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Sökning: WFRF:(Selinger C)

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  • Meyer, H.F., et al. (författare)
  • Overview of physics studies on ASDEX Upgrade
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: Nuclear Fusion. - : IOP PUBLISHING LTD. - 0029-5515 .- 1741-4326. ; 59:11
  • Forskningsöversikt (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The ASDEX Upgrade (AUG) programme, jointly run with the EUROfusion MST1 task force, continues to significantly enhance the physics base of ITER and DEMO. Here, the full tungsten wall is a key asset for extrapolating to future devices. The high overall heating power, flexible heating mix and comprehensive diagnostic set allows studies ranging from mimicking the scrape-off-layer and divertor conditions of ITER and DEMO at high density to fully non-inductive operation (q 95 = 5.5, ) at low density. Higher installed electron cyclotron resonance heating power 6 MW, new diagnostics and improved analysis techniques have further enhanced the capabilities of AUG. Stable high-density H-modes with MW m-1 with fully detached strike-points have been demonstrated. The ballooning instability close to the separatrix has been identified as a potential cause leading to the H-mode density limit and is also found to play an important role for the access to small edge-localized modes (ELMs). Density limit disruptions have been successfully avoided using a path-oriented approach to disruption handling and progress has been made in understanding the dissipation and avoidance of runaway electron beams. ELM suppression with resonant magnetic perturbations is now routinely achieved reaching transiently . This gives new insight into the field penetration physics, in particular with respect to plasma flows. Modelling agrees well with plasma response measurements and a helically localised ballooning structure observed prior to the ELM is evidence for the changed edge stability due to the magnetic perturbations. The impact of 3D perturbations on heat load patterns and fast-ion losses have been further elaborated. Progress has also been made in understanding the ELM cycle itself. Here, new fast measurements of and E r allow for inter ELM transport analysis confirming that E r is dominated by the diamagnetic term even for fast timescales. New analysis techniques allow detailed comparison of the ELM crash and are in good agreement with nonlinear MHD modelling. The observation of accelerated ions during the ELM crash can be seen as evidence for the reconnection during the ELM. As type-I ELMs (even mitigated) are likely not a viable operational regime in DEMO studies of 'natural' no ELM regimes have been extended. Stable I-modes up to have been characterised using -feedback. Core physics has been advanced by more detailed characterisation of the turbulence with new measurements such as the eddy tilt angle - measured for the first time - or the cross-phase angle of and fluctuations. These new data put strong constraints on gyro-kinetic turbulence modelling. In addition, carefully executed studies in different main species (H, D and He) and with different heating mixes highlight the importance of the collisional energy exchange for interpreting energy confinement. A new regime with a hollow profile now gives access to regimes mimicking aspects of burning plasma conditions and lead to nonlinear interactions of energetic particle modes despite the sub-Alfvénic beam energy. This will help to validate the fast-ion codes for predicting ITER and DEMO.
  • Johnston, B. C., et al. (författare)
  • Microbial Preparations (Probiotics) for the Prevention of Clostridium difficile Infection in Adults and Children: An Individual Patient Data Meta-analysis of 6,851 Participants
  • 2018
  • Ingår i: Infection Control and Hospital Epidemiology. - 0899-823X. ; 39:7, s. 771-781
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • OBJECTIVE. To determine whether probiotic prophylaxes reduce the odds of Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) in adults and children. DESIGN. Individual participant data (IPD) meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials (RCTs), adjusting for risk factors. METHODS. We searched 6 databases and 11 grey literature sources from inception to April 2016. We identified 32 RCTs (n=8,713); among them, 18 RCTs provided IPD (n=6,851 participants) comparing probiotic prophylaxis to placebo or no treatment (standard care). One reviewer prepared the IPD, and 2 reviewers extracted data, rated study quality, and graded evidence quality. RESULTS. Probiotics reduced CDI odds in the unadjusted model (n=6,645; odds ratio [OR] 0.37; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.25-0.55) and the adjusted model (n=5,074; OR, 0.35; 95% CI, 0.23-0.55). Using 2 or more antibiotics increased the odds of CDI (OR, 2.20; 95% CI, 1.11-4.37), whereas age, sex, hospitalization status, and high-risk antibiotic exposure did not. Adjusted subgroup analyses suggested that, compared to no probiotics, multispecies probiotics were more beneficial than single-species probiotics, as was using probiotics in clinical settings where the CDI risk is 5%. Of 18 studies, 14 reported adverse events. In 11 of these 14 studies, the adverse events were retained in the adjusted model. Odds for serious adverse events were similar for both groups in the unadjusted analyses (n=4,990; OR, 1.06; 95% CI, 0.89-1.26) and adjusted analyses (n=4,718; OR, 1.06; 95% CI, 0.89-1.28). Missing outcome data for CDI ranged from 0% to 25.8%. Our analyses were robust to a sensitivity analysis for missingness. CONCLUSIONS. Moderate quality (ie, certainty) evidence suggests that probiotic prophylaxis may be a useful and safe CDI prevention strategy, particularly among participants taking 2 or more antibiotics and in hospital settings where the risk of CDI is >= 5%.
  • Zouali, H, et al. (författare)
  • Genetic refinement and physical mapping of a chromosome 16q candidate region for inflammatory bowel disease
  • 2001
  • Ingår i: European Journal of Human Genetics. - 1018-4813 .- 1476-5438. ; 9:10, s. 731-742
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Crohn's disease (CD) is a complex genetic disorder for which a susceptibility gene, IBD1, has been mapped within the pericentromeric region of chromosome 16. In order to refine the location of IBD1, 77 multiplex CD families were genotyped for 26 microsatellite markers evenly spaced by approximately 1 cM. Nonparametric linkage analyses exhibited a maximum NPL score of 3.49 (P=2.37 ╫ 10-4) in a region centred by markers D16S3136, D16S3117 and D16S770. Simulation studies showed that the probability for IBD1 to be located in a 5 cM region around these markers was 70%. A 2.5 Mb YAC and BAC contig map spanning this genetic region on chromosome band 16q12 was built. TDT analyses demonstrated suggestive association between the 207 bp allele of D16S3136 (P<0.05) and a new biallellic marker hb27g11f-end (P=0.01). These markers were located in the hb27g11 and hb87b10 BAC clones from the contig. Taken together, the present results provide a crucial preliminary step before an exhaustive linkage disequilibrium mapping of putatively transcribed regions to identify IBD1.
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  • Resultat 1-5 av 5

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