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1.
  • Cedernaes, Jonathan, et al. (författare)
  • Acute sleep loss results in tissue-specific alterations in genome-wide DNA methylation state and metabolic fuel utilization in humans
  • 2018
  • Ingår i: Science Advances. - : AMER ASSOC ADVANCEMENT SCIENCE. - 2375-2548. ; 4:8
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Curtailed sleep promotes weight gain and loss of lean mass in humans, although the underlying molecular mechanisms are poorly understood. We investigated the genomic and physiological impact of acute sleep loss in peripheral tissues by obtaining adipose tissue and skeletal muscle after one night of sleep loss and after one full night of sleep. We find that acute sleep loss alters genome-wide DNA methylation in adipose tissue, and unbiased transcriptome-, protein-, and metabolite-level analyses also reveal highly tissue-specific changes that are partially reflected by altered metabolite levels in blood. We observe transcriptomic signatures of inflammation in both tissues following acute sleep loss, but changes involving the circadian clock are evident only in skeletal muscle, and we uncover molecular signatures suggestive of muscle breakdown that contrast with an anabolic adipose tissue signature. Our findings provide insight into how disruption of sleep and circadian rhythms may promote weight gain and sarcopenia.
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2.
  • Mårtensson, Johanna, et al. (författare)
  • Diffusion tensor imaging and tractography of the white matter in normal aging : The rate-of-change differs between segments within tracts
  • 2018
  • Ingår i: Magnetic Resonance Imaging. - : Elsevier. - 0730-725X .- 1873-5894. ; 45, s. 113-119
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Knowledge concerning the normal aging of cerebral white matter will improve our understanding of abnormal changes in neurodegenerative diseases. The microstructural basis of white matter maturation and aging can be investigated using diffusion tensor imaging (DTI). Generally, diffusion anisotropy increases during childhood and adolescence followed by a decline in middle age. However, this process is subject to spatial variations between tracts. The aim of this study was to investigate to what extent age-related variations also occur within tracts. DTI parameters were compared between segments of two white matter tracts, the cingulate bundle (CB) and the inferior fronto-occipital fasciculus (IFO), in 257 healthy individuals between 13 and 84years of age. Segments of the CB and the IFO were extracted and parameters for each segment were averaged across the hemispheres. The data was analysed as a function of age. Results show that age-related changes differ both between and within individual tracts. Different age trajectories were observed in all segments of the analysed tracts for all DTI parameters. In conclusion, aging does not affect white matter tracts uniformly but is regionally specific; both between and within white matter tracts.
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3.
  • Cedernaes, Jonathan, et al. (författare)
  • Short Sleep Makes Declarative Memories Vulnerable to Stress in Humans.
  • 2015
  • Ingår i: Sleep. - 1550-9109 .- 0161-8105. ; 38:12
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Our study sought to investigate the role of nocturnal sleep duration for the retrieval of oversleep consolidated memories, both prior to and after being cognitively stressed for ~30 minutes the next morning.
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4.
  • Pickering, Christopher, 1975, et al. (författare)
  • Sensitization to nicotine significantly decreases expression of GABA transporter GAT-1 in the medial prefrontal cortex.
  • 2008
  • Ingår i: Progress in neuro-psychopharmacology & biological psychiatry. - 0278-5846 .- 1878-4216. ; 32:6, s. 1521-6
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • This study investigated GABA signaling following induction of behavioural sensitization to nicotine. Rats were repeatedly injected with saline, nicotine or hexamethonium for 18 days and gene expression was measured with qPCR. Nicotine upregulated GABAA alpha1 subunit expression in the nucleus accumbens (p<0.05) while no changes were observed for GABAA alpha3, alpha4 or alpha5. In the medial prefrontal cortex, no change in expression of the GABAA subunits was observed. We found that nicotine significantly decreased expression of the transporter GAT-1/SLC6A1 (p<0.05) in the medial prefrontal cortex while the expression of the GAT-3/SLC6A11 (p<0.05) transporter was increased in the nucleus accumbens. This provides the first evidence of neuroadaptive changes in the GABA system after nicotine sensitization and the first demonstration of an effect on GAT-1 or GAT-3 transporters in the addiction field. The GAT-1 findings also provide evidence for an alternative theory of why most schizophrenic individuals also use tobacco products.
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5.
  • Benedict, Christian, et al. (författare)
  • The fat mass and obesity-associated gene (FTO) is linked to higher plasma levels of the hunger hormone ghrelin and lower serum levels of the satiety hormone leptin in older adults
  • 2014
  • Ingår i: Diabetes. - 0012-1797 .- 1939-327X. ; 63:11, s. 3955-3959
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The mechanisms through which common polymorphisms in the fat mass and obesity-associated gene (FTO) drive the development of obesity in humans are poorly understood. By using C: ross-sectional data from 985 elderly (50% females) who participated at age 70 years in the Prospective Investigation of the Vasculature in Uppsala Seniors, circulating levels of ghrelin and leptin were measured after an overnight fast. In addition, subjects were genotyped for FTO rs17817449 (AA, n=345 (35%); AC/CA, n=481 (48.8%); CC, n=159 (16.1%). Linear regression analyses controlling for sex, self-reported physical activity level, fasting plasma glucose, and body mass index were utilized. A positive relationship between the number of FTO C risk alleles and plasma ghrelin levels was found (P=0.005; relative plasma ghrelin difference between CC and AA carriers = ∼9%). In contrast, serum levels of the satiety enhancing hormone leptin were inversely linked to the number of FTO C risk alleles (P=0.001; relative serum leptin difference between CC and AA carriers = ∼11%). These associations were also found when controlling for waist circumference. The present findings suggest that FTO may facilitate weight gain in humans by shifting the endocrine balance from the satiety hormone leptin toward the hunger promoting hormone ghrelin.
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6.
  • Bostrom, Adrian E., et al. (författare)
  • Hypermethylation-associated downregulation of microRNA-4456 in hypersexual disorder with putative influence on oxytocin signalling : A DNA methylation analysis of miRNA genes
  • 2020
  • Ingår i: Epigenetics. - : Taylor & Francis. - 1559-2294 .- 1559-2308. ; 15:1-2, s. 145-160
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Hypersexual disorder (HD) was proposed as a diagnosis in the DSM-5 and the classification ‘Compulsive Sexual Behavior Disorder’ is now presented as an impulse-control disorder in ICD-11. HD incorporates several pathophysiological mechanisms; including impulsivity, compulsivity, sexual desire dysregulation and sexual addiction. No previous study investigated HD in a methylation analysis limited to microRNA (miRNA) associated CpG-sites. The genome wide methylation pattern was measured in whole blood from 60 subjects with HD and 33 healthy volunteers using the Illumina EPIC BeadChip. 8,852 miRNA associated CpG-sites were investigated in multiple linear regression analyses of methylation M-values to a binary independent variable of disease state (HD or healthy volunteer), adjusting for optimally determined covariates. Expression levels of candidate miRNAs were investigated in the same individuals for differential expression analysis. Candidate methylation loci were further studied for an association with alcohol dependence in an independent cohort of 107 subjects. Two CpG-sites were borderline significant in HD – cg18222192 (MIR708)(p < 10E-05,pFDR = 5.81E-02) and cg01299774 (MIR4456)(p < 10E-06, pFDR = 5.81E-02). MIR4456 was significantly lower expressed in HD in both univariate (p < 0.0001) and multivariate (p < 0.05) analyses. Cg01299774 methylation levels were inversely correlated with expression levels of MIR4456 (p < 0.01) and were also differentially methylated in alcohol dependence (p = 0.026). Gene target prediction and pathway analysis revealed that MIR4456 putatively targets genes preferentially expressed in brain and that are involved in major neuronal molecular mechanisms thought to be relevant for HD, e.g., the oxytocin signalling pathway. In summary, our study implicates a potential contribution of MIR4456 in the pathophysiology of HD by putatively influencing oxytocin signalling.
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7.
  • Cedernaes, J., et al. (författare)
  • Sleep restriction alters plasma endocannabinoids concentrations before but not after exercise in humans
  • 2016
  • Ingår i: Psychoneuroendocrinology. - 0306-4530 .- 1873-3360. ; 74, s. 258-268
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Following binding to cannabinoid receptors, endocannabinoids regulate a variety of central nervous system processes including appetite and mood. Recent evidence suggests that the systemic release of these lipid metabolites can be altered by acute exercise and that their levels also vary across the 24-h sleep-wake cycle. The present study utilized a within-subject design (involving 16 normal-weight men) to determine whether daytime circulating endocannabinoid concentrations differ following three nights of partial sleep deprivation (4.25-h sleep opportunity, 2:45–7 a.m. each night) vs. normal sleep (8.5-h sleep opportunity, 10:30 p.m.–7 a.m. each night), before and after an acute bout of ergometer cycling in the morning. In addition, subjective hunger and stress were measured. Pre-exercise plasma concentrations of 2-arachidonoylglycerol (2AG) were 80% higher 1.5 h after awakening (vs. normal sleep, p < 0.05) when participants were sleep-deprived. This coincided with increased hunger ratings (+25% vs. normal sleep, p < 0.05). Moreover, plasma 2AG was elevated 15 min post-exercise (+44%, p < 0.05). Sleep duration did not however modulate this exercise-induced rise. Finally, subjective stress was generally lower on the day after three nights of short sleep vs. normal sleep, especially after exercise (p < 0.05). Given that activation of the endocannabinoid system has been previously shown to acutely increase appetite and mood, our results could suggest that behavioral effects of acute sleep loss, such as increased hunger and transiently improved psychological state, may partially result from activation of this signaling pathway. In contrast, more pronounced exercise-induced elevations of endocannabinoids appear to be less affected by short sleep duration. © 2016 The Author(s)
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8.
  • Ciuculete, Diana-Maria, et al. (författare)
  • A genetic risk score is significantly associated with statin therapy response in the elderly population
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: Clinical Genetics. - 0009-9163 .- 1399-0004. ; 91:3, s. 379-385
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The ability of statins to strongly reduce low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) varies interindividually and is partially influenced by genetic variants. Based on a comprehensive analysis of 23 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) known to be associated with pharmacokinetics and dynamics of statins, we developed a genetic risk score to study its impact on the therapy outcome in elderly individuals under at least 5 years statin therapy. The study was performed in a population-based cohort of 1016 elderly individuals, which comprised 168 statin users investigated at age 75 and 80. Using random forest models, the major variants influencing LDL-C levels were summarized in a weighted GRS (wGRS). The wGRS was tested with lipid and glucose outcomes and validated in an independent population-based cohort including 221 statin users. Four SNPs within the APOE cluster (rs7412, rs4420638), ABCC2 (rs2002042) and CELSR/SORT1/PSRC1 (rs646776), displayed a major impact on statin efficacy. The wGRS was significantly associated with lower LDL-C at age 75 and 80. This association was replicated displaying similar results. GRS analysis is a powerful tool to evaluate the additive effects of genetic variants on statin response and to estimate the magnitude of LDL-C reduction to a considerable extent in the older population.
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9.
  • Hogenkamp, P S, et al. (författare)
  • Sweet taste perception not altered after acute sleep deprivation in healthy young men.
  • 2013
  • Ingår i: Somnologie : Schlafforschung und Schlafmedizin = Somnology : sleep research and sleep medicine. - 1432-9123 .- 1439-054X. ; 17:2, s. 111-114
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • We hypothesized that acutely sleep-deprived participants would rate ascending concentrations of sucrose as more intense and pleasant, than they would do after one night of normal sleep. Such a finding would offer a potential mechanism through which acute sleep loss could promote overeating in humans.
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10.
  • Jacobsson, Josefin A., et al. (författare)
  • Detailed Analysis of Variants in FTO in Association with Body Composition in a Cohort of 70-Year-Olds Suggests a Weakened Effect among Elderly
  • 2011
  • Ingår i: PLOS ONE. - 1932-6203. ; 6:5, s. e20158-
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background: The rs9939609 single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) in the fat mass and obesity (FTO) gene has previously been associated with higher BMI levels in children and young adults. In contrast, this association was not found in elderly men. BMI is a measure of overweight in relation to the individuals' height, but offers no insight into the regional body fat composition or distribution. Objective: To examine whether the FTO gene is associated with overweight and body composition-related phenotypes rather than BMI, we measured waist circumference, total fat mass, trunk fat mass, leg fat mass, visceral and subcutaneous adipose tissue, and daily energy intake in 985 humans (493 women) at the age of 70 years. In total, 733 SNPs located in the FTO gene were genotyped in order to examine whether rs9939609 alone or the other SNPs, or their combinations, are linked to obesity-related measures in elderly humans. Design: Cross-sectional analysis of the Prospective Investigation of the Vasculature in Uppsala Seniors (PIVUS) cohort. Results: Neither a single SNP, such as rs9939609, nor a SNP combination was significantly linked to overweight, body composition-related measures, or daily energy intake in elderly humans. Of note, these observations hold both among men and women. Conclusions: Due to the diversity of measurements included in the study, our findings strengthen the view that the effect of FTO on body composition appears to be less profound in later life compared to younger ages and that this is seemingly independent of gender.
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