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Sökning: WFRF:(Sheng Ying)

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1.
  • Klionsky, Daniel J., et al. (författare)
  • Guidelines for the use and interpretation of assays for monitoring autophagy
  • 2012
  • Ingår i: Autophagy. - : Landes Bioscience. - 1554-8635 .- 1554-8627. ; 8:4, s. 445-544
  • Forskningsöversikt (refereegranskat)abstract
    • In 2008 we published the first set of guidelines for standardizing research in autophagy. Since then, research on this topic has continued to accelerate, and many new scientists have entered the field. Our knowledge base and relevant new technologies have also been expanding. Accordingly, it is important to update these guidelines for monitoring autophagy in different organisms. Various reviews have described the range of assays that have been used for this purpose. Nevertheless, there continues to be confusion regarding acceptable methods to measure autophagy, especially in multicellular eukaryotes. A key point that needs to be emphasized is that there is a difference between measurements that monitor the numbers or volume of autophagic elements (e.g., autophagosomes or autolysosomes) at any stage of the autophagic process vs. those that measure flux through the autophagy pathway (i.e., the complete process); thus, a block in macroautophagy that results in autophagosome accumulation needs to be differentiated from stimuli that result in increased autophagic activity, defined as increased autophagy induction coupled with increased delivery to, and degradation within, lysosomes (in most higher eukaryotes and some protists such as Dictyostelium) or the vacuole (in plants and fungi). In other words, it is especially important that investigators new to the field understand that the appearance of more autophagosomes does not necessarily equate with more autophagy. In fact, in many cases, autophagosomes accumulate because of a block in trafficking to lysosomes without a concomitant change in autophagosome biogenesis, whereas an increase in autolysosomes may reflect a reduction in degradative activity. Here, we present a set of guidelines for the selection and interpretation of methods for use by investigators who aim to examine macroautophagy and related processes, as well as for reviewers who need to provide realistic and reasonable critiques of papers that are focused on these processes. These guidelines are not meant to be a formulaic set of rules, because the appropriate assays depend in part on the question being asked and the system being used. In addition, we emphasize that no individual assay is guaranteed to be the most appropriate one in every situation, and we strongly recommend the use of multiple assays to monitor autophagy. In these guidelines, we consider these various methods of assessing autophagy and what information can, or cannot, be obtained from them. Finally, by discussing the merits and limits of particular autophagy assays, we hope to encourage technical innovation in the field.
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3.
  • Duffy, Stephen W., et al. (författare)
  • Mammography screening reduces rates of advanced and fatal breast cancers : Results in 549,091 women
  • 2020
  • Ingår i: Cancer. - : WILEY. - 0008-543X .- 1097-0142. ; 126:13, s. 2971-2979
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background It is of paramount importance to evaluate the impact of participation in organized mammography service screening independently from changes in breast cancer treatment. This can be done by measuring the incidence of fatal breast cancer, which is based on the date of diagnosis and not on the date of death. Methods Among 549,091 women, covering approximately 30% of the Swedish screening-eligible population, the authors calculated the incidence rates of 2473 breast cancers that were fatal within 10 years after diagnosis and the incidence rates of 9737 advanced breast cancers. Data regarding each breast cancer diagnosis and the cause and date of death of each breast cancer case were gathered from national Swedish registries. Tumor characteristics were collected from regional cancer centers. Aggregated data concerning invitation and participation were provided by Sectra Medical Systems AB. Incidence rates were analyzed using Poisson regression. Results Women who participated in mammography screening had a statistically significant 41% reduction in their risk of dying of breast cancer within 10 years (relative risk, 0.59; 95% CI, 0.51-0.68 [P < .001]) and a 25% reduction in the rate of advanced breast cancers (relative risk, 0.75; 95% CI, 0.66-0.84 [P < .001]). Conclusions Substantial reductions in the incidence rate of breast cancers that were fatal within 10 years after diagnosis and in the advanced breast cancer rate were found in this contemporaneous comparison of women participating versus those not participating in screening. These benefits appeared to be independent of recent changes in treatment regimens.
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4.
  • Michailidou, Kyriaki, et al. (författare)
  • Association analysis identifies 65 new breast cancer risk loci.
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: Nature. - : Nature Publishing Group. - 0028-0836 .- 1476-4687. ; 551:7678, s. 92-94
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Breast cancer risk is influenced by rare coding variants in susceptibility genes, such as BRCA1, and many common, mostly non-coding variants. However, much of the genetic contribution to breast cancer risk remains unknown. Here we report the results of a genome-wide association study of breast cancer in 122,977 cases and 105,974 controls of European ancestry and 14,068 cases and 13,104 controls of East Asian ancestry. We identified 65 new loci that are associated with overall breast cancer risk at P < 5 × 10-8. The majority of credible risk single-nucleotide polymorphisms in these loci fall in distal regulatory elements, and by integrating in silico data to predict target genes in breast cells at each locus, we demonstrate a strong overlap between candidate target genes and somatic driver genes in breast tumours. We also find that heritability of breast cancer due to all single-nucleotide polymorphisms in regulatory features was 2-5-fold enriched relative to the genome-wide average, with strong enrichment for particular transcription factor binding sites. These results provide further insight into genetic susceptibility to breast cancer and will improve the use of genetic risk scores for individualized screening and prevention.
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5.
  • Shi, Leming, et al. (författare)
  • The MicroArray Quality Control (MAQC)-II study of common practices for the development and validation of microarray-based predictive models
  • 2010
  • Ingår i: Nature Biotechnology. - : Nature Publishing Group. - 1087-0156 .- 1546-1696. ; 28:8, s. 827-838
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Gene expression data from microarrays are being applied to predict preclinical and clinical endpoints, but the reliability of these predictions has not been established. In the MAQC-II project, 36 independent teams analyzed six microarray data sets to generate predictive models for classifying a sample with respect to one of 13 endpoints indicative of lung or liver toxicity in rodents, or of breast cancer, multiple myeloma or neuroblastoma in humans. In total, >30,000 models were built using many combinations of analytical methods. The teams generated predictive models without knowing the biological meaning of some of the endpoints and, to mimic clinical reality, tested the models on data that had not been used for training. We found that model performance depended largely on the endpoint and team proficiency and that different approaches generated models of similar performance. The conclusions and recommendations from MAQC-II should be useful for regulatory agencies, study committees and independent investigators that evaluate methods for global gene expression analysis.
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6.
  • Tabar, Laszlo, et al. (författare)
  • Early detection of breast cancer rectifies inequality of breast cancer outcomes
  • 2020
  • Ingår i: Journal of Medical Screening. - : Sage Publications. - 0969-1413 .- 1475-5793. ; 28:1, s. 34-38
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Objectives: To explain apparent differences among mammography screening services in Sweden using individual data on participation in screening and with breast cancer-specific survival as an outcome.Methods: We analysed breast cancer survival data from the Swedish Cancer Register on breast cancer cases from nine Swedish counties diagnosed in women eligible for screening. Data were available on 38,278 breast cancers diagnosed and 4312 breast cancer deaths. Survival to death from breast cancer was estimated using the Kaplan-Meier estimate, for all cases in each county, and separately for cases of women participating and not participating in their last invitation to screening. Formal statistical comparisons of survival were made using proportional hazards regression.Results: All counties showed a reduction in the hazard of breast cancer death with participation in screening, but the reductions for individual counties varied substantially, ranging from 51% (95% confidence interval 46-55%) to 81% (95% confidence interval 74-85%). Survival rates in nonparticipating women ranged from 53% (95% confidence interval 40-65%) to 74% (95% confidence interval 72-77%), while the corresponding survival in women participating in screening varied from 80% (95% confidence interval 77-84%) to 86% (95% confidence interval 83-88%), a considerably narrower range.Conclusions: Differences among counties in the effect of screening on breast cancer outcomes were mainly due to variation in survival in women not participating in screening. Screening conferred similarly high survival rates in all counties. This indicates that the performance of screening services was similar across counties and that detection and treatment of breast cancer in early-stage reduces inequalities in breast cancer outcome.
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7.
  • Tabar, Laszlo, et al. (författare)
  • Effect of Mammography Screening on Mortality by Histological Grade
  • 2018
  • Ingår i: Cancer Epidemiology, Biomarkers and Prevention. - : American Association for Cancer Research. - 1055-9965 .- 1538-7755. ; 27:2, s. 154-157
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background: It has been asserted that mammography screening preferentially benefits those with less aggressive cancers, with lesser or no impact on more rapidly progressing and therefore more life-threatening tumors. Methods: We utilized data from the Swedish Two-County Trial, which randomized 77,080 women ages 40 to 74 to invitation to screening and 55,985 for usual care. We tabulated cancers by histologic grade and then compared mortality from cancers specific to histologic grade between the invited and control group using Poisson regression, with specific interest in the effect on mortality from grade 3 cancers. We used incidence-based mortality from tumors diagnosed within the screening phase of the trial. Finally, we cross-tabulated grade with tumor size and node status, to assess downstaging within tumor grades. Results: There was a major reduction in mortality from grade 3 tumors (RR = 0.65; 95% CI, 0.53-0.80; P < 0.001), and more deaths prevented from grade 3 tumors (n = 95) than grade 1 and 2 tumors combined (n = 48) in the invited group. The proportions of tumors >= 15 mm or larger and node-positive tumors were substantially reduced in the grade 3 tumors in the invited group. Conclusions: The combination of prevention of tumors progressing to grade 3 and detection at smaller sizes and lesser rates of lymph node metastases within grade 3 tumors results in a substantial number of deaths from grade 3 cancers being prevented by invitation to mammographic screening. Impact: Mammography screening prevents deaths from aggressive cancers. 
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8.
  • Tabar, Laszlo, et al. (författare)
  • The incidence of fatal breast cancer measures the increased effectiveness of therapy in women participating in mammography screening
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: Cancer. - : John Wiley & Sons. - 0008-543X .- 1097-0142. ; 125:4, s. 515-523
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background: Women and their health care providers need a reliable answer to this important question: If a woman chooses to participate in regular mammography screening, then how much will this choice improve her chances of avoiding a death from breast cancer compared with women who choose not to participate? Methods: To answer this question, we used comprehensive registries for population, screening history, breast cancer incidence, and disease-specific death data in a defined population in Dalarna County, Sweden. The annual incidence of breast cancer was calculated along with the annual incidence of breast cancers that were fatal within 10 and within 11 to 20 years of diagnosis among women aged 40 to 69 years who either did or did not participate in mammography screening during a 39-year period (1977-2015). For an additional comparison, corresponding data are presented from 19 years of the prescreening period (1958-1976). All patients received stage-specific therapy according to the latest national guidelines, irrespective of the mode of detection. Results: The benefit for women who chose to participate in an organized breast cancer screening program was a 60% lower risk of dying from breast cancer within 10 years after diagnosis (relative risk, 0.40; 95% confidence interval, 0.34-0.48) and a 47% lower risk of dying from breast cancer within 20 years after diagnosis (relative risk, 0.53; 95% confidence interval, 0.44-0.63) compared with the corresponding risks for nonparticipants. Conclusions: Although all patients with breast cancer stand to benefit from advances in breast cancer therapy, the current results demonstrate that women who have participated in mammography screening obtain a significantly greater benefit from the therapy available at the time of diagnosis than do those who have not participated.
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9.
  • Wu, Wendy Yi-Ying, et al. (författare)
  • Imaging Biomarkers as Predictors for Breast Cancer Death
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: Journal of Oncology. - : Hindawi Publishing Corporation. - 1687-8450 .- 1687-8469.
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background. To differentiate the risk of breast cancer death in a longitudinal cohort using imaging biomarkers of tumor extent and biology, specifically, the mammographic appearance, basal phenotype, histologic tumor distribution, and conventional tumor attributes. Methods. Using a prospective cohort study design, 498 invasive breast cancer patients diagnosed between 1996 and 1998 were used as the test cohort to assess the independent effects of the imaging biomarkers and other predictors on the risk of breast cancer death. External validation was performed with a cohort of 848 patients diagnosed between 2006 and 2010. Results. Mammographic tumor appearance was an independent predictor of risk of breast cancer death (P=0.0003) when conventional tumor attributes and treatment modalities were controlled. The casting type calcifications and architectural distortion were associated with 3.13-fold and 3.19-fold risks of breast cancer death, respectively. The basal phenotype independently conferred a 2.68-fold risk compared with nonbasal phenotype. The observed deaths did not differ significantly from expected deaths in the validation cohort. The application of imaging biomarkers together with other predictors classified twelve categories of risk for breast cancer death. Conclusion. Combining imaging biomarkers such as the mammographic appearance of the tumor with the histopathologic distribution and basal phenotype, accurately predicted long-term risk of breast cancer death. The information may be relevant for determining the need for molecular testing, planning treatment, and determining the most appropriate clinical surveillance schedule for breast cancer patients.
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10.
  • Blunden, Jessica, et al. (författare)
  • State of the Climate in 2012
  • 2013
  • Ingår i: Bulletin of The American Meteorological Society - (BAMS). - 0003-0007 .- 1520-0477. ; 94:8, s. S1-S258
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • For the first time in serveral years, the El Nino-Southern Oscillation did not dominate regional climate conditions around the globe. A weak La Ni a dissipated to ENSOneutral conditions by spring, and while El Nino appeared to be emerging during summer, this phase never fully developed as sea surface temperatures in the eastern conditions. Nevertheless, other large-scale climate patterns and extreme weather events impacted various regions during the year. A negative phase of the Arctic Oscillation from mid-January to early February contributed to frigid conditions in parts of northern Africa, eastern Europe, and western Asia. A lack of rain during the 2012 wet season led to the worst drought in at least the past three decades for northeastern Brazil. Central North America also experienced one of its most severe droughts on record. The Caribbean observed a very wet dry season and it was the Sahel's wettest rainy season in 50 years. Overall, the 2012 average temperature across global land and ocean surfaces ranked among the 10 warmest years on record. The global land surface temperature alone was also among the 10 warmest on record. In the upper atmosphere, the average stratospheric temperature was record or near-record cold, depending on the dataset. After a 30-year warming trend from 1970 to 1999 for global sea surface temperatures, the period 2000-12 had little further trend. This may be linked to the prevalence of La Ni a-like conditions during the 21st century. Heat content in the upper 700 m of the ocean remained near record high levels in 2012. Net increases from 2011 to 2012 were observed at 700-m to 2000-m depth and even in the abyssal ocean below. Following sharp decreases in to the effects of La Ni a, sea levels rebounded to reach records highs in 2012. The increased hydrological cycle seen in recent years continued, with more evaporation in drier locations and more precipitation in rainy areas. In a pattern that has held since 2004, salty areas of the ocean surfaces and subsurfaces were anomalously salty on average, while fresher areas were anomalously fresh. Global tropical cyclone activity during 2012 was near average, with a total of 84 storms compared with the 1981-2010 average of 89. Similar to 2010 and 2011, the North Atlantic was the only hurricane basin that experienced above-normal activity. In this basin, Sandy brought devastation to Cuba and parts of the eastern North American seaboard. All other basins experienced either near-or below-normal tropical cyclone activity. Only three tropical cyclones reached Category 5 intensity-all in Bopha became the only storm in the historical record to produce winds greater than 130 kt south of 7 N. It was also the costliest storm to affect the Philippines and killed more than 1000 residents. Minimum Arctic sea ice extent in September and Northern Hemisphere snow cover extent in June both reached new record lows. June snow cover extent is now declining at a faster rate (-17.6% per decade) than September sea ice extent (-13.0% per decade). Permafrost temperatures reached record high values in northernmost Alaska. A new melt extent record occurred on 11-12 July on the Greenland ice sheet; 97% of the ice sheet showed some form of melt, four times greater than the average melt for this time of year. The climate in Antarctica was relatively stable overall. The largest maximum sea ice extent since records begain in 1978 was observed in September 2012. In the stratosphere, warm air led to the second smallest ozone hole in the past two decades. Even so, the springtime ozone layer above Antarctica likely will not return to its early 1980s state until about 2060. Following a slight decline associated with the global 2 emissions from fossil fuel combustion and cement production reached a record 9.5 +/- 0.5 Pg C in 2011 and a new record of 9.7 +/- 0.5 Pg C is estimated for 2012. Atmospheric CO2 concentrations increased by 2.1 ppm in 2012, to 392.6 ppm. In spring 2012, 2 concentration exceeded 400 ppm at 7 of the 13 Arctic observation sites. Globally, other greenhouse gases including methane and nitrous oxide also continued to rise in concentration and the combined effect now represents a 32% increase in radiative forcing over a 1990 baseline. Concentrations of most ozone depleting substances continued to fall.
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