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Träfflista för sökning "WFRF:(Serra Massimo) "

Sökning: WFRF:(Serra Massimo)

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1.
  • Sampson, Joshua N., et al. (författare)
  • Analysis of Heritability and Shared Heritability Based on Genome-Wide Association Studies for 13 Cancer Types
  • 2015
  • Ingår i: Journal of the National Cancer Institute. - 0027-8874 .- 1460-2105. ; 107:12
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background: Studies of related individuals have consistently demonstrated notable familial aggregation of cancer. We aim to estimate the heritability and genetic correlation attributable to the additive effects of common single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) for cancer at 13 anatomical sites. Methods: Between 2007 and 2014, the US National Cancer Institute has generated data from genome-wide association studies (GWAS) for 49 492 cancer case patients and 34 131 control patients. We apply novel mixed model methodology (GCTA) to this GWAS data to estimate the heritability of individual cancers, as well as the proportion of heritability attributable to cigarette smoking in smoking-related cancers, and the genetic correlation between pairs of cancers. Results: GWAS heritability was statistically significant at nearly all sites, with the estimates of array-based heritability, h(l)(2), on the liability threshold (LT) scale ranging from 0.05 to 0.38. Estimating the combined heritability of multiple smoking characteristics, we calculate that at least 24% (95% confidence interval [CI] = 14% to 37%) and 7% (95% CI = 4% to 11%) of the heritability for lung and bladder cancer, respectively, can be attributed to genetic determinants of smoking. Most pairs of cancers studied did not show evidence of strong genetic correlation. We found only four pairs of cancers with marginally statistically significant correlations, specifically kidney and testes (rho = 0.73, SE = 0.28), diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) and pediatric osteosarcoma (rho = 0.53, SE = 0.21), DLBCL and chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) (rho = 0.51, SE = 0.18), and bladder and lung (rho = 0.35, SE = 0.14). Correlation analysis also indicates that the genetic architecture of lung cancer differs between a smoking population of European ancestry and a nonsmoking Asian population, allowing for the possibility that the genetic etiology for the same disease can vary by population and environmental exposures. Conclusion: Our results provide important insights into the genetic architecture of cancers and suggest new avenues for investigation.
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2.
  • Wang, Zhaoming, et al. (författare)
  • Imputation and subset-based association analysis across different cancer types identifies multiple independent risk loci in the TERT-CLPTM1L region on chromosome 5p15.33
  • 2014
  • Ingår i: Human Molecular Genetics. - 0964-6906. ; 23:24, s. 6616-6633
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have mapped risk alleles for at least 10 distinct cancers to a small region of 63 000 bp on chromosome 5p15.33. This region harbors the TERT and CLPTM1L genes; the former encodes the catalytic subunit of telomerase reverse transcriptase and the latter may play a role in apoptosis. To investigate further the genetic architecture of common susceptibility alleles in this region, we conducted an agnostic subset-based meta-analysis (association analysis based on subsets) across six distinct cancers in 34 248 cases and 45 036 controls. Based on sequential conditional analysis, we identified as many as six independent risk loci marked by common single-nucleotide polymorphisms: five in the TERT gene (Region 1: rs7726159, P = 2.10 × 10(-39); Region 3: rs2853677, P = 3.30 × 10(-36) and PConditional = 2.36 × 10(-8); Region 4: rs2736098, P = 3.87 × 10(-12) and PConditional = 5.19 × 10(-6), Region 5: rs13172201, P = 0.041 and PConditional = 2.04 × 10(-6); and Region 6: rs10069690, P = 7.49 × 10(-15) and PConditional = 5.35 × 10(-7)) and one in the neighboring CLPTM1L gene (Region 2: rs451360; P = 1.90 × 10(-18) and PConditional = 7.06 × 10(-16)). Between three and five cancers mapped to each independent locus with both risk-enhancing and protective effects. Allele-specific effects on DNA methylation were seen for a subset of risk loci, indicating that methylation and subsequent effects on gene expression may contribute to the biology of risk variants on 5p15.33. Our results provide strong support for extensive pleiotropy across this region of 5p15.33, to an extent not previously observed in other cancer susceptibility loci.
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3.
  • Alvarez, Mariano J., et al. (författare)
  • A precision oncology approach to the pharmacological targeting of mechanistic dependencies in neuroendocrine tumors
  • 2018
  • Ingår i: Nature Genetics. - 1061-4036. ; 50:7, s. 979-989
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • We introduce and validate a new precision oncology framework for the systematic prioritization of drugs targeting mechanistic tumor dependencies in individual patients. Compounds are prioritized on the basis of their ability to invert the concerted activity of master regulator proteins that mechanistically regulate tumor cell state, as assessed from systematic drug perturbation assays. We validated the approach on a cohort of 212 gastroenteropancreatic neuroendocrine tumors (GEP-NETs), a rare malignancy originating in the pancreas and gastrointestinal tract. The analysis identified several master regulator proteins, including key regulators of neuroendocrine lineage progenitor state and immunoevasion, whose role as critical tumor dependencies was experimentally confirmed. Transcriptome analysis of GEP-NET-derived cells, perturbed with a library of 107 compounds, identified the HDAC class I inhibitor entinostat as a potent inhibitor of master regulator activity for 42% of metastatic GEP-NET patients, abrogating tumor growth in vivo. This approach may thus complement current efforts in precision oncology.
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4.
  • Buddingh, Emilie P., et al. (författare)
  • Tumor-Infiltrating Macrophages Are Associated with Metastasis Suppression in High-Grade Osteosarcoma: A Rationale for Treatment with Macrophage Activating Agents
  • 2011
  • Ingår i: Clinical Cancer Research. - American Association for Cancer Research. - 1078-0432. ; 17:8, s. 2110-2119
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Purpose: High-grade osteosarcoma is a malignant primary bone tumor with a peak incidence in adolescence. Overall survival (OS) of patients with resectable metastatic disease is approximately 20%. The exact mechanisms of development of metastases in osteosarcoma remain unclear. Most studies focus on tumor cells, but it is increasingly evident that stroma plays an important role in tumorigenesis and metastasis. We investigated the development of metastasis by studying tumor cells and their stromal context. Experimental Design: To identify gene signatures playing a role in metastasis, we carried out genome-wide gene expression profiling on prechemotherapy biopsies of patients who did (n = 34) and patients who did not (n = 19) develop metastases within 5 years. Immunohistochemistry (IHC) was performed on pretreatment biopsies from 2 additional cohorts (n = 63 and n = 16) and corresponding postchemotherapy resections and metastases. Results: A total of 118/132 differentially expressed genes were upregulated in patients without metastases. Remarkably, almost half of these upregulated genes had immunological functions, particularly related to macrophages. Macrophage-associated genes were expressed by infiltrating cells and not by osteosarcoma cells. Tumor-associated macrophages (TAM) were quantified with IHC and associated with significantly better overall survival (OS) in the additional patient cohorts. Osteosarcoma samples contained both M1-(CD14/HLA-DR alpha positive) and M2-type TAMs (CD14/CD163 positive and association with angiogenesis). Conclusions: In contrast to most other tumor types, TAMs are associated with reduced metastasis and improved survival in high-grade osteosarcoma. This study provides a biological rationale for the adjuvant treatment of high-grade osteosarcoma patients with macrophage activating agents, such as muramyl tripeptide. Clin Cancer Res; 17(8); 2110-9. (C) 2011 AACR.
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5.
  • Serra, Massimo, et al. (författare)
  • May P-glycoprotein status be used to stratify high-grade osteosarcoma patients? Results from the Italian/Scandinavian Sarcoma Group 1 treatment protocol
  • 2006
  • Ingår i: International Journal of Oncology. - D.A. Spandidos. - 1019-6439. ; 29:6, s. 1459-1468
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The aim was to evaluate the clinical impact of P-glycoprotein in primary non-metastatic high-grade osteosarcoma patients, treated with neoadjuvant chemotherapy protocols. P-glycoprotein was assessed by immunohistochemistry on paraffin-embedded tissue samples collected at time of diagnosis from 94 osteosarcoma patients, treated with the Italian Sarcoma Group/Scandinavian Sarcoma Group 1 (ISG/SSG 1) protocol. P-glycoprotein-positivity at diagnosis was found in 53/94 ISG/SSG 1 cases (56%) and emerged as the single factor significantly associated with an unfavourable outcome from survival and multivariate analyses. A comparative analysis of the subgroup of 94 patients considered for P-glycoprotein evaluation and the whole series of ISG/SSG 1 patients showed that this marker retained its prognostic value also in the latter group. In osteosarcoma patients treated with doxorubicin-based chemotherapy protocols, P-glycoprotein overexpression at diagnosis is an important adverse prognostic factor for outcome. P-glycoprotein evaluation can therefore constitute the basis for stratifying, at diagnosis, osteosarcoma patients for whom alternative treatments may be considered.
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