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1.
  • Abeysekera, John, et al. (författare)
  • Adaptation to discomfort in personal protective devices : an example with safety helmets
  • 1990
  • Ingår i: Ergonomics. - 0014-0139 .- 1366-5847. ; 33:2, s. 137-145
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • <p>Discomfort in the use of personal protective devices (PPD) has been one of the chief causes of their non-use. A field trial using industrial helmets was carried out to ascertain whether by training and repeated wearing subjects could experience a significant adaptation to discomfort. Ten subjects took part in the trial in a tropical environment by wearing helmets repeatedly (6 h a day) for one month. Subjective evaluations of discomfort were made at the end of the 1st, 3rd, 5th, 14th and 30th day. It was revealed that complaints of discomfort, viz. hotness, heaviness, bad fit, etc., decreased markedly throughout the 30 day period. Though positive responses of adaptation to discomfort seem to reach an optimum towards 30 days, it is difficult to draw any conclusions on the optimum period of adaptation for each discomfort factor. In relation to inherent discomforts that are extremely difficult to overcome without compromising the protection efficiency of a PPD, the principle of adaptation seems to be a very important facet which has to be developed for an effective PPD programme.</p>
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3.
  • Abeysekera, John D.A., et al. (författare)
  • A head-model reconstruction based upon photogrammetric data from Sri Lankan adult males relevant to the design of headgear
  • 1989
  • Ingår i: Journal of Human Ergology. - 0300-8134. ; 18:2, s. 199-211
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • <p>Due to the large variability in heads and faces in one population, the standard anthropometric dimensions of the head, measured from anatomical landmarks alone, may not suffice for the design of fitting headgear, e.g., helmets. To provide adequate data of the shapes and contours of the head to the designer, appropriate head models sculptured using comprehensive head dimensions, must be developed. This paper describes (a) a procedure of collecting comprehensive anthropometric data of the head using a photogrammetric method and (b) a simple sculpturing technique to reconstruct a head model of the user population</p>
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5.
  • Abeysekera, John D.A., et al. (författare)
  • Body size variability between people in developed and developing countries and its impact on the use of imported goods
  • 1989
  • Ingår i: International Journal of Industrial Ergonomics. - 0169-8141 .- 1872-8219. ; 4:2, s. 139-149
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • <p>The Industrially Developing Countries (IDC) today, to a great extent, depend on Industrialized Countries (IC) for the supply of most industrial goods. An attempt has been made to ascertain the degree of design incompatibility experienced by users of these imported goods due to differences in the body sizes of people in producer and user countries. A comparative study of variations in body sizes is made from data available in literature and from anthropometric surveys. The results reveal differences in almost every part of the human body. The need for reliable anthropometric data in respect of IDC is stressed. Urgent measures are required to introduce changes in equipment, particularly for the benefit of users in IDC.</p>
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6.
  • Abeysekera, John D.A., et al. (författare)
  • Effect of the hot environment on man
  • 1988
  • Ingår i: International Symposium on Work in a Hot Environment and Heat Related Disorders, Khartoum 27-31 Jan. 1988.
  • Konferensbidrag (övrigt vetenskapligt)
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9.
  • Abeysekera, John D.A., et al. (författare)
  • Ergonomics assessment of selected dust respirators : their use in the tropics
  • 1987
  • Ingår i: Applied Ergonomics. - 0003-6870 .- 1872-9126. ; 18:4, s. 266-72
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • <p>The suitability and effectiveness of four different types of British made respirators were studied with respect to comfort, convenience and fit on wearers in Sri Lanka (a developing country). Objective and subjective assessments were made to evaluate the degree of discomfort and interferences to the use of senses. The study revealed that factors such as breathing resistance, work-rate and activity period affected the physiological responses. The weight of the respirator and the skin temperature had no direct relationship with the cardiovascular stress. Positive-pressure respirators that gave lower face temperatures than negative-pressure masks gave this type of respirator an additional advantage in hot environments. Respirators that restricted jaw movement affected the speech intelligibility of the wearer. Orinasal masks restricted vision more than the other types. The problem of fit was found negligible though head and face dimensions significantly differed between the British and the Sri Lankans. Subjective assessment correlated well with objective tests.</p>
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10.
  • Abeysekera, John D.A., et al. (författare)
  • Ergonomics evaluation of modified industrial helmets for use in tropical environments
  • 1988
  • Ingår i: Ergonomics. - 0014-0139 .- 1366-5847. ; 31:9, s. 1317-1329
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • <p>Hotness, weight, fitting problems etc., have been found to be the chief causes of the unpopularity of industrial safety helmets in tropical environments in developing countries (DC). Some selected safety helmets manufactured in industrialized countries (IC) were modified to provide extra head ventilation and to reduce weight, in order to make them more acceptable to users in hot environments. The modified helmets were subjected to ergonomics evaluation both objectively and subjectively in the laboratory (in simulated tropical conditions) as well as in the field situation. There was evidence that white helmets had some advantages in comfort, viz. reduction of hotness, compared to the other colours, e.g. red, green etc., when worn in the presence of radiant heat in the laboratory. Ventilation holes provided at the top of the shell seemed to reduce the greenhouse effect within the helmet shell which therefore felt less uncomfortable than a fully covered helmet. Even with a small reduction of weight, such as 45 g in helmets weighing about 350g, the difference in weight was perceived by the wearers. In adapting helmets made in IC for use in tropical climates, head ventilation and low weight perception are important aspects in comfort which need to be considered. In addition to low cost, a harness material suitable for sweat absorption is required. Adjustability and sizing to fit 90% of the user population also needs to be considered in the design and manufacture of safety helmets for people in DC.</p>
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