Earth-year primary science mission in November 2014. The orbiter's science objectives are to explore the interactions of the Sun and the solar wind with the Mars magnetosphere and upper atmosphere, to determine the structure of the upper atmosphere and ionosphere and the processes controlling it, to determine the escape rates from the upper atmosphere to space at the present epoch, and to measure properties that allow us to extrapolate these escape rates into the past to determine the total loss of atmospheric gas to space through time. These results will allow us to determine the importance of loss to space in changing the Mars climate and atmosphere through time, thereby providing important boundary conditions on the history of the habitability of Mars. The MAVEN spacecraft contains eight science instruments (with nine sensors) that measure the energy and particle input from the Sun into the Mars upper atmosphere, the response of the upper atmosphere to that input, and the resulting escape of gas to space. In addition, it contains an Electra relay that will allow it to relay commands and data between spacecraft on the surface and Earth.
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4.
  • Fadanelli, S., et al. (författare)
  • Four-Spacecraft Measurements of the Shape and Dimensionality of Magnetic Structures in the Near-Earth Plasma Environment
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: Journal of Geophysical Research - Space Physics. - 2169-9380 .- 2169-9402. ; 124:8, s. 6850-6868
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • We present a new method for determining the main relevant features of the local magnetic field configuration, based entirely on the knowledge of the magnetic field gradient four‐spacecraft measurements. The method, named “magnetic configuration analysis” (MCA), estimates the spatial scales on which the magnetic field varies locally. While it directly derives from the well‐known magnetic directional derivative and magnetic rotational analysis procedures (Shi et al., 2005, htpps://doi.org/10.1029/2005GL022454; Shen et al., 2007, https://doi.org/10.1029/2005JA011584), MCA was specifically designed to address the actual magnetic field geometry. By applying MCA to multispacecraft data from the Magnetospheric Multiscale (MMS) satellites, we perform both case and statistical analyses of local magnetic field shape and dimensionality at very high cadence and small scales. We apply this technique to different near‐Earth environments and define a classification scheme for the type of configuration observed. While our case studies allow us to benchmark the method with those used in past works, our statistical analysis unveils the typical shape of magnetic configurations and their statistical distributions. We show that small‐scale magnetic configurations are generally elongated, displaying forms of cigar and blade shapes, but occasionally being planar in shape like thin pancakes (mostly inside current sheets). Magnetic configurations, however, rarely show isotropy in their magnetic variance. The planar nature of magnetic configurations and, most importantly, their scale lengths strongly depend on the plasma β parameter. Finally, the most invariant direction is statistically aligned with the electric current, reminiscent of the importance of electromagnetic forces in shaping the local magnetic configuration.
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5.
  • Kacem, I., et al. (författare)
  • Magnetic Reconnection at a Thin Current Sheet Separating Two Interlaced Flux Tubes at the Earth's Magnetopause
  • 2018
  • Ingår i: Journal of Geophysical Research - Space Physics. - 2169-9380 .- 2169-9402. ; 123:3, s. 1779-1793
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The occurrence of spatially and temporally variable reconnection at the Earth's magnetopause leads to the complex interaction of magnetic fields from the magnetosphere and magnetosheath. Flux transfer events (FTEs) constitute one such type of interaction. Their main characteristics are (1) an enhanced core magnetic field magnitude and (2) a bipolar magnetic field signature in the component normal to the magnetopause, reminiscent of a large-scale helicoidal flux tube magnetic configuration. However, other geometrical configurations which do not fit this classical picture have also been observed. Using high-resolution measurements from the Magnetospheric Multiscale mission, we investigate an event in the vicinity of the Earth's magnetopause on 7 November 2015. Despite signatures that, at first glance, appear consistent with a classic FTE, based on detailed geometrical and dynamical analyses as well as on topological signatures revealed by suprathermal electron properties, we demonstrate that this event is not consistent with a single, homogenous helicoidal structure. Our analysis rather suggests that it consists of the interaction of two separate sets of magnetic field lines with different connectivities. This complex three-dimensional interaction constructively conspires to produce signatures partially consistent with that of an FTE. We also show that, at the interface between the two sets of field lines, where the observed magnetic pileup occurs, a thin and strong current sheet forms with a large ion jet, which may be consistent with magnetic flux dissipation through magnetic reconnection in the interaction region.
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6.
  • Nilsson, H., et al. (författare)
  • Evolution of the ion environment of comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko
  • 2015
  • Ingår i: Astronomy and Astrophysics. - 0004-6361 .- 1432-0746. ; 583
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Context. The Rosetta spacecraft is escorting comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko from a heliocentric distance of >3.6 AU, where the comet activity was low, until perihelion at 1.24 AU. Initially, the solar wind permeates the thin comet atmosphere formed from sublimation. Aims. Using the Rosetta Plasma Consortium Ion Composition Analyzer (RPC-ICA), we study the gradual evolution of the comet ion environment, from the first detectable traces of water ions to the stage where cometary water ions accelerated to about 1 keV energy are abundant. We compare ion fluxes of solar wind and cometary origin. Methods. RPC-ICA is an ion mass spectrometer measuring ions of solar wind and cometary origins in the 10 eV-40 keV energy range. Results. We show how the flux of accelerated water ions with energies above 120 eV increases between 3.6 and 2.0 AU. The 24 h average increases by 4 orders of magnitude, mainly because high-flux periods become more common. The water ion energy spectra also become broader with time. This may indicate a larger and more uniform source region. At 2.0 AU the accelerated water ion flux is frequently of the same order as the solar wind proton flux. Water ions of 120 eV-few keV energy may thus constitute a significant part of the ions sputtering the nucleus surface. The ion density and mass in the comet vicinity is dominated by ions of cometary origin. The solar wind is deflected and the energy spectra broadened compared to an undisturbed solar wind. Conclusions. The flux of accelerated water ions moving from the upstream direction back toward the nucleus is a strongly nonlinear function of the heliocentric distance.
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7.
  • Pedersen, A., et al. (författare)
  • Electron density estimations derived from spacecraft potential measurements on Cluster in tenuous plasma regions
  • 2008
  • Ingår i: Journal of Geophysical Research. - 0148-0227 .- 2156-2202. ; 113:A7
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Spacecraft potential measurements by the EFW electric field experiment on the Cluster satellites can be used to obtain plasma density estimates in regions barely accessible to other type of plasma experiments. Direct calibrations of the plasma density as a function of the measured potential difference between the spacecraft and the probes can be carried out in the solar wind, the magnetosheath, and the plasmashere by the use of CIS ion density and WHISPER electron density measurements. The spacecraft photoelectron characteristic ( photoelectrons escaping to the plasma in current balance with collected ambient electrons) can be calculated from knowledge of the electron current to the spacecraft based on plasma density and electron temperature data from the above mentioned experiments and can be extended to more positive spacecraft potentials by CIS ion and the PEACE electron experiments in the plasma sheet. This characteristic enables determination of the electron density as a function of spacecraft potential over the polar caps and in the lobes of the magnetosphere, regions where other experiments on Cluster have intrinsic limitations. Data from 2001 to 2006 reveal that the photoelectron characteristics of the Cluster spacecraft as well as the electric field probes vary with the solar cycle and solar activity. The consequences for plasma density measurements are addressed. Typical examples are presented to demonstrate the use of this technique in a polar cap/lobe plasma.
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8.
  • Vernisse, Y., et al. (författare)
  • Signatures of complex magnetic topologies from multiple reconnection sites induced by Kelvin-Helmholtz instability
  • 2016
  • Ingår i: Journal of Geophysical Research - Space Physics. - 2169-9380 .- 2169-9402. ; 121:10, s. 9926-9939
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The Magnetospheric Multiscale mission has demonstrated the frequent presence of reconnection exhausts at thin current sheets within Kelvin-Helmholtz (KH) waves at the flank magnetopause. Motivated by these recent observations, we performed a statistical analysis of the boundary layers on the magnetosheath side of all KH current sheets on 8 September 2015. We show 86% consistency between the exhaust flows and particle leakage in the magnetosheath boundary layers but further highlight the very frequent presence of additional boundary layer signatures that do not come from the locally observed reconnection exhausts. These additional electron and ion boundary layers, of various durations and at various positions with respect to the leading and trailing boundaries of the KH waves, signal connections to reconnection sites at other locations. Based on the directionality and extent of these layers, we provide an interpretation whereby complex magnetic topologies can arise within KH waves from the combination of reconnection in the equatorial plane and at midlatitudes in the Southern and Northern Hemispheres, where additional reconnection sites are expected to be triggered by the three-dimensional field lines interweaving induced by the KH waves at the flanks (owing to differential flow and magnetic field shear with latitude). The present event demonstrates that the three-dimensional development of KH waves can induce plasma entry (through reconnection at both midlatitude and equatorial regions) already sunward of the terminator where the instability remains in its linear stage.
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9.
  • Baumjohann, W., et al. (författare)
  • Dynamics of thin current sheets : Cluster observations
  • 2007
  • Ingår i: Annales Geophysicae. - 0992-7689 .- 1432-0576. ; 25:6, s. 1365-1389
  • Forskningsöversikt (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The paper tries to sort out the specific signatures of the Near Earth Neutral Line (NENL) and the Current Disruption (CD) models. and looks for these signatures in Cluster data from two events. For both events transient magnetic si-natures are observed, together with fast ion flows. In the simplest form of NENL scenario, with a large-scale two-dimensional reconnection site, quasi-invariance along Y is expected. Thus the magnetic signatures in the S/C frame are interpreted as relative motions, along the X or Z direction, of a quasi-steady X-line, with respect to the S/C. In the simplest form of CD scenario an azimuthal modulation is expected. Hence the signatures in the S/C frame are interpreted as signatures of azimuthally (along Y) moving current system associated with low frequency fluctuations of J(y) and the corresponding field-aligned currents Event I covers a pseudo-breakup, developing only at high latitudes. First, a thin (H approximate to 2000Km approximate to 2 rho(i), with pi the ion gyroradius) Current Sheet (CS) is found to be quiet. A slightly thinner CS (H approximate to 1000-2000 km approximate to 1-2 rho(i)), crossed about 30 min later, is found to be active. with fast earthward ion flow bursts (300-600 km/s) and simultaneous large amplitude fluctuations (delta B/B similar to 1). In the quiet CS the current density J(y) is carried by ions. Conversely, in the active CS ions are moving eastward; the westward current is carried by electrons that move eastward, faster than ions. Similarly, the velocity of earthward flows (300-600 km/s), observed during the active period. maximizes near or at the CS center. During the active phase of Event I no signature of the crossing of an X-line is identified, but an X-line located beyond Cluster could account for the observed ion flows, provided that it is active for at least 20 min. Ion flow bursts can also be due to CD and to the corresponding dipolarizations which are associated with changes in the current density. Yet their durations are shorter than the duration of the active period. While the overall partial derivative Bz/partial derivative t is too weak to accelerate ions up to the observed velocities, short duration partial derivative B-z/partial derivative t can produce the azimuthal electric field requested to account for the observed ion flow bursts. The corresponding large amplitude perturbations are shown to move eastward. which suggests that the reduction in the tail current could be achieved via a series of eastward traveling partial dipolarisations/CD. The second event is much more active than the first one. The observed flapping of the CS corresponds to an azimuthally propagating wave. A reversal in the proton flow velocity, from 1000 to + 1000 km/s, is measured by CODIF. The overall flow reversal, the associated change in the sign of B-z and the relationship between B-x and B-y suggest that the spacecraft are moving with respect to an X-line and its associated Hall-structure. Yet, a simple tailward retreat of a large-scale X-line cannot account for all the observations, since several flow reversals are observed. These quasi-periodic flow reversals can also be associated with an azimuthal motion of the low frequency oscillations. Indeed, at the beginning of the interval B-y varies rapidly along the Y direction; the magnetic signature is three-dimensional and essentially corresponds to a structure of filamentary field-aligned current, moving eastward at similar to 200 km/s. The transverse size of the structure is similar to 1000 km. Similar structures are observed before and after. Thesefilamentary structures are consistent with an eastward propagation of an azimuthal modulation associated with a current system J(y), J(x). During Event 1, signatures of filamentary field-aligned current structures are also observed, in association with modulations of J(y). Hence, for both events the structure of the magnetic fields and currents is three-dimensional.
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10.
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