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Sökning: WFRF:(Scharnagl Hubert)

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1.
  • Do, Ron, et al. (författare)
  • Common variants associated with plasma triglycerides and risk for coronary artery disease
  • 2013
  • Ingår i: Nature Genetics. - : Nature Publishing Group. - 1546-1718 .- 1061-4036. ; 45:11, s. 1345-1345
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Triglycerides are transported in plasma by specific triglyceride-rich lipoproteins; in epidemiological studies, increased triglyceride levels correlate with higher risk for coronary artery disease (CAD). However, it is unclear whether this association reflects causal processes. We used 185 common variants recently mapped for plasma lipids (P < 5 x 10(-8) for each) to examine the role of triglycerides in risk for CAD. First, we highlight loci associated with both low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) and triglyceride levels, and we show that the direction and magnitude of the associations with both traits are factors in determining CAD risk. Second, we consider loci with only a strong association with triglycerides and show that these loci are also associated with CAD. Finally, in a model accounting for effects on LDL-C and/or high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) levels, the strength of a polymorphism's effect on triglyceride levels is correlated with the magnitude of its effect on CAD risk. These results suggest that triglyceride-rich lipoproteins causally influence risk for CAD.
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2.
  • Locke, Adam E, et al. (författare)
  • Genetic studies of body mass index yield new insights for obesity biology.
  • 2015
  • Ingår i: Nature. - : Nature Publishing Group. - 0028-0836 .- 1476-4687. ; 518:7538, s. 197-401
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Obesity is heritable and predisposes to many diseases. To understand the genetic basis of obesity better, here we conduct a genome-wide association study and Metabochip meta-analysis of body mass index (BMI), a measure commonly used to define obesity and assess adiposity, in up to 339,224 individuals. This analysis identifies 97 BMI-associated loci (P < 5 × 10(-8)), 56 of which are novel. Five loci demonstrate clear evidence of several independent association signals, and many loci have significant effects on other metabolic phenotypes. The 97 loci account for ∼2.7% of BMI variation, and genome-wide estimates suggest that common variation accounts for >20% of BMI variation. Pathway analyses provide strong support for a role of the central nervous system in obesity susceptibility and implicate new genes and pathways, including those related to synaptic function, glutamate signalling, insulin secretion/action, energy metabolism, lipid biology and adipogenesis.
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3.
  • Shungin, Dmitry, et al. (författare)
  • New genetic loci link adipose and insulin biology to body fat distribution.
  • 2015
  • Ingår i: Nature. - : Nature Publishing Group. - 0028-0836 .- 1476-4687. ; 518:7538, s. 187-378
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Body fat distribution is a heritable trait and a well-established predictor of adverse metabolic outcomes, independent of overall adiposity. To increase our understanding of the genetic basis of body fat distribution and its molecular links to cardiometabolic traits, here we conduct genome-wide association meta-analyses of traits related to waist and hip circumferences in up to 224,459 individuals. We identify 49 loci (33 new) associated with waist-to-hip ratio adjusted for body mass index (BMI), and an additional 19 loci newly associated with related waist and hip circumference measures (P < 5 × 10(-8)). In total, 20 of the 49 waist-to-hip ratio adjusted for BMI loci show significant sexual dimorphism, 19 of which display a stronger effect in women. The identified loci were enriched for genes expressed in adipose tissue and for putative regulatory elements in adipocytes. Pathway analyses implicated adipogenesis, angiogenesis, transcriptional regulation and insulin resistance as processes affecting fat distribution, providing insight into potential pathophysiological mechanisms.
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4.
  • Willer, Cristen J., et al. (författare)
  • Discovery and refinement of loci associated with lipid levels
  • 2013
  • Ingår i: Nature Genetics. - : Nature Publishing Group. - 1546-1718 .- 1061-4036. ; 45:11, s. 1274-1274
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Levels of low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol, triglycerides and total cholesterol are heritable, modifiable risk factors for coronary artery disease. To identify new loci and refine known loci influencing these lipids, we examined 188,577 individuals using genome-wide and custom genotyping arrays. We identify and annotate 157 loci associated with lipid levels at P < 5 x 10(-8), including 62 loci not previously associated with lipid levels in humans. Using dense genotyping in individuals of European, East Asian, South Asian and African ancestry, we narrow association signals in 12 loci. We find that loci associated with blood lipid levels are often associated with cardiovascular and metabolic traits, including coronary artery disease, type 2 diabetes, blood pressure, waist-hip ratio and body mass index. Our results demonstrate the value of using genetic data from individuals of diverse ancestry and provide insights into the biological mechanisms regulating blood lipids to guide future genetic, biological and therapeutic research.
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5.
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)
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6.
  • Wood, Andrew R, et al. (författare)
  • Defining the role of common variation in the genomic and biological architecture of adult human height.
  • 2014
  • Ingår i: Nature Genetics. - : Nature Publishing Group. - 1546-1718 .- 1061-4036. ; 46:11, s. 1173-1186
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Using genome-wide data from 253,288 individuals, we identified 697 variants at genome-wide significance that together explained one-fifth of the heritability for adult height. By testing different numbers of variants in independent studies, we show that the most strongly associated ∼2,000, ∼3,700 and ∼9,500 SNPs explained ∼21%, ∼24% and ∼29% of phenotypic variance. Furthermore, all common variants together captured 60% of heritability. The 697 variants clustered in 423 loci were enriched for genes, pathways and tissue types known to be involved in growth and together implicated genes and pathways not highlighted in earlier efforts, such as signaling by fibroblast growth factors, WNT/β-catenin and chondroitin sulfate-related genes. We identified several genes and pathways not previously connected with human skeletal growth, including mTOR, osteoglycin and binding of hyaluronic acid. Our results indicate a genetic architecture for human height that is characterized by a very large but finite number (thousands) of causal variants.
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7.
  • Asselbergs, Folkert W., et al. (författare)
  • Large-Scale Gene-Centric Meta-analysis across 32 Studies Identifies Multiple Lipid Loci
  • 2012
  • Ingår i: American Journal of Human Genetics. - : Cell Press. - 0002-9297. ; 91:5, s. 823-838
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Genome-wide association studies (GWASs) have identified many SNPs underlying variations in plasma-lipid levels. We explore whether additional loci associated with plasma-lipid phenotypes, such as high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), total cholesterol (TC), and triglycerides (TGs), can be identified by a dense gene-centric approach. Our meta-analysis of 32 studies in 66,240 individuals of European ancestry was based on the custom similar to 50,000 SNP genotyping array (the ITMAT-Broad-CARe array) covering similar to 2,000 candidate genes. SNP-lipid associations were replicated either in a cohort comprising an additional 24,736 samples or within the Global Lipid Genetic Consortium. We identified four, six, ten, and four unreported SNPs in established lipid genes for HDL-C, LDL-C, TC, and TGs, respectively. We also identified several lipid-related SNPs in previously unreported genes: DGAT2, HCAR2, GPIHBP1, PPARG, and FTO for HDL-C; SOCS3, APOH, SPTY2D1, BRCA2, and VLDLR for LDL-C; SOCS3, UGT1A1, BRCA2, UBE3B, FCGR2A, CHUK, and INSIG2 for TC; and SERPINF2, C4B, GCK, GATA4, INSR, and LPAL2 for TGs. The proportion of explained phenotypic variance in the subset of studies providing individual-level data was 9.9% for HDL-C, 9.5% for LDL-C, 10.3% for TC, and 8.0% for TGs. This large meta-analysis of lipid phenotypes with the use of a dense gene-centric approach identified multiple SNPs not previously described in established lipid genes and several previously unknown loci. The explained phenotypic variance from this approach was comparable to that from a meta-analysis of GWAS data, suggesting that a focused genotyping approach can further increase the understanding of heritability of plasma lipids.
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8.
  • Dahle, Dag Olav, et al. (författare)
  • Inflammation-associated graft loss in renal transplant recipients
  • 2011
  • Ingår i: Nephrology Dialysis Transplantation. - : Oxford University Press. - 1460-2385 .- 0931-0509. ; 26:11, s. 3756-3761
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background. Although short-term graft survival has improved substantially in renal transplant recipients, long-term graft survival has not improved over the last decades. The lack of knowledge of specific causes and risk factors has hampered improvements in long-term allograft survival. There is an uncertainty if inflammation is associated with late graft loss. Methods. We examined, in a large prospective trial, the inflammation markers high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP) and interleukin-6 (IL-6) and their association with chronic graft dysfunction. We collected data from the Assessment of Lescol in Renal Transplant trial, which recruited 2102 maintenance renal transplant recipients. Results. Baseline values were hsCRP 3.8 +/- 6.7 mg/L and IL-6 2.9 +/- 1.9 pg/mL. Adjusted for traditional risk factors, hsCRP and IL-6 were independently associated with death-censored graft loss, the composite end points graft loss or death and doubling of serum creatinine, graft loss or death. Conclusion. The inflammation markers hsCRP and IL-6 are associated with long-term graft outcomes in renal transplant recipients.
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9.
  • Svensson, My, et al. (författare)
  • Osteoprotegerin as a predictor of renal and cardiovascular outcomes in renal transplant recipients : follow-up data from the ALERT study
  • 2012
  • Ingår i: Nephrology, Dialysis and Transplantation. - 0931-0509 .- 1460-2385. ; 27:6, s. 2571-2575
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background. In patients with chronic kidney disease, vascular calcification contributes to increased cardiovascular (CV) morbidity and mortality. CV risk remains high after successful renal transplantation. Osteoprotegerin (OPG) is a glycoprotein, involved in the regulation of the vascular calcification process. Previous studies have shown that elevated OPG is predictive of mortality in high-risk populations. The aim of this study was to investigate the prognostic value of OPG for graft function, CV events and all-cause death, in a large transplant cohort.Methods. OPG was measured at baseline in renal transplant recipients enrolled in the Assessment of Lescol in Renal Transplantation (ALERT) study, a randomized placebo-controlled intervention study comparing fluvastatin and placebo. Patients were followed for 6.7 years with evaluation of pre-specified end points, graft loss, graft function, CV events and death.Results. OPG was analysed in 1889 renal transplant recipients, with a mean value of 4.69 +/- 1.85 pg/L. The number of renal and CV events increased by quartiles of OPG. In the multivariate analysis, OPG in the fourth as compared to first quartile was an independent predictor of graft failure or doubling of serum creatinine [hazard ratio (HR) 2.20 (1.56-3.11), P < 0.001], major CV events [HR 2.40 (1.58-3.64), P < 0.001], cardiac mortality [HR 2.80 (1.32-5.94), P = 0.007] and all-cause mortality [HR 2.31 (1.53-3.49), P < 0.001].Conclusion. In a large cohort of kidney transplant patients with long-term follow-up, OPG was independently associated with renal events, CV events and mortality.
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10.
  • Zewinger, Stephen, et al. (författare)
  • Relations between lipoprotein(a) concentrations, LPA genetic variants, and the risk of mortality in patients with established coronary heart disease : A molecular and genetic association study
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: The Lancet Diabetes and Endocrinology. - : Elsevier. - 2213-8587 .- 2213-8595. ; 5:7, s. 534-543
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background: Lipoprotein(a) concentrations in plasma are associated with cardiovascular risk in the general population. Whether lipoprotein(a) concentrations or LPA genetic variants predict long-term mortality in patients with established coronary heart disease remains less clear. Methods: We obtained data from 3313 patients with established coronary heart disease in the Ludwigshafen Risk and Cardiovascular Health (LURIC) study. We tested associations of tertiles of lipoprotein(a) concentration in plasma and two LPA single-nucleotide polymorphisms ([SNPs] rs10455872 and rs3798220) with all-cause mortality and cardiovascular mortality by Cox regression analysis and with severity of disease by generalised linear modelling, with and without adjustment for age, sex, diabetes diagnosis, systolic blood pressure, BMI, smoking status, estimated glomerular filtration rate, LDL-cholesterol concentration, and use of lipid-lowering therapy. Results for plasma lipoprotein(a) concentrations were validated in five independent studies involving 10 195 patients with established coronary heart disease. Results for genetic associations were replicated through large-scale collaborative analysis in the GENIUS-CHD consortium, comprising 106 353 patients with established coronary heart disease and 19 332 deaths in 22 studies or cohorts. Findings: The median follow-up was 9·9 years. Increased severity of coronary heart disease was associated with lipoprotein(a) concentrations in plasma in the highest tertile (adjusted hazard radio [HR] 1·44, 95% CI 1·14-1·83) and the presence of either LPA SNP (1·88, 1·40-2·53). No associations were found in LURIC with all-cause mortality (highest tertile of lipoprotein(a) concentration in plasma 0·95, 0·81-1·11 and either LPA SNP 1·10, 0·92-1·31) or cardiovascular mortality (0·99, 0·81-1·2 and 1·13, 0·90-1·40, respectively) or in the validation studies. Interpretation: In patients with prevalent coronary heart disease, lipoprotein(a) concentrations and genetic variants showed no associations with mortality. We conclude that these variables are not useful risk factors to measure to predict progression to death after coronary heart disease is established. Funding: Seventh Framework Programme for Research and Technical Development (AtheroRemo and RiskyCAD), INTERREG IV Oberrhein Programme, Deutsche Nierenstiftung, Else-Kroener Fresenius Foundation, Deutsche Stiftung für Herzforschung, Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft, Saarland University, German Federal Ministry of Education and Research, Willy Robert Pitzer Foundation, and Waldburg-Zeil Clinics Isny.
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