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Sökning: WFRF:(Schwarcz E)

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1.
  • Ragnarsson, Oskar, 1971-, et al. (författare)
  • Overall and disease-specific mortality in patients with Cushing's disease: a Swedish nationwide study.
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: The Journal of clinical endocrinology and metabolism. - 1945-7197. ; 104:6
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • It is still a matter of debate whether patients with Cushing's disease (CD) in remission have increased mortality.To study overall and disease-specific mortality, and predictive factors, in an unselected nationwide cohort of patients with CD.A retrospective study on patients diagnosed with CD, identified in the Swedish National Patient Registry between 1987 and 2013. Medical records were systematically reviewed to verify the diagnosis. Standardised mortality ratios (SMRs) with 95% confidence intervals (CI) were calculated and Cox regression models were used to identify predictors of mortality.Five-hundred-and-two patients [387 women (77%)] with CD were identified, of whom 419 (83%) were confirmed to be in remission. Mean age at diagnosis was 43 years (SD 16) and median follow-up time was 13 years (IQR 6-23). The observed number of deaths was 133 versus 54 expected, resulting in an overall SMR of 2.5 (95% CI 2.1-2.9). The commonest cause of death was cardiovascular diseases [SMR 3.3 (95% CI 2.6 -4.3)]. Excess mortality was also found due to infections and suicides. SMR in patients in remission was 1.9 (95% CI 1.5-2.3), where bilateral adrenalectomy and glucocorticoid replacement therapy were independently associated with increased mortality whereas growth hormone replacement was associated with improved outcome.This large nationwide study shows that patients with CD have an excess mortality. The findings illustrate the importance of obtaining remission and continued active surveillance, along with adequate hormone replacement, and evaluation of cardiovascular risk and mental health.
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2.
  • Ragnarsson, Oskar, 1971-, et al. (författare)
  • The incidence of Cushing’s disease : : a nationwide Swedish study
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: Pituitary. - Springer. - 1386-341X. ; 22:2, s. 179-186
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background: Studies on the incidence of Cushing’s disease (CD) are few and usually limited by a small number of patients. The aim of this study was to assess the annual incidence in a nationwide cohort of patients with presumed CD in Sweden. Methods: Patients registered with a diagnostic code for Cushing’s syndrome (CS) or CD, between 1987 and 2013 were identified in the Swedish National Patient Registry. The CD diagnosis was validated by reviewing clinical, biochemical, imaging, and histopathological data. Results: Of 1317 patients identified, 534 (41%) had confirmed CD. One-hundred-and-fifty-six (12%) patients had other forms of CS, 41 (3%) had probable but unconfirmed CD, and 334 (25%) had diagnoses unrelated to CS. The mean (95% confidence interval) annual incidence between 1987 and 2013 of confirmed CD was 1.6 (1.4–1.8) cases per million. 1987–1995, 1996–2004, and 2005–2013, the mean annual incidence was 1.5 (1.1–1.8), 1.4 (1.0–1.7) and 2.0 (1.7–2.3) cases per million, respectively. During the last time period the incidence was higher than during the first and second time periods (P < 0.05). Conclusion: The incidence of CD in Sweden (1.6 cases per million) is in agreement with most previous reports. A higher incidence between 2005 and 2013 compared to 1987–2004 was noticed. Whether this reflects a truly increased incidence of the disease, or simply an increased awareness, earlier recognition, and earlier diagnosis can, however, not be answered. This study also illustrates the importance of validation of the diagnosis of CD in epidemiological research.
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  • Ahmadi, Shilan Seyed, et al. (författare)
  • The Association Between HbA(1c)and Time in Hypoglycemia During CGM and Self-Monitoring of Blood Glucose in People With Type 1 Diabetes and Multiple Daily Insulin Injections: A Randomized Clinical Trial (GOLD-4)
  • 2020
  • Ingår i: Diabetes care. - 0149-5992. ; 43:9, s. 2017-2024
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • OBJECTIVE According to recent guidelines, individuals with type 1 diabetes should spend <4.0% of time per day with glucose levels <3.9 mmol/L (<70 mg/dL) and <1.0% per day with glucose levels <3.0 mmol/L (<54 mg/dL). RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS In the GOLD randomized crossover trial, 161 individuals with type 1 diabetes treated with multiple daily insulin injections (MDI) were randomized to continuous glucose monitoring (CGM) or conventional therapy with self-monitoring of blood glucose (SMBG) and evaluated over 16 months. We estimated the association between time spent in hypoglycemia and various mean glucose and HbA(1c)levels. RESULTS Time spent in hypoglycemia (<3.9 mmol/L and <3.0 mmol/L) increased significantly with lower mean HbA(1c)and mean glucose levels during both CGM and conventional therapy. During CGM, 24 (57.1%) individuals with HbA(1c)<7.5% (<58 mmol/mol) had <1.0% time spent in hypoglycemia <3.0 mmol/L and 23 (54.8%) had <4.0% time spent in hypoglycemia <3.9 mmol/L. During CGM, mean time spent in hypoglycemia for individuals with mean HbA(1c)7.0% (52 mmol/mol) was estimated to be 5.4% for <3.9 mmol/L and 1.5% for <3.0 mmol/L. The corresponding values during SMBG were 9.2% and 3.5%, respectively. Individuals with mean glucose levels of 8 mmol/L spent 4.9% units more time with glucose levels CONCLUSIONS Reaching current targets for time in hypoglycemia while at the same time reaching HbA(1c)targets is challenging for patients with type 1 diabetes treated with MDI both with CGM and SMBG monitoring. However, CGM is associated with considerably less time in hypoglycemia than SMBG at a broad range of HbA(1c)levels and is crucial for patients with MDI treatment if they are to have a chance to approach hypoglycemia targets.
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  • Fadl, Helena E., 1965-, et al. (författare)
  • Randomized controlled study in pregnancy on treatment of marked hyperglycemia that is short of overt diabetes
  • 2015
  • Ingår i: Acta Obstetricia et Gynecologica Scandinavica. - Wiley-Blackwell. - 0001-6349 .- 1600-0412. ; 94:11, s. 1181-1187
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • <p><strong>Introduction</strong>: A randomized multicenter study was conducted in the Stockholm-orebro areas in Sweden to evaluate how treatment aiming at normoglycemia affects fetal growth, pregnancy and neonatal outcome in pregnant women with severe hyperglycemia.</p><p><strong>Material and methods</strong>: Pregnant women with hyperglycemia defined as fasting capillary plasma glucose &lt;7.0 mmol/L and a two-hour plasma glucose value 10.0 and &lt;12.2 mmol/L following a 75-g oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) diagnosed before 34 weeks of gestation were randomized to treatment (n=33) or controls (n=36). Women assigned to the control group were blinded for the OGTT results and received routine care. The therapeutic goal was fasting plasma glucose 4-5 mmol/L, and &lt;6.5 mmol/L after a meal. Primary outcomes were size at birth and number of large-for-gestational age (&gt;90th percentile) neonates. Secondary outcomes were pregnancy complications, neonatal morbidity and glycemic control.</p><p><strong>Results</strong>: The planned number of participating women was not reached. There was a significantly reduced rate of large-for-gestational age neonates, 21 vs. 47%, P&lt;0.05. Group differences in pregnancy complications and neonatal morbidity were not detected because of limited statistical power. In total, 66.7% of the women in the intervention group received insulin. Of all measured plasma glucose values, 64.1% were in the target range, 7.2% in the hypoglycemic range and 28.7% above target values. There were no cases of severe hypoglycemia.</p><p><strong>Conclusions</strong>: Aiming for normalized glycemia in a pregnancy complicated by severe hyperglycemia reduces fetal growth but is associated with an increased rate of mild hypoglycemia.</p>
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6.
  • Fadl, Helena E., et al. (författare)
  • Randomized controlled study in pregnancy on treatment of marked hyperglycemia that is short of overt diabetes
  • 2015
  • Ingår i: Acta Obstetricia et Gynecologica Scandinavica. - 0001-6349 .- 1600-0412. ; 94:11, s. 1181-1187
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • <p>IntroductionA randomized multicenter study was conducted in the Stockholm-orebro areas in Sweden to evaluate how treatment aiming at normoglycemia affects fetal growth, pregnancy and neonatal outcome in pregnant women with severe hyperglycemia. Material and methodsPregnant women with hyperglycemia defined as fasting capillary plasma glucose &lt;7.0 mmol/L and a two-hour plasma glucose value 10.0 and &lt;12.2 mmol/L following a 75-g oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) diagnosed before 34 weeks of gestation were randomized to treatment (n=33) or controls (n=36). Women assigned to the control group were blinded for the OGTT results and received routine care. The therapeutic goal was fasting plasma glucose 4-5 mmol/L, and &lt;6.5 mmol/L after a meal. Primary outcomes were size at birth and number of large-for-gestational age (&gt;90th percentile) neonates. Secondary outcomes were pregnancy complications, neonatal morbidity and glycemic control. ResultsThe planned number of participating women was not reached. There was a significantly reduced rate of large-for-gestational age neonates, 21 vs. 47%, P&lt;0.05. Group differences in pregnancy complications and neonatal morbidity were not detected because of limited statistical power. In total, 66.7% of the women in the intervention group received insulin. Of all measured plasma glucose values, 64.1% were in the target range, 7.2% in the hypoglycemic range and 28.7% above target values. There were no cases of severe hypoglycemia. ConclusionsAiming for normalized glycemia in a pregnancy complicated by severe hyperglycemia reduces fetal growth but is associated with an increased rate of mild hypoglycemia.</p>
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  • Fadl, H., et al. (författare)
  • Gestational diabetes mellitus and later cardiovascular disease a Swedish population based case-control study
  • 2014
  • Ingår i: British Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology. - 1470-0328 .- 1471-0528. ; 121:12, s. 1530-1536
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • <p>ObjectiveTo identify if gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) is a clinically useful marker of future cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk and if GDM combined with other risks (smoking, hypertension or body mass) identifies high-risk groups. DesignPopulation-based matched case-control study. SettingNational Swedish register data from 1991 to 2008. PopulationA total of 2639 women with a cardiovascular event and matched controls. MethodsConditional logistic regression examined associations with CVD before and after adjustment for conventional risk factors and confounders. Effect modification for the association of GDM with CVD by body mass index (BMI), smoking and chronic hypertension was assessed by stratification and interaction testing. Adjustment for diabetes post-pregnancy evaluated its mediating role. Main outcome measuresInpatient diagnoses or causes of death identifying ischemic heart disease, ischemic stroke, atherosclerosis or peripheral vascular disease. ResultsThe adjusted odds ratios (and 95% confidence intervals) for the association of CVD with GDM are 1.51 (1.07-2.14), 2.23 (2.01-2.48) for smoking, 1.98 (1.71-2.29) for obesity and 5.10 (3.18-8.18) for chronic hypertension. In stratified analysis the association of CVD with GDM was only seen among women with BMI 25, with an odds ratio of 2.39 (1.39-4.10), but only women with a BMI &lt;30 accounted for this increased risk. Adjustment for post-pregnancy diabetes attenuated it somewhat to 1.99 (1.13-3.52). ConclusionsIn the absence of other recognised cardiovascular risk factors, such as smoking, obesity or chronic hypertension, GDM is a useful marker of raised CVD risk among women with BMI between 25 and 29.</p>
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  • Olafsdottir, Arndis, et al. (författare)
  • A Randomized Clinical Trial of the Effect of Continuous Glucose Monitoring on Nocturnal Hypoglycemia, Daytime Hypoglycemia, Glycemic Variability, and Hypoglycemia Confidence in Persons with Type 1 Diabetes Treated with Multiple Daily Insulin Injections (GOLD-3)
  • 2018
  • Ingår i: Diabetes Technology & Therapeutics. - 1520-9156. ; 20:4, s. 274-284
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background: To evaluate the effects of continuous glucose monitoring (CGM) on nocturnal and daytime hypoglycemia in persons with type 1 diabetes treated with multiple daily insulin injections (MDI); we also evaluated factors related to differences in hypoglycemia confidence in this population. Methods: Evaluations were performed from the GOLD randomized trial, an open-label multicenter crossover randomized clinical trial (n=161) over 69 weeks comparing CGM to self-measurement of blood glucose (SMBG) in persons with type 1 diabetes treated with MDI. Masked CGM and the hypoglycemia confidence questionnaire were used for evaluations. Results: Time with nocturnal hypoglycemia, glucose levels <70mg/dL was reduced by 48% (10.2 vs. 19.6min each night, P<0.001) and glucose levels <54mg/dL by 65%. (3.1 vs. 8.9min, P<0.001). For the corresponding glucose cutoffs, daytime hypoglycemia was reduced by 40% (29 vs. 49min, P<0.001) and 54% (8 vs. 18min., P<0.001), respectively. Compared with SMBG, CGM use improved hypoglycemia-related confidence in social situations (P=0.016) and confidence in more broadly avoiding serious problems due to hypoglycemia (P=0.0020). Persons also reported greater confidence in detecting and responding to decreasing blood glucose levels (thereby avoiding hypoglycemia) during CGM use (P=0.0033) and indicated greater conviction that they could more freely live their lives despite the risk of hypoglycemia (P=0.022). Conclusion: CGM reduced time in both nocturnal and daytime hypoglycemia in persons with type 1 diabetes treated with MDI and improved hypoglycemia-related confidence, especially in social situations, thus contributing to greater well-being and quality of life. Trial registration: ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT02092051.
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