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Sökning: WFRF:(Schneider Torben)

  • Resultat 1-7 av 7
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1.
  • Bentham, James, et al. (författare)
  • A century of trends in adult human height
  • 2016
  • Ingår i: eLIFE. - 2050-084X. ; 5
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Being taller is associated with enhanced longevity, and higher education and earnings. We reanalysed 1472 population-based studies, with measurement of height on more than 18.6 million participants to estimate mean height for people born between 1896 and 1996 in 200 countries. The largest gain in adult height over the past century has occurred in South Korean women and Iranian men, who became 20.2 cm (95% credible interval 17.522.7) and 16.5 cm (13.319.7) taller, respectively. In contrast, there was little change in adult height in some sub-Saharan African countries and in South Asia over the century of analysis. The tallest people over these 100 years are men born in the Netherlands in the last quarter of 20th century, whose average heights surpassed 182.5 cm, and the shortest were women born in Guatemala in 1896 (140.3 cm; 135.8144.8). The height differential between the tallest and shortest populations was 19-20 cm a century ago, and has remained the same for women and increased for men a century later despite substantial changes in the ranking of countries.
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  • Ferizi, Uran, et al. (författare)
  • Diffusion MRI microstructure models with in vivo human brain Connectome data : Results from a multi-group comparison
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: NMR in Biomedicine. - : John Wiley and Sons. - 0952-3480 .- 1099-1492. ; 30:9
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • A large number of mathematical models have been proposed to describe the measured signal in diffusion-weighted (DW) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). However, model comparison to date focuses only on specific subclasses, e.g. compartment models or signal models, and little or no information is available in the literature on how performance varies among the different types of models. To address this deficiency, we organized the 'White Matter Modeling Challenge' during the International Symposium on Biomedical Imaging (ISBI) 2015 conference. This competition aimed to compare a range of different kinds of models in their ability to explain a large range of measurable in vivo DW human brain data. Specifically, we assessed the ability of models to predict the DW signal accurately for new diffusion gradients and b values. We did not evaluate the accuracy of estimated model parameters, as a ground truth is hard to obtain. We used the Connectome scanner at the Massachusetts General Hospital, using gradient strengths of up to 300mT/m and a broad set of diffusion times. We focused on assessing the DW signal prediction in two regions: the genu in the corpus callosum, where the fibres are relatively straight and parallel, and the fornix, where the configuration of fibres is more complex. The challenge participants had access to three-quarters of the dataset and their models were ranked on their ability to predict the remaining unseen quarter of the data. The challenge provided a unique opportunity for a quantitative comparison of diverse methods from multiple groups worldwide. The comparison of the challenge entries reveals interesting trends that could potentially influence the next generation of diffusion-based quantitative MRI techniques. The first is that signal models do not necessarily outperform tissue models; in fact, of those tested, tissue models rank highest on average. The second is that assuming a non-Gaussian (rather than purely Gaussian) noise model provides little improvement in prediction of unseen data, although it is possible that this may still have a beneficial effect on estimated parameter values. The third is that preprocessing the training data, here by omitting signal outliers, and using signal-predicting strategies, such as bootstrapping or cross-validation, could benefit the model fitting. The analysis in this study provides a benchmark for other models and the data remain available to build up a more complete comparison in the future.
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  • Holmila, Reetta, et al. (författare)
  • Mutations in TP53 tumor suppressor gene in wood dust-related sinonasal cancer
  • 2010
  • Ingår i: International Journal of Cancer. - : John Wiley and Sons. - 0020-7136. ; 127:3, s. 578-588
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The causal role of work-related exposure to wood dust in the development of sinonasal cancer has long been established by numerous epidemiologic studies. To study molecular changes in these tumors, we analyzed TP53 gene mutations in 358 sinonasal cancer cases with or without occupational exposure to wood dust, using capillary electrophoresis single-strand conformation polymorphism analysis and direct sequencing. A significant association between wood-dust exposure and adenocarcinoma histology was observed [adjusted odds ratio (OR) 12.6, 95% confidence interval (Cl), 5.0-31.6]. TP53 mutations occurred in all histologies, with an overall frequency of 77%. TP53 mutation positive status was most common in adenocarcinoma (OR 2.0, 95% Cl, 1.1-3.7; compared with squamous cell carcinoma), and mutation positivity showed an overall, nonsignificant association with wood-dust exposure (OR 1.6, 95% Cl, 0.8-3.1). Risk of TP53 mutation was significantly increased in association with duration (>= 24 years, OR 5.1, 95% Cl, 1.5-17.1), average level (>2 mg/m(3); OR 3.6, 95% Cl, 1.2-10.8) and cumulative level (>= 30 mg/m(3) x years; OR 3.5, 95% Cl, 1.2-10.7) of wood-dust exposure; adjustment for formaldehyde affected the ORs only slightly. Smoking did not influence the occurrence of TP53 mutation; however, it was associated with multiple mutations (p = 0.03). As far as we are aware, this is the first study to demonstrate a high prevalence of TP53 mutation-positive cases in a large collection of sinonasal cancers with data on occupational exposure. Our results indicate that mutational mechanisms, in particular TP53 mutations, are associated with work-related exposure to wood dust in sinonasal cancer.
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  • Scannell, Cian M., et al. (författare)
  • Feasibility of free-breathing quantitative myocardial perfusion using multi-echo Dixon magnetic resonance imaging
  • 2020
  • Ingår i: Scientific Reports. - : NATURE PUBLISHING GROUP. - 2045-2322. ; 10:1
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Dynamic contrast-enhanced quantitative first-pass perfusion using magnetic resonance imaging enables non-invasive objective assessment of myocardial ischemia without ionizing radiation. However, quantification of perfusion is challenging due to the non-linearity between the magnetic resonance signal intensity and contrast agent concentration. Furthermore, respiratory motion during data acquisition precludes quantification of perfusion. While motion correction techniques have been proposed, they have been hampered by the challenge of accounting for dramatic contrast changes during the bolus and long execution times. In this work we investigate the use of a novel free-breathing multi-echo Dixon technique for quantitative myocardial perfusion. The Dixon fat images, unaffected by the dynamic contrast-enhancement, are used to efficiently estimate rigid-body respiratory motion and the computed transformations are applied to the corresponding diagnostic water images. This is followed by a second non-linear correction step using the Dixon water images to remove residual motion. The proposed Dixon motion correction technique was compared to the state-of-the-art technique (spatiotemporal based registration). We demonstrate that the proposed method performs comparably to the state-of-the-art but is significantly faster to execute. Furthermore, the proposed technique can be used to correct for the decay of signal due to T2* effects to improve quantification and additionally, yields fat-free diagnostic images.
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7.
  • Zhou Hagström, Nanna, et al. (författare)
  • Megahertz-rate Ultrafast X-ray Scattering and Holographic Imaging at the European XFEL
  • Annan publikation (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • The advent of X-ray free-electron lasers (XFELs) has revolutionized fundamental science, from atomic to condensed matter physics, from chemistry to biology, giving researchers access to X-rays with unprecedented brightness, coherence, and pulse duration. All XFEL facilities built until recently provided X-ray pulses at a relatively low repetition rate, with limited data statistics. Here, we present the results from the first megahertz repetition rate X-ray scattering experiments at the Spectroscopy and Coherent Scattering (SCS) instrument of the European XFEL. We illustrate the experimental capabilities that the SCS instrument offers, resulting from the operation at MHz repetition rates and the availability of the novel DSSC 2D imaging detector. Time-resolved magnetic X-ray scattering and holographic imaging experiments in solid state samples were chosen as representative examples, providing an ideal test-bed for operation at megahertz rates. Nevertheless, our results are relevant and applicable to any other non-destructive XFEL experiments in the soft X-ray range. 
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  • Resultat 1-7 av 7

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