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Sökning: WFRF:(Schott Jonathan)

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1.
  • Bridel, Claire, et al. (författare)
  • Diagnostic Value of Cerebrospinal Fluid Neurofilament Light Protein in Neurology: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis.
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: JAMA neurology. - : American Medical Association. - 2168-6157 .- 2168-6149. ; 76:9, s. 1035-1048
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Neurofilament light protein (NfL) is elevated in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of a number of neurological conditions compared with healthy controls (HC) and is a candidate biomarker for neuroaxonal damage. The influence of age and sex is largely unknown, and levels across neurological disorders have not been compared systematically to date.To assess the associations of age, sex, and diagnosis with NfL in CSF (cNfL) and to evaluate its potential in discriminating clinically similar conditions.PubMed was searched for studies published between January 1, 2006, and January 1, 2016, reporting cNfL levels (using the search terms neurofilament light and cerebrospinal fluid) in neurological or psychiatric conditions and/or in HC.Studies reporting NfL levels measured in lumbar CSF using a commercially available immunoassay, as well as age and sex.Individual-level data were requested from study authors. Generalized linear mixed-effects models were used to estimate the fixed effects of age, sex, and diagnosis on log-transformed NfL levels, with cohort of origin modeled as a random intercept.The cNfL levels adjusted for age and sex across diagnoses.Data were collected for 10 059 individuals (mean [SD] age, 59.7 [18.8] years; 54.1% female). Thirty-five diagnoses were identified, including inflammatory diseases of the central nervous system (n = 2795), dementias and predementia stages (n = 4284), parkinsonian disorders (n = 984), and HC (n = 1332). The cNfL was elevated compared with HC in a majority of neurological conditions studied. Highest levels were observed in cognitively impaired HIV-positive individuals (iHIV), amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, frontotemporal dementia (FTD), and Huntington disease. In 33.3% of diagnoses, including HC, multiple sclerosis, Alzheimer disease (AD), and Parkinson disease (PD), cNfL was higher in men than women. The cNfL increased with age in HC and a majority of neurological conditions, although the association was strongest in HC. The cNfL overlapped in most clinically similar diagnoses except for FTD and iHIV, which segregated from other dementias, and PD, which segregated from atypical parkinsonian syndromes.These data support the use of cNfL as a biomarker of neuroaxonal damage and indicate that age-specific and sex-specific (and in some cases disease-specific) reference values may be needed. The cNfL has potential to assist the differentiation of FTD from AD and PD from atypical parkinsonian syndromes.
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2.
  • Skillbäck, Tobias, et al. (författare)
  • Apolipoprotein E genotypes and longevity across dementia disorders
  • 2018
  • Ingår i: Alzheimer's & Dementia. - : Elsevier. - 1552-5260 .- 1552-5279. ; 14:7, s. 895-901
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • INTRODUCTION: The ε4 allele of the apolipoprotein E (APOE) gene is a prominent risk factor for Alzheimer's disease (AD), but its implication in other dementias is less well studied.METHODS: We used a data set on 2858 subjects (1098 AD, 260 vascular dementia [VaD], 145 mixed AD and VaD, 90 other dementia diagnoses, and 1265 controls) to examine the association of APOE polymorphisms with clinical dementia diagnoses, biomarker profiles, and longevity.RESULTS: The ε4 allele was associated with reduced longevity as ε4 versus ε3 homozygotes lived on average 2.6 years shorter (P = .006). In AD, ε4 carriers lived 1.0 years shorter than noncarriers (P = .028). The ε4 allele was more prevalent in AD, mixed AD and VaD, and VaD patients compared to controls, but not in other dementia disorders.DISCUSSION: The APOE ε4 allele is influential in AD but might also be of importance in VaD and in mixed AD and VaD, diseases in which concomitant AD pathology is common.
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3.
  • Foiani, M. S., et al. (författare)
  • Searching for novel cerebrospinal fluid biomarkers of tau pathology in frontotemporal dementia: An elusive quest
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery and Psychiatry. - : BMJ Publishing Group. - 0022-3050. ; 90:7, s. 740-746
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background: Frontotemporal dementia (FTD) is a pathologically heterogeneous neurodegenerative disorder associated usually with tau or TDP-43 pathology, although some phenotypes such as logopenic variant primary progressive aphasia are more commonly associated with Alzheimer's disease pathology. Currently, there are no biomarkers able to diagnose the underlying pathology during life. In this study, we aimed to investigate the potential of novel tau species within cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) as biomarkers for tau pathology in FTD. Methods: 86 participants were included: 66 with a clinical diagnosis within the FTD spectrum and 20 healthy controls. Immunoassays targeting tau fragments N-123, N-mid-region, N-224 and X-368, as well as a non-phosphorylated form of tau were measured in CSF, along with total-tau (T-tau) and phospho-tau (P-tau (181) ). Patients with FTD were grouped based on their Aβ 42 level into those likely to have underlying Alzheimer's disease (AD) pathology (n=21) and those with likely frontotemporal lobar degeneration (FTLD) pathology (n=45). The FTLD group was then subgrouped based on their underlying clinical and genetic diagnoses into those with likely tau (n=7) or TDP-43 (n=18) pathology. Results: Significantly higher concentrations of tau N-mid-region, tau N-224 and non-phosphorylated tau were seen in both the AD group and FTLD group compared with controls. However, none of the novel tau species showed a significant difference between the AD and FTLD groups, nor between the TDP-43 and tau pathology groups. In a subanalysis, normalising for total-tau, none of the novel tau species provided a higher sensitivity and specificity to distinguish between tau and TDP-43 pathology than P-tau (181) /T-tau, which itself only had a sensitivity of 61.1% and specificity of 85.7% with a cut-off of <0.109. Conclusions: Despite investigating multiple novel CSF tau fragments, none show promise as an FTD biomarker and so the quest for in vivo markers of FTLD-tau pathology continues. © Author(s) (or their employer(s)) 2019. Re-use permitted under CC BY. Published by BMJ.
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4.
  • Frisoni, G. B., et al. (författare)
  • Strategic roadmap for an early diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease based on biomarkers
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: Lancet Neurology. - : Lancet Ltd. - 1474-4422 .- 1474-4465. ; 16:8, s. 661-676
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease can be improved by the use of biological measures. Biomarkers of functional impairment, neuronal loss, and protein deposition that can be assessed by neuroimaging (ie, MRI and PET) or CSF analysis are increasingly being used to diagnose Alzheimer's disease in research studies and specialist clinical settings. However, the validation of the clinical usefulness of these biomarkers is incomplete, and that is hampering reimbursement for these tests by health insurance providers, their widespread clinical implementation, and improvements in quality of health care. We have developed a strategic five-phase roadmap to foster the clinical validation of biomarkers in Alzheimer's disease, adapted from the approach for cancer biomarkers. Sufficient evidence of analytical validity (phase 1 of a structured framework adapted from oncology) is available for all biomarkers, but their clinical validity (phases 2 and 3) and clinical utility (phases 4 and 5) are incomplete. To complete these phases, research priorities include the standardisation of the readout of these assays and thresholds for normality, the evaluation of their performance in detecting early disease, the development of diagnostic algorithms comprising combinations of biomarkers, and the development of clinical guidelines for the use of biomarkers in qualified memory clinics.
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5.
  • Obrocki, Pawel, et al. (författare)
  • Perspectives in fluid biomarkers in neurodegeneration from the 2019 biomarkers in neurodegenerative diseases course - A joint PhD student course at University College London and University of Gothenburg
  • Ingår i: Alzheimer's Research and Therapy. - : BioMed Central (BMC). - 1758-9193. ; 12:1
  • Forskningsöversikt (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Until relatively recently, a diagnosis of probable Alzheimer's disease (AD) and other neurodegenerative disorders was principally based on clinical presentation, with post-mortem examination remaining a gold standard for disease confirmation. This is in sharp contrast to other areas of medicine, where fluid biomarkers, such as troponin levels in myocardial infarction, form an integral part of the diagnostic and treatment criteria. There is a pressing need for such quantifiable and easily accessible tools in neurodegenerative diseases. In this paper, based on lectures given at the 2019 Biomarkers in Neurodegenerative Diseases Course, we provide an overview of a range of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and blood biomarkers in neurodegenerative disorders, including the 'core' AD biomarkers amyloid β (Aβ) and tau, as well as other disease-specific and general markers of neuroaxonal injury. We then highlight the main challenges in the field, and how those could be overcome with the aid of new methodological advances, such as assay automation, mass spectrometry and ultrasensitive immunoassays. As we hopefully move towards an era of disease-modifying treatments, reliable biomarkers will be essential to increase diagnostic accuracy, allow for earlier diagnosis, better participant selection and disease activity and treatment effect monitoring.
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6.
  • Skillbäck, Tobias, et al. (författare)
  • CSF neurofilament light differs in neurodegenerative diseases and predicts severity and survival.
  • 2014
  • Ingår i: Neurology. - : American Academy of Neurology. - 1526-632X .- 0028-3878. ; 83:21, s. 1945-53
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • We hypothesized that CSF neurofilament light (NFL) levels would be elevated in dementias with subcortical involvement, including vascular dementia (VaD), but less elevated in dementias primarily affecting gray matter structures, such as Alzheimer disease (AD), and that elevated CSF NFL would correlate with disease severity and shorter survival time irrespective of clinical diagnosis.
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7.
  • Bartlett, Jonathan W, et al. (författare)
  • Determining cut-points for Alzheimer's disease biomarkers: statistical issues, methods and challenges.
  • 2012
  • Ingår i: Biomarkers in medicine. - 1752-0371. ; 6:4, s. 391-400
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • New proposed criteria for the clinical diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease increasingly incorporate biomarkers, most of which are normally measured on a continuous scale. Operationalizing such criteria thus requires continuous biomarkers to be dichotomized, which in turns requires the selection of a cut-point at which to dichotomize. In this article, we review the statistical principles underlying the choice of cut-points, describe some of the most commonly adopted statistical approaches used to estimate cut-points, highlight potential pitfalls in some of the approaches and characterize in what sense the estimated cut-point from each approach is optimal. We also emphasize that how a cut-point is selected must be made in reference to how the resulting dichotomized biomarker is to be used, and in particular what actions will follow from a positive or negative test result.
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8.
  • Clarke, Mica T M, et al. (författare)
  • CSF synaptic protein concentrations are raised in those with atypical Alzheimer's disease but not frontotemporal dementia.
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: Alzheimer's research & therapy. - 1758-9193. ; 11
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Increased CSF levels of a number of synaptic markers have been reported in Alzheimer's disease (AD), but little is known about their concentrations in frontotemporal dementia (FTD). We investigated this in three synaptic proteins, neurogranin, SNAP-25, and synaptotagmin-1.CSF samples were analysed from 66 patients with a disorder in the FTD spectrum and 19 healthy controls. Patients were stratified by their tau to Aβ42 ratio: those with a ratio of > 1 considered as having likely AD pathology, i.e. an atypical form of AD ('AD biomarker' group [n = 18]), and < 1 as likely FTD pathology ('FTD biomarker' group [n = 48]). A subgroup analysis compared those in the FTD group with likely tau (n = 7) and TDP-43 (n = 18) pathology. Concentrations of neurogranin were measured using two different ELISAs (Ng22 and Ng36), and concentrations of two SNAP-25 fragments (SNAP-25tot and SNAP-25aa40) and synaptotagmin-1 were measured via mass spectrometry.The AD biomarker group had significantly higher concentrations of all synaptic proteins compared to controls except for synaptotagmin-1 where there was only a trend to increased levels-Ng22, AD mean 232.2 (standard deviation 138.9) pg/ml, controls 137.6 (95.9); Ng36, 225.5 (148.8) pg/ml, 130.0 (80.9); SNAP-25tot, 71.4 (27.9) pM, 53.5 (11.7); SNAP-25aa40, 14.0 (6.3), 7.9 (2.3) pM; and synaptotagmin-1, 287.7 (156.0) pM, 238.3 (71.4). All synaptic measures were significantly higher in the atypical AD group than the FTD biomarker group except for Ng36 where there was only a trend to increased levels-Ng22, 114.0 (117.5); Ng36, 171.1 (75.2); SNAP-25tot, 49.2 (16.7); SNAP-25aa40, 8.2 (3.4); and synaptotagmin-1, 197.1 (78.9). No markers were higher in the FTD biomarker group than controls. No significant differences were seen in the subgroup analysis, but there was a trend to increased levels in those with likely tau pathology.No CSF synaptic proteins have been shown to be abnormal in those with likely FTD pathologically. Higher CSF synaptic protein concentrations of neurogranin, SNAP-25, and synaptotagmin-1 appear to be related to AD pathology.
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9.
  • Foiani, Martha S, et al. (författare)
  • Plasma tau is increased in frontotemporal dementia.
  • 2018
  • Ingår i: Journal of neurology, neurosurgery, and psychiatry. - 1468-330X. ; 89:8, s. 804-807
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Frontotemporal dementia (FTD) is a heterogeneous neurodegenerative disorder presenting clinically with personality change (behavioural variant FTD (bvFTD)) or language deficits (primary progressive aphasia (PPA)). About a third of FTD is familial with mutations inGRN,MAPTandC9orf72being the major genetic causes. Robust biomarkers of the underlying pathology are still lacking in FTD with no markers currently being able to distinguish those with tau and TDP-43 inclusions during life.This study used an ultrasensitive single molecule methodology to measure plasma tau concentrations in 176 participants: 71 with bvFTD, 83 with PPA and 22 healthy controls. The patient group included 36 with pathogenic mutations in eitherMAPT(n=12),GRN(n=9) orC9orf72(n=15). Group comparisons were performed between clinical and genetic groups and controls using a linear regression model with bias-corrected bootstrap CIs. Correlative analyses were performed to investigate associations with measures of disease severity and progression.Higher plasma tau concentrations were seen in bvFTD (mean 1.96 (SD 1.07) pg/mL) and PPA (2.65 (2.15) pg/mL) compared with controls (1.67 (0.50) pg/mL). Investigating the PPA group further showed significantly higher levels compared with controls in each of the PPA subtypes (non-fluent, semantic and logopenic variants, as well as a fourth group not meeting criteria for one of the three main variants). In the genetic groups, only theMAPTgroup had significantly increased concentrations (2.62 (1.39) pg/mL) compared with controls. No significant correlations were seen with cross-sectional or longitudinal brain volumes, serum neurofilament light chain concentrations or disease duration.Plasma tau levels are increased in FTD in all clinical groups, but in the genetic subtypes only inMAPTmutations, the group of patients who definitively have tau pathology at postmortem. Future studies will be required in pathologically confirmed cohorts to investigate this association further, and whether plasma tau will be helpful in differentiating patients with FTD with tau from those with other pathologies.
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10.
  • Hansson, Karl, 1985, et al. (författare)
  • Use of the tau protein-to-peptide ratio in CSF to improve diagnostic classification of Alzheimer's disease
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: Clinical Mass Spectrometry. - : Elsevier. - 2376-9998. ; 14, s. 74-82
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) tau and phospho-tau are well established biomarkers of Alzheimer's disease. While these measures are conventionally referred to as 'total tau' (T-tau) and 'phospho-tau' (P-tau), several truncated and modified tau forms exist that may relay additional diagnostic information. We evaluated the diagnostic performance of an endogenous tau peptide in CSF, tau 175-190, in the phosphorylated and non-phosphorylated state. A liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) method was established to measure these peptides in CSF and was used to analyze two independent clinical cohorts; the first cohort included patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD, n = 15), Parkinson's disease (PD, n = 15), progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP, n = 15), and healthy controls (n = 15), the second cohort included AD patients (n = 16), and healthy controls (n = 24). In both cohorts T-tau and P-tau concentrations were determined by immunoassay. While tau 175-190 and P-tau 175-190 did not differentiate the study groups, the separation of AD and controls by T-tau (area under the ROC Curve (AUC) = 95%) and P-tau (AUC = 92%) was improved when normalizing the ELISA measurements to the concentrations of the endogenous peptides: T-tau/tau 175-190 (AUC = 100%), P-tau/P-tau 175-190 (AUC = 95%). The separation between patients and controls by T-tau (AUC = 88%) and P-tau (AUC = 82%) was similarly improved in the second cohort by taking the ratios of T-tau/tau 175-190 (AUC = 97%) and P-tau/P-tau 175-190 (AUC = 98%). In conclusion, our results suggest that the performance of the AD biomarkers T-tau and P-tau could be improved by normalizing their measurements to the endogenous peptides tau 175-190 and P-tau 175-190, possibly because these endogenous tau peptides serve to normalize for physiological, and disease-independent, secretion of tau from neurons to the extracellular space and the CSF. Finally, the observations made here add to the general applicability of mass spectrometry as a tool for rapid identification and accurate quantification of biomarker candidates. (C) 2019 The Association for Mass Spectrometry: Applications to the Clinical Lab (MSACL). Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
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