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Sökning: WFRF:(Schwarcz Erik)

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  • Fadl, H., et al. (författare)
  • Changing diagnostic criteria for gestational diabetes in Sweden-a stepped wedge national cluster randomised controlled trial-the CDC4G study protocol
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: Bmc Pregnancy and Childbirth. - : BioMed Central (BMC). - 1471-2393. ; 19:1
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background The optimal criteria to diagnose gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) remain contested. The Swedish National Board of Health introduced the 2013 WHO criteria in 2015 as a recommendation for initiation of treatment for hyperglycaemia during pregnancy. With variation in GDM screening and diagnostic practice across the country, it was agreed that the shift to new guidelines should be in a scientific and structured way. The aim of the Changing Diagnostic Criteria for Gestational Diabetes (CDC4G) in Sweden () is to evaluate the clinical and health economic impacts of changing diagnostic criteria for GDM in Sweden and to create a prospective cohort to compare the many long-term outcomes in mother and baby under the old and new diagnostic approaches. Methods This is a stepped wedge cluster randomised controlled trial, comparing pregnancy outcomes before and after the switch in GDM criteria across 11 centres in a randomised manner. The trial includes all pregnant women screened for GDM across the participating centres during January-December 2018, approximately two thirds of all pregnancies in Sweden in a year. Women with pre-existing diabetes will be excluded. Data will be collected through the national Swedish Pregnancy register and for follow up studies other health registers will be included. Discussion The stepped wedge RCT was chosen to be the best study design for evaluating the shift from old to new diagnostic criteria of GDM in Sweden. The national quality registers provide data on the whole pregnant population and gives a possibility for follow up studies of both mother and child. The health economic analysis from the study will give a solid evidence base for future changes in order to improve immediate pregnancy, as well as long term, outcomes for mother and child.
  • Fadl, Helena, 1965-, et al. (författare)
  • Gestational diabetes mellitus and later cardiovascular disease : a Swedish population based case-control study
  • 2014
  • Ingår i: British Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology. - : Wiley-Blackwell. - 1470-0328 .- 1471-0528. ; 121:12, s. 1530-1536
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Objective: To identify if gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) is a clinically useful marker of future cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk and if GDM combined with other risks (smoking, hypertension or body mass) identifies high-risk groups.Design: Population-based matched case-control study.Setting: National Swedish register data from 1991 to 2008.Population: A total of 2639 women with a cardiovascular event and matched controls.Methods: Conditional logistic regression examined associations with CVD before and after adjustment for conventional risk factors and confounders. Effect modification for the association of GDM with CVD by body mass index (BMI), smoking and chronic hypertension was assessed by stratification and interaction testing. Adjustment for diabetes post-pregnancy evaluated its mediating role.Main outcome measures: Inpatient diagnoses or causes of death identifying ischemic heart disease, ischemic stroke, atherosclerosis or peripheral vascular disease.Results: The adjusted odds ratios (and 95% confidence intervals) for the association of CVD with GDM are 1.51 (1.07-2.14), 2.23 (2.01-2.48) for smoking, 1.98 (1.71-2.29) for obesity and 5.10 (3.18-8.18) for chronic hypertension. In stratified analysis the association of CVD with GDM was only seen among women with BMI 25, with an odds ratio of 2.39 (1.39-4.10), but only women with a BMI <30 accounted for this increased risk. Adjustment for post-pregnancy diabetes attenuated it somewhat to 1.99 (1.13-3.52).Conclusions: In the absence of other recognised cardiovascular risk factors, such as smoking, obesity or chronic hypertension, GDM is a useful marker of raised CVD risk among women with BMI between 25 and 29.
  • Olafsdottir, Arndis, et al. (författare)
  • A Randomized Clinical Trial of the Effect of Continuous Glucose Monitoring on Nocturnal Hypoglycemia, Daytime Hypoglycemia, Glycemic Variability, and Hypoglycemia Confidence in Persons with Type 1 Diabetes Treated with Multiple Daily Insulin Injections (GOLD-3)
  • 2018
  • Ingår i: Diabetes Technology & Therapeutics. - : MARY ANN LIEBERT, INC. - 1520-9156 .- 1557-8593. ; 20:4, s. 274-284
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background: To evaluate the effects of continuous glucose monitoring (CGM) on nocturnal and daytime hypoglycemia in persons with type 1 diabetes treated with multiple daily insulin injections (MDI); we also evaluated factors related to differences in hypoglycemia confidence in this population. Methods: Evaluations were performed from the GOLD randomized trial, an open-label multicenter crossover randomized clinical trial (n=161) over 69 weeks comparing CGM to self-measurement of blood glucose (SMBG) in persons with type 1 diabetes treated with MDI. Masked CGM and the hypoglycemia confidence questionnaire were used for evaluations. Results: Time with nocturnal hypoglycemia, glucose levels <70mg/dL was reduced by 48% (10.2 vs. 19.6min each night, P<0.001) and glucose levels <54mg/dL by 65%. (3.1 vs. 8.9min, P<0.001). For the corresponding glucose cutoffs, daytime hypoglycemia was reduced by 40% (29 vs. 49min, P<0.001) and 54% (8 vs. 18min., P<0.001), respectively. Compared with SMBG, CGM use improved hypoglycemia-related confidence in social situations (P=0.016) and confidence in more broadly avoiding serious problems due to hypoglycemia (P=0.0020). Persons also reported greater confidence in detecting and responding to decreasing blood glucose levels (thereby avoiding hypoglycemia) during CGM use (P=0.0033) and indicated greater conviction that they could more freely live their lives despite the risk of hypoglycemia (P=0.022). Conclusion: CGM reduced time in both nocturnal and daytime hypoglycemia in persons with type 1 diabetes treated with MDI and improved hypoglycemia-related confidence, especially in social situations, thus contributing to greater well-being and quality of life. Trial registration: ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT02092051.
  • Olafsdottir, Arndis, et al. (författare)
  • The majority of people with type 1 diabetes and multiple daily insulin injections benefit from using continuous glucose monitoring: An analysis based on the GOLD randomized trial (GOLD-5)
  • 2021
  • Ingår i: Diabetes Obesity & Metabolism. - : Wiley-Blackwell. - 1462-8902 .- 1463-1326. ; 23:2, s. 619-630
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Aim To identify responders to continuous glucose monitoring (CGM) in relation to reductions in HbA1c and percentage of time spent in hypoglycaemia after initiation of CGM for individuals with type 1 diabetes treated with multiple daily insulin injections. Materials and Methods We analysed data from 142 participants in the GOLD randomized clinical trial. We evaluated how many lowered their HbA1c by more than 0.4% (>4.7 mmol/mol) or decreased the time spent in hypoglycaemia over 24 hours by more than 20 or 30 minutes, and which baseline variables were associated with those improvements. Results Lower reduction of HbA1c was associated with greater reduction of hypoglycaemia (r = -0.52; P < .0001). During CGM, 47% of participants lowered their HbA1c values by more than 0.4% (>4.7 mmol/mol) than with self-measurement of blood glucose, and 47% decreased the time spent in hypoglycaemia by more than 20 minutes over 24 hours. Overall, 78% either reduced their HbA1c by more than 0.4% (>4.7 mmol/mol) or the time spent in hypoglycaemia by more than 20 minutes over 24 hours, but only 14% improved both. Higher HbA1c, a lower percentage of time at less than 3.0 or 3.9 mmol/L, a lower coefficient of variation (CV) and a higher percentage of time above 13.9 mmol/L (P = .016) were associated with greater HbA1c reduction during CGM. The variables associated with a greater reduction of time in hypoglycaemia were female sex, greater time with glucose levels at less than 3.0 mmol/L, higher CV, and higher hypoglycaemia confidence as evaluated by a hypoglycaemic confidence questionnaire. Conclusion The majority of people with type 1 diabetes managed by multiple daily insulin injections benefit from CGM; some experienced reduced HbA1c while others reduced the time spent in hypoglycaemia. These factors need to be considered by healthcare professionals and decision-makers for reimbursement and diabetes guidelines.
  • Ahmadi, Shilan Seyed, et al. (författare)
  • The Association Between HbA(1c)and Time in Hypoglycemia During CGM and Self-Monitoring of Blood Glucose in People With Type 1 Diabetes and Multiple Daily Insulin Injections: A Randomized Clinical Trial (GOLD-4)
  • 2020
  • Ingår i: Diabetes care. - Arlington, VA, United States : American Diabetes Association. - 0149-5992 .- 1935-5548. ; 43:9, s. 2017-2024
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • OBJECTIVE According to recent guidelines, individuals with type 1 diabetes should spend <4.0% of time per day with glucose levels <3.9 mmol/L (<70 mg/dL) and <1.0% per day with glucose levels <3.0 mmol/L (<54 mg/dL). RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS In the GOLD randomized crossover trial, 161 individuals with type 1 diabetes treated with multiple daily insulin injections (MDI) were randomized to continuous glucose monitoring (CGM) or conventional therapy with self-monitoring of blood glucose (SMBG) and evaluated over 16 months. We estimated the association between time spent in hypoglycemia and various mean glucose and HbA(1c)levels. RESULTS Time spent in hypoglycemia (<3.9 mmol/L and <3.0 mmol/L) increased significantly with lower mean HbA(1c)and mean glucose levels during both CGM and conventional therapy. During CGM, 24 (57.1%) individuals with HbA(1c)<7.5% (<58 mmol/mol) had <1.0% time spent in hypoglycemia <3.0 mmol/L and 23 (54.8%) had <4.0% time spent in hypoglycemia <3.9 mmol/L. During CGM, mean time spent in hypoglycemia for individuals with mean HbA(1c)7.0% (52 mmol/mol) was estimated to be 5.4% for <3.9 mmol/L and 1.5% for <3.0 mmol/L. The corresponding values during SMBG were 9.2% and 3.5%, respectively. Individuals with mean glucose levels of 8 mmol/L spent 4.9% units more time with glucose levels CONCLUSIONS Reaching current targets for time in hypoglycemia while at the same time reaching HbA(1c)targets is challenging for patients with type 1 diabetes treated with MDI both with CGM and SMBG monitoring. However, CGM is associated with considerably less time in hypoglycemia than SMBG at a broad range of HbA(1c)levels and is crucial for patients with MDI treatment if they are to have a chance to approach hypoglycemia targets.
  • Ragnarsson, Oskar, et al. (författare)
  • Overall and Disease-Specific Mortality in Patients With Cushing Disease: A Swedish Nationwide Study
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism. - : ENDOCRINE SOC. - 0021-972X .- 1945-7197. ; 104:6, s. 2375-2384
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Context: Whether patients with Cushing disease (CD) in remission have increased mortality is still debatable. Objective: To study overall and disease-specific mortality and predictive factors in an unselected nationwide cohort of patients with CD. Design, Patients, and Methods: A retrospective study of patients diagnosed with CD, identified in the Swedish National Patient Registry between 1987 and 2013. Medical records were systematically reviewed to verify the diagnosis. Standardized mortality ratios (SMRs) with 95% CIs were calculated and Cox regression models were used to identify predictors of mortality. Results: Of 502 identified patients with CD (n = 387 women; 77%), 419 (83%) were confirmed to be in remission. Mean age at diagnosis was 43 (SD, 16) years and median follow-up was 13 (interquartile range, 6 to 23) years. The observed number of deaths was 133 vs 54 expected, resulting in an overall SMR of 2.5 (95% CI, 2.1 to 2.9). The commonest cause of death was cardiovascular diseases (SMR, 3.3; 95% CI, 2.6 to 4.3). Excess mortality was also found associated with infections and suicide. For patients in remission, the SMR was 1.9 (95% CI, 1.5 to 2.3); bilateral adrenalectomy and glucocorticoid replacement therapy were independently associated with increased mortality, whereas GH replacement was associated with improved outcome. Conclusion: Findings from this large nationwide study indicate that patients with CD have excess mortality. The findings illustrate the importance of achieving remission and continued active surveillance, along with adequate hormone replacement and evaluation of cardiovascular risk and mental health.
  • Ragnarsson, Oskar, et al. (författare)
  • The incidence of Cushing's disease : a nationwide Swedish study
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: Pituitary. - : Springer. - 1386-341X .- 1573-7403. ; 22:2, s. 179-186
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background: Studies on the incidence of Cushing’s disease (CD) are few and usually limited by a small number of patients. The aim of this study was to assess the annual incidence in a nationwide cohort of patients with presumed CD in Sweden.Methods: Patients registered with a diagnostic code for Cushing’s syndrome (CS) or CD, between 1987 and 2013 were identified in the Swedish National Patient Registry. The CD diagnosis was validated by reviewing clinical, biochemical, imaging, and histopathological data.Results: Of 1317 patients identified, 534 (41%) had confirmed CD. One-hundred-and-fifty-six (12%) patients had other forms of CS, 41 (3%) had probable but unconfirmed CD, and 334 (25%) had diagnoses unrelated to CS. The mean (95% confidence interval) annual incidence between 1987 and 2013 of confirmed CD was 1.6 (1.4–1.8) cases per million. 1987–1995, 1996–2004, and 2005–2013, the mean annual incidence was 1.5 (1.1–1.8), 1.4 (1.0–1.7) and 2.0 (1.7–2.3) cases per million, respectively. During the last time period the incidence was higher than during the first and second time periods (P < 0.05).Conclusion: The incidence of CD in Sweden (1.6 cases per million) is in agreement with most previous reports. A higher incidence between 2005 and 2013 compared to 1987–2004 was noticed. Whether this reflects a truly increased incidence of the disease, or simply an increased awareness, earlier recognition, and earlier diagnosis can, however, not be answered. This study also illustrates the importance of validation of the diagnosis of CD in epidemiological research.
  • Arvidsson, Bo, 1962-, et al. (författare)
  • Reference data for bone mineral density in Swedish women using digital X-ray radiometry
  • 2013
  • Ingår i: Journal of clinical densitometry. - New York, USA : Elsevier. - 1094-6950 .- 1559-0747. ; 16:2, s. 183-188
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • During the last decade, digital X-ray radiometry (DXR) has been used to measure bone mineral density (BMD) in the metacarpal bones. The aim of this study was to establish Swedish reference material for bone mass in women, measured in the metacarpal bones with DXR, and compare these data with the data from the manufacturer. A sample of 1440 women aged 20-79yr living in Örebro County was randomly assigned from the population register. Microdose mammography was used (Sectra MDM L30; Sectra Imtec AB, Linköping, Sweden) to measure BMD. Cole's LMS method was used to calculate DXR. Six hundred sixty-nine (48.3%) women participated. Peak bone mass occurred at the age of 43.4yr with a BMD of 0.597g/cm(2) (standard deviation: 0.050). Our Swedish data correlated well with the manufacturer's material. Only among women aged 50-59yr did BMD differ, where the Swedish sample had lower values. The LMS method can be used to describe the DXR data and provide a more detailed picture of bone density distribution. DXR-BMD in Swedish women aged 20-79yr is equivalent to findings from other studies, showing the same distribution of BMD in most age groups except for ages 50-59yr.
  • Burman, Pia, et al. (författare)
  • Limited value of cabergoline in Cushings disease: a prospective study of a 6-week treatment in 20 patients
  • 2016
  • Ingår i: European Journal of Endocrinology. - : BIOSCIENTIFICA LTD. - 0804-4643 .- 1479-683X. ; 174:1, s. 17-24
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Context and objective: The role of cabergoline in Cushings disease (CD) remains controversial. The experience is limited to case reports and few open studies that report the effects determined after >= 1 month of treatment. In prolactinomas and dopamine-responsive GH-secreting tumours, effects of cabergoline are seen within days or weeks. Here, we searched for short-term effects of cabergoline in CD. Design: Twenty patients (19 naive and one recurrent) were included in a prospective study. Cabergoline was administered in increasing doses of 0.5-5 mg/week over 6 weeks. Methods: Urinary free cortisol (UFC) 24 h, morning cortisol and ACTH, and salivary cortisol at 0800, 1600 and 2300 h were determined once weekly throughout. Diurnal curves (six samples) of serum cortisol were measured at start and end. Results: At study end, the median cabergoline dose was 5 mg, range 2.5-5 mg/week. The prolactin levels, markers of compliance, were suppressed in all patients. During the treatment, hypercortisolism varied, gradual and dose-dependent reductions were not seen. Five patients had a >50% decrease of UFC, three had a >50% rise of UFC. Salivary cortisol at 2300 h showed a congruent >50% change with UFC in two of the five cases with decreased UFC, and in one of the three cases with increased UFC. One patient with decreases in both UFC and 2300 h salivary cortisol also had a reduction in diurnal serum cortisol during the course of the study. Conclusions: Cabergoline seems to be of little value in the management of CD. Only one patient had a response-like pattern. Given the known variability of disease activity in CD, this might represent a chance finding.
  • Burman, Pia, et al. (författare)
  • Limited value of cabergoline in Cushing's disease: a prospective study of a 6-week treatment in 20 patients.
  • 2016
  • Ingår i: European Journal of Endocrinology. - : Society of the European Journal of Endocrinology. - 1479-683X .- 0804-4643. ; 174:1, s. 17-24
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The role of cabergoline in Cushing's disease (CD) remains controversial. The experience is limited to case reports and few open studies that report the effects determined after ≥1 month of treatment. In prolactinomas and dopamine-responsive GH-secreting tumours, effects of cabergoline are seen within days or weeks. Here, we searched for short-term effects of cabergoline in CD.
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