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Sökning: WFRF:(Schmidt Helena)

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1.
  • Traylor, Matthew, et al. (författare)
  • Genetic risk factors for ischaemic stroke and its subtypes (the METASTROKE Collaboration): a meta-analysis of genome-wide association studies
  • 2012
  • Ingår i: Lancet Neurology. - Lancet Ltd. - 1474-4465. ; 11:11, s. 951-962
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background Various genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have been done in ischaemic stroke, identifying a few loci associated with the disease, but sample sizes have been 3500 cases or less. We established the METASTROKE collaboration with the aim of validating associations from previous GWAS and identifying novel genetic associations through meta-analysis of GWAS datasets for ischaemic stroke and its subtypes. Methods We meta-analysed data from 15 ischaemic stroke cohorts with a total of 12 389 individuals with ischaemic stroke and 62 004 controls, all of European ancestry. For the associations reaching genome-wide significance in METASTROKE, we did a further analysis, conditioning on the lead single nudeotide polymorphism in every associated region. Replication of novel suggestive signals was done in 13 347 cases and 29 083 controls. Findings We verified previous associations for cardioembolic stroke near PITX2 (p=2.8x10(-16)) and ZFHX3 (p=2.28x10(-8)), and for large-vessel stroke at a 9p21 locus (p=3.32x10(-5)) and HDAC9 (p=2.03x10(-12)). Additionally, we verified that all associations were subtype specific. Conditional analysis in the three regions for which the associations reached genome-wide significance (PITX2, ZFHX3, and HDAC9) indicated that all the signal in each region could be attributed to one risk haplotype. We also identified 12 potentially novel loci at p<5x10(-6). However, we were unable to replicate any of these novel associations in the replication cohort. Interpretation Our results show that, although genetic variants can be detected in patients with ischaemic stroke when compared with controls, all associations we were able to confirm are specific to a stroke subtype. This finding has two implications. First, to maximise success of genetic studies in ischaemic stroke, detailed stroke subtyping is required. Second, different genetic pathophysiological mechanisms seem to be associated with different stroke subtypes.
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2.
  • Sims, Rebecca, et al. (författare)
  • Rare coding variants in PLCG2, ABI3, and TREM2 implicate microglial-mediated innate immunity in Alzheimer's disease
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: Nature Genetics. - 1061-4036 .- 1546-1718. ; 49:9, s. 1373-
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • <p>We identified rare coding variants associated with Alzheimer's disease in a three-stage case-control study of 85,133 subjects. In stage 1, we genotyped 34,174 samples using a whole-exome microarray. In stage 2, we tested associated variants (P &lt; 1 x 10(-4)) in 35,962 independent samples using de novo genotyping and imputed genotypes. In stage 3, we used an additional 14,997 samples to test the most significant stage 2 associations (P &lt; 5 x 10(-8)) using imputed genotypes. We observed three new genome-wide significant nonsynonymous variants associated with Alzheimer's disease: a protective variant in PLCG2 (rs72824905: p. Pro522Arg, P = 5.38 x 10(-10), odds ratio (OR) = 0.68, minor allele frequency (MAF) cases = 0.0059, MAFcontrols = 0.0093), a risk variant in ABI3 (rs616338: p. Ser209Phe, P = 4.56 x 10-10, OR = 1.43, MAFcases = 0.011, MAFcontrols = 0.008), and a new genome-wide significant variant in TREM2 (rs143332484: p. Arg62His, P = 1.55 x 10(-14), OR = 1.67, MAFcases = 0.0143, MAFcontrols = 0.0089), a known susceptibility gene for Alzheimer's disease. These protein-altering changes are in genes highly expressed in microglia and highlight an immune-related protein-protein interaction network enriched for previously identified risk genes in Alzheimer's disease. These genetic findings provide additional evidence that the microglia-mediated innate immune response contributes directly to the development of Alzheimer's disease.</p>
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3.
  • Wain, Louise V., et al. (författare)
  • Genome-wide association study identifies six new loci influencing pulse pressure and mean arterial pressure
  • 2011
  • Ingår i: Nature Genetics. - Nature Publishing Group. - 1546-1718. ; 43:10, s. 122-1005
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Numerous genetic loci have been associated with systolic blood pressure (SBP) and diastolic blood pressure (DBP) in Europeans(1-3). We now report genome-wide association studies of pulse pressure (PP) and mean arterial pressure (MAP). In discovery (N = 74,064) and follow-up studies (N = 48,607), we identified at genome-wide significance (P = 2.7 x 10(-8) to P = 2.3 x 10(-13)) four new PP loci (at 4q12 near CHIC2, 7q22.3 near PIK3CG, 8q24.12 in NOV and 11q24.3 near ADAMTS8), two new MAP loci (3p21.31 in MAP4 and 10q25.3 near ADRB1) and one locus associated with both of these traits (2q24.3 near FIGN) that has also recently been associated with SBP in east Asians. For three of the new PP loci, the estimated effect for SBP was opposite of that for DBP, in contrast to the majority of common SBP- and DBP-associated variants, which show concordant effects on both traits. These findings suggest new genetic pathways underlying blood pressure variation, some of which may differentially influence SBP and DBP.
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5.
  • Adams, Hieab H. H., et al. (författare)
  • Novel genetic loci underlying human intracranial volume identified through genome-wide association
  • 2016
  • Ingår i: Nature Neuroscience. - 1097-6256 .- 1546-1726. ; 19:12, s. 1569-1582
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • <p>Intracranial volume reflects the maximally attained brain size during development, and remains stable with loss of tissue in late life. It is highly heritable, but the underlying genes remain largely undetermined. In a genome-wide association study of 32,438 adults, we discovered five previously unknown loci for intracranial volume and confirmed two known signals. Four of the loci were also associated with adult human stature, but these remained associated with intracranial volume after adjusting for height. We found a high genetic correlation with child head circumference (rho(genetic) = 0.748), which indicates a similar genetic background and allowed us to identify four additional loci through meta-analysis (N-combined = 37,345). Variants for intracranial volume were also related to childhood and adult cognitive function, and Parkinson's disease, and were enriched near genes involved in growth pathways, including PI3K-AKT signaling. These findings identify the biological underpinnings of intracranial volume and their link to physiological and pathological traits.</p>
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6.
  • Anderson, Christopher D., et al. (författare)
  • Genetic variants in CETP increase risk of intracerebral hemorrhage
  • 2016
  • Ingår i: Annals of Neurology. - John Wiley and Sons Inc.. - 1531-8249. ; 80:5, s. 730-740
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • OBJECTIVE: In observational epidemiologic studies, higher plasma high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) has been associated with increased risk of intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH). DNA sequence variants that decrease cholesteryl ester transfer protein (CETP) gene activity increase plasma HDL-C; as such, medicines that inhibit CETP and raise HDL-C are in clinical development. Here, we test the hypothesis that CETP DNA sequence variants associated with higher HDL-C also increase risk for ICH.METHODS: We performed 2 candidate-gene analyses of CETP. First, we tested individual CETP variants in a discovery cohort of 1,149 ICH cases and 1,238 controls from 3 studies, followed by replication in 1,625 cases and 1,845 controls from 5 studies. Second, we constructed a genetic risk score comprised of 7 independent variants at the CETP locus and tested this score for association with HDL-C as well as ICH risk.RESULTS: Twelve variants within CETP demonstrated nominal association with ICH, with the strongest association at the rs173539 locus (odds ratio [OR] = 1.25, standard error [SE] = 0.06, p = 6.0 × 10(-4) ) with no heterogeneity across studies (I(2) = 0%). This association was replicated in patients of European ancestry (p = 0.03). A genetic score of CETP variants found to increase HDL-C by ∼2.85mg/dl in the Global Lipids Genetics Consortium was strongly associated with ICH risk (OR = 1.86, SE = 0.13, p = 1.39 × 10(-6) ).INTERPRETATION: Genetic variants in CETP associated with increased HDL-C raise the risk of ICH. Given ongoing therapeutic development in CETP inhibition and other HDL-raising strategies, further exploration of potential adverse cerebrovascular outcomes may be warranted. Ann Neurol 2016;80:730-740.
7.
  • Biffi, Alessandro, et al. (författare)
  • APOE genotype and extent of bleeding and outcome in lobar intracerebral haemorrhage: a genetic association study
  • 2011
  • Ingår i: Lancet Neurology. - Lancet Ltd. - 1474-4465. ; 10:8, s. 702-709
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background Carriers of APOE epsilon 2 and epsilon 4 have an increased risk of intracerebral haemorrhage (ICH) in lobar regions, presumably because of the effects of these gene variants on risk of cerebral amyloid angiopathy. We aimed to assess whether these variants also associate with severity of ICH, in terms of haematoma volume at presentation and subsequent outcome. Methods We investigated the association of APOE epsilon 2 and epsilon 4 with ICH volume and outcomes in patients with primary ICH in three phases: a discovery phase of 865 individuals of European ancestry from the Genetics of Cerebral Hemorrhage on Anticoagulation study, and replication phases of 946 Europeans (replication 1) and 214 African-Americans (replication 2) from an additional six studies. We also assessed the association of APOE variants with ICH volume and outcomes in meta-analyses of results from all three phases, and the association of APOE epsilon 4 with mortality in a further meta-analysis including data from previous reports. Admission ICH volume was quantified on CT scan. We assessed functional outcome (modified Rankin scale score 3-6) and mortality at 90 days. We used linear regression to establish the effect of genotype on haematoma volume and logistic regression to assess the effect on outcome from ICH. Findings For patients with lobar ICH, carriers of the APOE epsilon 2 allele had larger ICH volumes than did non-carriers in the discovery phase (p=2. 5x10(-5)), in both replication phases (p=0.008 in Europeans and p=0.016 in African-Americans), and in the meta-analysis (p=3.2x10(-8)). In the meta-analysis, each copy of APOE epsilon 2 increased haematoma size by a mean of 5.3 mL (95% CI 4.7-5.9; p=0.004). Carriers of APOE epsilon 2 had increased mortality (odds ratio [OR] 1.50, 95% CI 1.23-1.82; p=2.45x10(-5)) and poorer functional outcomes (modified Rankin scale score 3-6; 1-52, 1.25-1.85; p=1.74x10(-5)) compared with non-carriers after lobar ICH. APOE epsilon 4 was not associated with lobar ICH volume, functional outcome, or mortality in the discovery phase, replication phases, or meta-analysis of these three phases; in our further meta-analysis of 2194 patients, this variant did not increase risk of mortality (1.08,0.86-1.36; p=0.52). APOE allele variants were not associated with deep ICH volume, functional outcome, or mortality. Interpretation Vasculopathic changes associated with the APOE epsilon 2 allele might have a role in the severity and clinical course of lobar ICH. Screening of patients who have ICH to identify the epsilon 2 variant might allow identification of those at increased risk of mortality and poor functional outcomes.
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8.
  • Biffi, Alessandro, et al. (författare)
  • Variants at APOE Influence Risk of Deep and Lobar Intracerebral Hemorrhage
  • 2010
  • Ingår i: Annals of Neurology. - John Wiley and Sons Inc.. - 1531-8249. ; 68:6, s. 934-943
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Objective: Prior studies investigating the association between APOE alleles epsilon 2/epsilon 4 and risk of intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) have been inconsistent and limited to small sample sizes, and did not account for confounding by population stratification or determine which genetic risk model was best applied. Methods: We performed a large-scale genetic association study of 2189 ICH cases and 4041 controls from 7 cohorts, which were analyzed using additive models for epsilon 2 and epsilon 4. Results were subsequently meta-analyzed using a random effects model. A proportion of the individuals (322 cases, 357 controls) had available genome-wide data to adjust for population stratification. Results: Alleles epsilon 2 and epsilon 4 were associated with lobar ICH at genome-wide significance levels (odds ratio [OR] = 1.82, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.50-2.23, p = 6.6 x 10(-10); and OR = 2.20, 95%CI = 1.85-2.63, p = 2.4 x 10(-11), respectively). Restriction of analysis to definite/probable cerebral amyloid angiopathy ICH uncovered a stronger effect. Allele epsilon 4 was also associated with increased risk for deep ICH (OR = 1.21, 95% CI = 1.08-1.36, p = 2.6 x 10(-4)). Risk prediction evaluation identified the additive model as best for describing the effect of APOE genotypes. Interpretation: APOE epsilon 2 and epsilon 4 are independent risk factors for lobar ICH, consistent with their known associations with amyloid biology. In addition, we present preliminary findings on a novel association between APOE epsilon 4 and deep ICH. Finally, we demonstrate that an additive model for these APOE variants is superior to other forms of genetic risk modeling previously applied. ANN NEUROL 2010;68:934-943
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9.
  • Chasman, Daniel I., et al. (författare)
  • Integration of genome-wide association studies with biological knowledge identifies six novel genes related to kidney function
  • 2012
  • Ingår i: Human Molecular Genetics. - 0964-6906 .- 1460-2083. ; 21:24, s. 5329-5343
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • <p>In conducting genome-wide association studies (GWAS), analytical approaches leveraging biological information may further understanding of the pathophysiology of clinical traits. To discover novel associations with estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR), a measure of kidney function, we developed a strategy for integrating prior biological knowledge into the existing GWAS data for eGFR from the CKDGen Consortium. Our strategy focuses on single nucleotide polymorphism (SNPs) in genes that are connected by functional evidence, determined by literature mining and gene ontology (GO) hierarchies, to genes near previously validated eGFR associations. It then requires association thresholds consistent with multiple testing, and finally evaluates novel candidates by independent replication. Among the samples of European ancestry, we identified a genome-wide significant SNP in FBXL20 (P 5.6 10(9)) in meta-analysis of all available data, and additional SNPs at the INHBC, LRP2, PLEKHA1, SLC3A2 and SLC7A6 genes meeting multiple-testing corrected significance for replication and overall P-values of 4.5 10(4)2.2 10(7). Neither the novel PLEKHA1 nor FBXL20 associations, both further supported by association with eGFR among African Americans and with transcript abundance, would have been implicated by eGFR candidate gene approaches. LRP2, encoding the megalin receptor, was identified through connection with the previously known eGFR gene DAB2 and extends understanding of the megalin system in kidney function. These findings highlight integration of existing genome-wide association data with independent biological knowledge to uncover novel candidate eGFR associations, including candidates lacking known connections to kidney-specific pathways. The strategy may also be applicable to other clinical phenotypes, although more testing will be needed to assess its potential for discovery in general.</p>
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10.
  • Davies, Gail, et al. (författare)
  • Study of 300,486 individuals identifies 148 independent genetic loci influencing general cognitive function
  • 2018
  • Ingår i: Nature Communications. - Nature Publishing Group. - 2041-1723 .- 2041-1723. ; 9
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • <p>General cognitive function is a prominent and relatively stable human trait that is associated with many important life outcomes. We combine cognitive and genetic data from the CHARGE and COGENT consortia, and UK Biobank (total <em>N</em> = 300,486; age 16-102) and find 148 genome-wide significant independent loci (<em>P</em> &lt; 5 x 10<sup>-8</sup>) associated with general cognitive function. Within the novel genetic loci are variants associated with neurodegenerative and neurodevelopmental disorders, physical and psychiatric illnesses, and brain structure. Gene-based analyses find 709 genes associated with general cognitive function. Expression levels across the cortex are associated with general cognitive function. Using polygenic scores, up to 4.3% of variance in general cognitive function is predicted in independent samples. We detect significant genetic overlap between general cognitive function, reaction time, and many health variables including eyesight, hypertension, and longevity. In conclusion we identify novel genetic loci and pathways contributing to the heritability of general cognitive function.</p>
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