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Sökning: WFRF:(Schene AH)

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1.
  • Hibar, D. P., et al. (författare)
  • Cortical abnormalities in bipolar disorder: An MRI analysis of 6503 individuals from the ENIGMA Bipolar Disorder Working Group
  • 2018
  • Ingår i: Molecular Psychiatry. - 1359-4184 .- 1476-5578. ; 23:4, s. 932-942
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Despite decades of research, the pathophysiology of bipolar disorder (BD) is still not well understood. Structural brain differences have been associated with BD, but results from neuroimaging studies have been inconsistent. To address this, we performed the largest study to date of cortical gray matter thickness and surface area measures from brain magnetic resonance imaging scans of 6503 individuals including 1837 unrelated adults with BD and 2582 unrelated healthy controls for group differences while also examining the effects of commonly prescribed medications, age of illness onset, history of psychosis, mood state, age and sex differences on cortical regions. In BD, cortical gray matter was thinner in frontal, temporal and parietal regions of both brain hemispheres. BD had the strongest effects on left pars opercularis (Cohen's d='0.293; P=1.71 × 10 '21), left fusiform gyrus (d='0.288; P=8.25 × 10 '21) and left rostral middle frontal cortex (d='0.276; P=2.99 × 10 '19). Longer duration of illness (after accounting for age at the time of scanning) was associated with reduced cortical thickness in frontal, medial parietal and occipital regions. We found that several commonly prescribed medications, including lithium, antiepileptic and antipsychotic treatment showed significant associations with cortical thickness and surface area, even after accounting for patients who received multiple medications. We found evidence of reduced cortical surface area associated with a history of psychosis but no associations with mood state at the time of scanning. Our analysis revealed previously undetected associations and provides an extensive analysis of potential confounding variables in neuroimaging studies of BD. © 2018 Macmillan Publishers Limited, part of Springer Nature. All rights reserved.
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2.
  • Han, L. K. M., et al. (författare)
  • Brain aging in major depressive disorder: results from the ENIGMA major depressive disorder working group
  • 2020
  • Ingår i: Molecular Psychiatry. - 1359-4184 .- 1476-5578.
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Major depressive disorder (MDD) is associated with an increased risk of brain atrophy, aging-related diseases, and mortality. We examined potential advanced brain aging in adult MDD patients, and whether this process is associated with clinical characteristics in a large multicenter international dataset. We performed a mega-analysis by pooling brain measures derived from T1-weighted MRI scans from 19 samples worldwide. Healthy brain aging was estimated by predicting chronological age (18–75 years) from 7 subcortical volumes, 34 cortical thickness and 34 surface area, lateral ventricles and total intracranial volume measures separately in 952 male and 1236 female controls from the ENIGMA MDD working group. The learned model coefficients were applied to 927 male controls and 986 depressed males, and 1199 female controls and 1689 depressed females to obtain independent unbiased brain-based age predictions. The difference between predicted “brain age” and chronological age was calculated to indicate brain-predicted age difference (brain-PAD). On average, MDD patients showed a higher brain-PAD of +1.08 (SE 0.22) years (Cohen’s d = 0.14, 95% CI: 0.08–0.20) compared with controls. However, this difference did not seem to be driven by specific clinical characteristics (recurrent status, remission status, antidepressant medication use, age of onset, or symptom severity). This highly powered collaborative effort showed subtle patterns of age-related structural brain abnormalities in MDD. Substantial within-group variance and overlap between groups were observed. Longitudinal studies of MDD and somatic health outcomes are needed to further assess the clinical value of these brain-PAD estimates. © 2020, The Author(s).
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3.
  • Priebe, Stefan, et al. (författare)
  • Good practice in mental health care for socially marginalized groups in Europe : a qualitative study in 14 countries
  • 2012
  • Ingår i: BMC Public Health. - 1471-2458 .- 1471-2458. ; :12, s. 248-
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background:Socially marginalised groups tend to have higher rates of mental disorders than the general populationand can be difficult to engage in health care. Providing mental health care for these groups represents a particularchallenge, and evidence on good practice is required. Thisstudy explored the experiences and views of experts in 14European countries regarding mental health care for six socially marginalised groups: long-term unemployed; street sexworkers; homeless; refugees/asylum seekers; irregular migrants and members of the travelling communities.Methods:Two highly deprived areas were selected in the capital cities of 14 countries, and experts were interviewed foreach of the six marginalised groups. Semi-structured interviews with case vignettes were conducted to exploreexperiences of good practice and analysed using thematic analysis.Results:In a total of 154 interviews, four components of good practice were identified across all six groups: a) establishingoutreach programmes to identify and engage with individuals with mental disorders; b) facilitating access to services thatprovide different aspects of health care, including mental health care, and thus reducing the need for further referrals; c)strengthening the collaboration and co-ordination betweendifferent services; and d) disseminating information onservices both to marginalised groups and to practitioners in the area.Conclusions:Experts across Europe hold similar views on what constitutes good practice in mental health care formarginalised groups. Care may be improved through better service organisation, coordination and information.
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4.
  • Strassmayr, C, et al. (författare)
  • Mental health care for irregular migrants in Europe : Barriers and how they are overcome
  • 2012
  • Ingår i: BMC Public Health. - 1471-2458 .- 1471-2458. ; 12:367, s. Art. no. 367-
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • BackgroundIrregular migrants (IMs) are exposed to a wide range of risk factors for developing mental health problems. However, little is known about whether and how they receive mental health care across European countries. The aims of this study were (1) to identify barriers to mental health care for IMs, and (2) to explore ways by which these barriers are overcome in practice.MethodsData from semi-structured interviews with 25 experts in the field of mental health care for IMs in the capital cities of 14 European countries were analysed using thematic analysis.ResultsExperts reported a range of barriers to mental health care for IMs. These include the absence of legal entitlements to health care in some countries or a lack of awareness of such entitlements, administrative obstacles, a shortage of culturally sensitive care, the complexity of the social needs of IMs, and their fear of being reported and deported. These barriers can be partly overcome by networks of committed professionals and supportive services. NGOs have become important initial points of contact for IMs, providing mental health care themselves or referring IMs to other suitable services. However, these services are often confronted with the ethical dilemma of either acting according to the legislation and institutional rules or providing care for humanitarian reasons, which involves the risk of acting illegally and providing care without authorisation.ConclusionsEven in countries where access to health care is legally possible for IMs, various other barriers remain. Some of these are common to all migrants, whilst others are specific for IMs. Attempts at improving mental health care for IMs should consider barriers beyond legal entitlement, including communicating information about entitlement to mental health care professionals and patients, providing culturally sensitive care and ensuring sufficient resources.
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