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Sökning: WFRF:(Shafran R)

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  • Käll, A., et al. (författare)
  • Internet-Based Cognitive Behavior Therapy for Loneliness : A Pilot Randomized Controlled Trial
  • 2020
  • Ingår i: ; 51:1, s. 54-68
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Loneliness has been described as a common source of discomfort based on a subjective discrepancy between the actual and desired social situation. For some people this feeling may become a sustained state that is associated with a wide range of psychiatric and psychosocial problems. While there are few existing treatment protocols, interventions based on cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) have shown positive effects. The current study investigated the efficacy of an 8-week internet-based treatment containing CBT components aimed at reducing feelings of loneliness. Seventy-three participants were recruited from the general public and randomly allocated to treatment or a wait-list control condition. Participants were assessed with standardized self-report measures of loneliness, depression, social anxiety, worry, and quality of life at pretreatment and posttreatment. Robust linear regression analysis of all randomized participants showed significant treatment effects on the primary outcome measure of loneliness (between group Cohen’s d = 0.77), and on secondary outcomes measuring quality of life and social anxiety relative to control at postassessment. The results suggest the potential utility of internet-based CBT in alleviating loneliness but more research on the long-term effects and the mechanisms underlying the effects is needed.
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  • Holmes, Emily A., et al. (författare)
  • Multidisciplinary research priorities for the COVID-19 pandemic : a call for action for mental health science
  • 2020
  • Ingår i: Lancet psychiatry. - 2215-0374 .- 2215-0366. ; 7:6, s. 547-560
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic is having a profound effect on all aspects of society, including mental health and physical health. We explore the psychological, social, and neuroscientific effects of COVID-19 and set out the immediate priorities and longer-term strategies for mental health science research. These priorities were informed by surveys of the public and an expert panel convened by the UK Academy of Medical Sciences and the mental health research charity, MQ: Transforming Mental Health, in the first weeks of the pandemic in the UK in March, 2020. We urge UK research funding agencies to work with researchers, people with lived experience, and others to establish a high level coordination group to ensure that these research priorities are addressed, and to allow new ones to be identified over time. The need to maintain high-quality research standards is imperative. International collaboration and a global perspective will be beneficial. An immediate priority is collecting high-quality data on the mental health effects of the COVID-19 pandemic across the whole population and vulnerable groups, and on brain function, cognition, and mental health of patients with COVID-19. There is an urgent need for research to address how mental health consequences for vulnerable groups can be mitigated under pandemic conditions, and on the impact of repeated media consumption and health messaging around COVID-19. Discovery, evaluation, and refinement of mechanistically driven interventions to address the psychological, social, and neuroscientific aspects of the pandemic are required. Rising to this challenge will require integration across disciplines and sectors, and should be done together with people with lived experience. New funding will be required to meet these priorities, and it can be efficiently leveraged by the UK's world-leading infrastructure. This Position Paper provides a strategy that may be both adapted for, and integrated with, research efforts in other countries.
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  • Kothari, Radha, et al. (författare)
  • A randomised controlled trial of guided internet-based cognitive behavioural therapy for perfectionism : Effects on psychopathology and transdiagnostic processes
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: Journal of Behavior Therapy and Experimental Psychiatry. - : Pergamon Press. - 0005-7916 .- 1873-7943. ; 64, s. 113-122
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background and objectivesPerfectionism is a transdiagnostic process that has been associated with a range of psychopathology and also with other transdiagnostic processes. We have previously shown that guided internet-based cognitive behavioural therapy (ICBT) can reduce symptoms of dysfunctional perfectionism, however, no impact was observed on symptoms of depression and anxiety. Here we explore the impact of guided ICBT for perfectionism on symptoms of other associated psychopathology, specifically obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) and eating disorders, and also on other associated transdiagnostic processes (self-esteem, intolerance of uncertainty, and self-compassion).MethodsParticipants who presented with clinical levels of perfectionism were randomised to an experimental group that received the intervention (n = 62), or a wait list control group (n = 58). Questionnaires assessing symptoms of OCD, eating disorders, self-esteem, intolerance of uncertainty, and fear of self-compassion were completed pre-intervention, post-intervention (12 weeks), and at follow-up (24 weeks). Between group effect sizes are reported.ResultsThe intervention led to significant decreases in symptoms of OCD (d = −0.9; CI: -1.4, −0.4) and eating disorders (d = −0.6; CI: -1.0, −0.1), and had an impact on other transdiagnostic processes resulting in increased self-esteem (d = 0.7; CI: 0.2, 1.2), decreases in intolerance of uncertainty (d = −0.9; CI: -1.4, −0.4), and fear of self-compassion (d = −0.8; CI: -1.3, −0.3). At follow-up changes were maintained in symptoms of OCD (d = −1.3; CI: -1.8, −0.8), disordered eating (d = −0.7; CI: -1.2, −0.2), intolerance of uncertainty (d = −0.8; CI: -1.2, −0.3), and fear of self-compassion (d = −1.0; CI: -1.5, −0.5).ConclusionsGuided ICBT for perfectionism improves associated psychopathology and transdiagnostic processes. ClinicalTrials.gov registration no. NCT02756871.
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6.
  • Rozental, Alexander, et al. (författare)
  • Guided web-based cognitive behavior therapy for perfectionism : Results from two different randomized controlled trials
  • 2018
  • Ingår i: Journal of Medical Internet Research. - : JMIR PUBLICATIONS, INC. - 1438-8871 .- 1438-8871. ; 20:4
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background: Perfectionism can become a debilitating condition that may negatively affect functioning in multiple areas, including mental health. Prior research has indicated that internet-based cognitive behavioral therapy can be beneficial, but few studies have included follow-up data.Objective: The objective of this study was to explore the outcomes at follow-up of internet-based cognitive behavioral therapy with guided self-help, delivered as 2 separate randomized controlled trials conducted in Sweden and the United Kingdom.Methods: In total, 120 participants randomly assigned to internet-based cognitive behavioral therapy were included in both intention-to-treat and completer analyses: 78 in the Swedish trial and 62 in the UK trial. The primary outcome measure was the Frost Multidimensional Perfectionism Scale, Concern over Mistakes subscale (FMPS CM). Secondary outcome measures varied between the trials and consisted of the Clinical Perfectionism Questionnaire (CPQ; both trials), the 9-item Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9; Swedish trial), the 7-item Generalized Anxiety Disorder scale (GAD-7; Swedish trial), and the 21-item Depression Anxiety Stress Scale (DASS-21; UK trial). Follow-up occurred after 6 months for the UK trial and after 12 months for the Swedish trial.Results: Analysis of covariance revealed a significant difference between pretreatment and follow-up in both studies. Intention-to-treat within-group Cohen d effect sizes were 1.21 (Swedish trial; 95% CI 0.86-1.54) and 1.24 (UK trial; 95% CI 0.85-1.62) for the FMPS CM. Furthermore, 29 (59%; Swedish trial) and 15 (43%; UK trial) of the participants met the criteria for recovery on the FMPS CM. Improvements were also significant for the CPQ, with effect sizes of 1.32 (Swedish trial; 95% CI 0.97-1.66) and 1.49 (UK trial; 95% CI 1.09-1.88); the PHQ-9, effect size 0.60 (95% CI 0.28-0.92); the GAD-7, effect size 0.67 (95% CI 0.34-0.99); and the DASS-21, effect size 0.50 (95% CI 0.13-0.85).Conclusions: The results are promising for the use of internet-based cognitive behavioral therapy as a way of targeting perfectionism, but the findings need to be replicated and include a comparison condition.
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7.
  • Rozental, Alexander, et al. (författare)
  • Reconsidering perfect : a qualitative study of the experiences of internet-based cognitive behaviour therapy for perfectionism
  • 2020
  • Ingår i: Behavioural and Cognitive Psychotherapy. - : Cambridge University Press. - 1352-4658 .- 1469-1833. ; 48:4, s. 432-441
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background: Internet-based cognitive behaviour therapy (ICBT) is a promising format for treating different psychiatric disorders. In addition, several clinical trials have found positive results when using it to target transdiagnostic processes, such as perfectionism. However, few qualitative investigations have been conducted on the experiences of clients undergoing such treatments.Method: In the current study, clients completing 12-week guided ICBT for perfectionism responded to open-ended questions at post-treatment. In total, 30 out of 62 (48.4%) described their impressions of its content and the support provided by their guide.Results: The results were analysed qualitatively using thematic analysis. Five themes were found in the responses: Learning how to do things differently, Noticing the positives, Feeling safe to be honest, A comfortable treatment format and Barriers to treatment.Conclusions: The results suggest that many clients were able to achieve a change in perspective in relation to their perfectionism and started facing their fears. They were also able to report the benefits of doing things differently as part of treatment, such as an improvement in their interpersonal relationships. Most clients were also positive about the treatment format, enjoying its flexibility and the encouragement offered by their therapist. However, obstacles such as conflicting commitments, personal difficulties, time-consuming and comprehensive treatment modules, and a desire for more support were brought up by some, suggesting that there are aspects that could be considered in the future.
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8.
  • Shafran, Roz, et al. (författare)
  • Is the devil in the detail? A randomised controlled trial of guided internet-based CBT for perfectionism
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: Behaviour Research and Therapy. - : PERGAMON-ELSEVIER SCIENCE LTD. - 0005-7967 .- 1873-622X. ; 95, s. 99-106
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • An Internet guided self-help cognitive-behavioural treatment (ICBT) for perfectionism was recently found to be effective (see this issue). Such studies stand in need of replication. The aim of this study was to report the outcomes and predictors of change when the treatment is delivered in a UK setting. A total of 120 people (Mean = 28.9 years; 79% female) were randomised to receive ICBT or wait-list control over 12 weeks (trial registration: NCT02756871). While there were strong similarities between the current study and its Swedish counterpart, there were also important differences in procedural details. There was a significant impact of the intervention on the primary outcome measure (Frost Multidimensional Perfectionism Scale, Concern over Mistakes subscale) and also on the Clinical Perfectionism Questionnaire (between group effect sizes d = 0.98 (95% CI: 0.60-1.36) and d = 1.04 (95% CI: 0.66-1.43) respectively using intent-to-treat analyses). Unlike the Swedish study, there was significant non engagement and non-completion of modules with 71% of participants completing fewer than half the modules. The number of modules completed moderated the rate of change in clinical perfectionism over time. In conclusion, the study indicates the intervention is effective in a UK setting but highlighted the importance of procedural details to optimise retention. (C) 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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  • Andersson, Gerhard, et al. (författare)
  • Long-term effects of internet-supported cognitive behaviour therapy
  • 2018
  • Ingår i: Expert Review of Neurotherapeutics. - : TAYLOR & FRANCIS LTD. - 1473-7175 .- 1744-8360. ; 18:1, s. 21-28
  • Forskningsöversikt (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Introduction: Internet-supported and therapist-guided cognitive behaviour therapy (ICBT) is effective for a range of problems in the short run, but less is known about the long-term effects with follow-ups of two years or longer.Areas covered: This paper reviews studies in which the long-term effects of guided ICBT were investigated. Following literature searches in PubMed and other sources meta-analytic statistics were calculated for 14 studies involving a total of 902 participants, and an average follow-up period of three years. Studies were from Sweden (n = 11) or the Netherlands (n = 3). Long-term outcome studies were found for panic disorder, social anxiety disorder, generalized anxiety disorder, depression, mixed anxiety and depression, obsessive-compulsive disorder, pathological gambling, stress and chronic fatigue. The duration of the treatments was usually short (8–15 weeks). The pre-to follow-up effect size was Hedge’s g = 1.52, but with a significant heterogeneity. The average symptom improvement across studies was 50%. Treatment seeking in the follow-up period was not documented and few studies mentioned negative effects.Expert commentary: While effects may be overestimated, it is likely that therapist-supported ICBT can have enduring effects. Long-term follow-up data should be collected for more conditions and new technologies like smartphone-delivered treatments.
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10.
  • Buhrman, Monica, 1974-, et al. (författare)
  • Treating perfectionism using internet-based cognitive behavior therapy : A study protocol for a randomized controlled trial comparing two types of treatment
  • 2020
  • Ingår i: Internet Interventions. - : ELSEVIER. - 2214-7829. ; 21
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Perfectionism is characterized by setting high standards and striving for achievement, sometimes at the expense of social relationships and wellbeing. Despite sometimes being viewed as a positive feature by others, people with perfectionism tend to be overly concerned about their performance and how they are being perceived by people around them. This tends to create inflexible standards, cognitive biases, and performance-related behaviors that maintain a belief that self-worth is linked to accomplishments. Cognitive behavior therapy has been shown to be a viable treatment for perfectionism, both in terms of reducing levels of perfectionism and improving psychiatric symptoms. Furthermore, a number of recent studies indicate that it can be successfully delivered via the Internet, both with regular support and guidance on demand from a therapist. In the present study protocol, a clinical trial for perfectionism is described and outlined. In total, 128 participants will be recruited and randomized to either a treatment that has already been demonstrated to have many benefits, Internet-based Cognitive Behavior Therapy for perfectionism (iCBT-P), or an active comparison condition, Internet-based Unified Protocol (iUP), targeting the emotions underlying depression and anxiety disorders. The results will be investigated with regard to self-reported outcomes of perfectionism, psychiatric symptoms, self-compassion, and quality of life, at post-treatment and at six- and 12-month follow-up. Both iCBT-P and iUP are expected to have a positive impact, but the difference between the two conditions in terms of their specific effects and adherence are currently unknown and will be explored. The clinical trial is believed to lead to a better understanding of how perfectionism can be treated and the specificity of different treatments.
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