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1.
  • Klionsky, Daniel J., et al. (författare)
  • Guidelines for the use and interpretation of assays for monitoring autophagy
  • 2012
  • Ingår i: Autophagy. - : Landes Bioscience. - 1554-8635 .- 1554-8627. ; 8:4, s. 445-544
  • Forskningsöversikt (refereegranskat)abstract
    • In 2008 we published the first set of guidelines for standardizing research in autophagy. Since then, research on this topic has continued to accelerate, and many new scientists have entered the field. Our knowledge base and relevant new technologies have also been expanding. Accordingly, it is important to update these guidelines for monitoring autophagy in different organisms. Various reviews have described the range of assays that have been used for this purpose. Nevertheless, there continues to be confusion regarding acceptable methods to measure autophagy, especially in multicellular eukaryotes. A key point that needs to be emphasized is that there is a difference between measurements that monitor the numbers or volume of autophagic elements (e.g., autophagosomes or autolysosomes) at any stage of the autophagic process vs. those that measure flux through the autophagy pathway (i.e., the complete process); thus, a block in macroautophagy that results in autophagosome accumulation needs to be differentiated from stimuli that result in increased autophagic activity, defined as increased autophagy induction coupled with increased delivery to, and degradation within, lysosomes (in most higher eukaryotes and some protists such as Dictyostelium) or the vacuole (in plants and fungi). In other words, it is especially important that investigators new to the field understand that the appearance of more autophagosomes does not necessarily equate with more autophagy. In fact, in many cases, autophagosomes accumulate because of a block in trafficking to lysosomes without a concomitant change in autophagosome biogenesis, whereas an increase in autolysosomes may reflect a reduction in degradative activity. Here, we present a set of guidelines for the selection and interpretation of methods for use by investigators who aim to examine macroautophagy and related processes, as well as for reviewers who need to provide realistic and reasonable critiques of papers that are focused on these processes. These guidelines are not meant to be a formulaic set of rules, because the appropriate assays depend in part on the question being asked and the system being used. In addition, we emphasize that no individual assay is guaranteed to be the most appropriate one in every situation, and we strongly recommend the use of multiple assays to monitor autophagy. In these guidelines, we consider these various methods of assessing autophagy and what information can, or cannot, be obtained from them. Finally, by discussing the merits and limits of particular autophagy assays, we hope to encourage technical innovation in the field.
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5.
  • Aad, G., et al. (författare)
  • A neural network clustering algorithm for the ATLAS silicon pixel detector
  • 2014
  • Ingår i: Journal of Instrumentation. - : IOP Publishing. - 1748-0221. ; 9
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • A novel technique to identify and split clusters created by multiple charged particles in the ATLAS pixel detector using a set of artificial neural networks is presented. Such merged clusters are a common feature of tracks originating from highly energetic objects, such as jets. Neural networks are trained using Monte Carlo samples produced with a detailed detector simulation. This technique replaces the former clustering approach based on a connected component analysis and charge interpolation. The performance of the neural network splitting technique is quantified using data from proton-proton collisions at the LHC collected by the ATLAS detector in 2011 and from Monte Carlo simulations. This technique reduces the number of clusters shared between tracks in highly energetic jets by up to a factor of three. It also provides more precise position and error estimates of the clusters in both the transverse and longitudinal impact parameter resolution.
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6.
  • Aad, G, et al. (författare)
  • Evidence for Electroweak Production of W^{±}W^{±}jj in pp Collisions at sqrt[s]=8 TeV with the ATLAS Detector.
  • 2014
  • Ingår i: Physical Review Letters. - : American Physical Society. - 1079-7114. ; 113:14
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • This Letter presents the first study of W^{±}W^{±}jj, same-electric-charge diboson production in association with two jets, using 20.3 fb^{-1} of proton-proton collision data at sqrt[s]=8 TeV recorded by the ATLAS detector at the Large Hadron Collider. Events with two reconstructed same-charge leptons (e^{±}e^{±}, e^{±}μ^{±}, and μ^{±}μ^{±}) and two or more jets are analyzed. Production cross sections are measured in two fiducial regions, with different sensitivities to the electroweak and strong production mechanisms. First evidence for W^{±}W^{±}jj production and electroweak-only W^{±}W^{±}jj production is observed with a significance of 4.5 and 3.6 standard deviations, respectively. The measured production cross sections are in agreement with standard model predictions. Limits at 95% confidence level are set on anomalous quartic gauge couplings.
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7.
  • Aad, G., et al. (författare)
  • Measurement of inclusive jet charged-particle fragmentation functions in Pb plus Pb collisions at root S-NN=2.76 TeV with the ATLAS detector
  • 2014
  • Ingår i: Physics Letters. Section B: Nuclear, Elementary Particle and High-Energy Physics. - : Elsevier. - 0370-2693 .- 1873-2445. ; 739, s. 320-342
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Measurements of charged-particle fragmentation functions of jets produced in ultra-relativistic nuclear collisions can provide insight into the modification of parton showers in the hot, dense medium created in the collisions. ATLAS has measured jets in root S-NN = 2.76 TeV Pb+Pb collisions at the LHC using a data set recorded in 2011 with an integrated luminosity of 0.14 nb(-1). Jets were reconstructed using the anti-k(t) algorithm with distance parameter values R = 0.2, 0.3, and 0.4. Distributions of charged-particle transverse momentum and longitudinal momentum fraction are reported for seven bins in collision centrality for R = 0.4 jets with p(T)(jet) > 100 GeV. Commensurate minimum p(T) values are used for the other radii. Ratios of fragment distributions in each centrality bin to those measured in the most peripheral bin are presented. These ratios show a reduction of fragment yield in central collisions relative to peripheral collisions at intermediate z values, 0.04 less than or similar to z less than or similar to 0.2, and an enhancement in fragment yield for z less than or similar to 0.04. A smaller, less significant enhancement is observed at large z and large p(T) in central collisions. (C) 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V.
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8.
  • Aad, G., et al. (författare)
  • Measurement of the cross section of high transverse momentum Z -> b(b)over-bar production in proton-proton collisions at root s=8 TeV with the ATLAS detector
  • 2014
  • Ingår i: Physics Letters. Section B: Nuclear, Elementary Particle and High-Energy Physics. - : Elsevier. - 0370-2693 .- 1873-2445. ; 738, s. 25-43
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • This Letter reports the observation of a high transverse momentum Z -> b (b) over bar signal in proton-proton collisions at root s = 8TeVand the measurement of its production cross section. The data analysed were collected in 2012 with the ATLAS detector at the LHC and correspond to an integrated luminosity of 19.5 fb(-1). The Z -> b (b) over bar decay is reconstructed from a pair of b-tagged jets, clustered with the anti- k(t) jet algorithm with R = 0.4, that have low angular separation and form a dijet with p(T) > 200 GeV. The signal yield is extracted from a fit to the dijet invariant mass distribution, with the dominant, multi-jet background mass shape estimated by employing a fully data-driven technique that reduces the dependence of the analysis on simulation. The fiducial cross section is determined to be sigma(fid)(Z -> b (b) over bar) = 2.02 +/- 0.20 (stat.) +/- 0.25 (syst.) +/- 0.06 (lumi.) pb = 2.02 +/- 0.33 pb, in good agreement with next-to-leading-order theoretical predictions. Published by Elsevier B.V.
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9.
  • Aad, G., et al. (författare)
  • Measurement of the forward-backward asymmetry of electron and muon pair-production in pp collisions at root s=7 TeV with the ATLAS detector
  • 2015
  • Ingår i: Journal of High Energy Physics. - : Springer. - 1029-8479 .- 1126-6708. ; :9
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • This paper presents measurements from the ATLAS experiment of the forward-backward asymmetry in the reaction pp -> Z/gamma* -> l(+)l(-), with l being electrons or muons, and the extraction of the effective weak mixing angle. The results are based on the full set of data collected in 2011 in pp collisions at the LHC at root s = 7 TeV, corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 4.8 fb(-1). The measured asymmetry values are found to be in agreement with the corresponding Standard Model predictions. The combination of the muon and electron channels yields a value of the effective weak mixing angle of sin(2) theta(lept)(eff) = 0.2308 +/- 0.0005(stat.)+/- 0.0006(syst.)+/- 0.0009(PDF), where the first uncertainty corresponds to data statistics, the second to s ystematic effects and the third to knowledge of the parton density functions. This result agrees with the current world average from the Particle Data Group fit.
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10.
  • Aad, G., et al. (författare)
  • Measurement of the production cross-section of psi(2S) -> J/psi(-> mu(+)mu(-))pi(+) pi(-) in pp collisions at root s=7 TeV at ATLAS
  • 2014
  • Ingår i: Journal of High Energy Physics. - : Springer. - 1029-8479 .- 1126-6708. ; :9, s. 1-49
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The prompt and non-prompt production cross-sections for psi(2S) mesons are measured using 2.1 fb(-1) of pp collision data at a centre-of-mass energy of 7TeV recorded by the ATLAS experiment at the LHC. The measurement exploits the psi(2S) --> J/psi(--> mu(+)mu(-)) pi(+)pi(-) decay mode, and probes psi(2S) mesons with transverse momenta in the range 10 <= p(T) < 100 GeV and rapidity |y| < 2.0. The results are compared to other measurements of psi(2S) production at the LHC and to various theoretical models for prompt and non-prompt quarkonium production.
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