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Sökning: WFRF:(Shvidenko Anatoly)

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1.
  • Abbott, Benjamin W., et al. (författare)
  • Biomass offsets little or none of permafrost carbon release from soils, streams, and wildfire : an expert assessment
  • 2016
  • Ingår i: Environmental Research Letters. - : IOP Publishing: Open Access Journals / IOP Publishing. - 1748-9326 .- 1748-9326. ; 11:3
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • As the permafrost region warms, its large organic carbon pool will be increasingly vulnerable to decomposition, combustion, and hydrologic export. Models predict that some portion of this release will be offset by increased production of Arctic and boreal biomass; however, the lack of robust estimates of net carbon balance increases the risk of further overshooting international emissions targets. Precise empirical or model-based assessments of the critical factors driving carbon balance are unlikely in the near future, so to address this gap, we present estimates from 98 permafrost-region experts of the response of biomass, wildfire, and hydrologic carbon flux to climate change. Results suggest that contrary to model projections, total permafrost-region biomass could decrease due to water stress and disturbance, factors that are not adequately incorporated in current models. Assessments indicate that end-of-the-century organic carbon release from Arctic rivers and collapsing coastlines could increase by 75% while carbon loss via burning could increase four-fold. Experts identified water balance, shifts in vegetation community, and permafrost degradation as the key sources of uncertainty in predicting future system response. In combination with previous findings, results suggest the permafrost region will become a carbon source to the atmosphere by 2100 regardless of warming scenario but that 65%-85% of permafrost carbon release can still be avoided if human emissions are actively reduced.
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2.
  • Barredo, José I., et al. (författare)
  • Mapping and assessment of forest ecosystems and their services : Applications and guidance for decision making in the framework of MAES
  • 2015
  • Rapport (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • The aim of this report is to illustrate by means of a series of case studies the implementation of mapping and assessment of forest ecosystem services in different contexts and geographical levels. Methodological aspects, data issues, approaches, limitations, gaps and further steps for improvement are analysed for providing good practices and decision making guidance. The EU initiative on Mappingand Assessment of Ecosystems and their Services (MAES), with the support of all Member States, contributes to improve the knowledge on ecosystem services. MAES is one of the building-block initiatives supporting the EU Biodiversity Strategy to 2020.
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3.
  • Jonas, Matthias, et al. (författare)
  • Sustaining ecosystem services : overcoming the dilemma posed by local actions and planetary boundaries
  • 2014
  • Ingår i: Earth's Future. - : John Wiley and Sons Inc.. - 2328-4277. ; 2:8, s. 407-420
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Resolving challenges related to the sustainability of natural capital and ecosystem services is an urgent issue. No roadmap on reaching sustainability exists; and the kind of sustainable land use required in a world that acknowledges both multiple environmental boundaries and local human well-being presents a quandary. In this commentary, we argue that a new globally consistent and expandable systems-analytical framework is needed to guide and facilitate decision making on sustainability from the planetary to the local level, and vice versa. This framework would strive to link a multitude of Earth system processes and targets; it would give preference to systemic insight over data complexity through being highly explicit in spatiotemporal terms. Its strength would lie in its ability to help scientists uncover and explore potential, and even unexpected, interactions between Earth’s subsystems with planetary environmental boundaries and socioeconomic constraints coming into play. Equally importantly, such a framework would allow countries such as Brazil, a case study in this commentary, to understand domestic or even local sustainability measures within a global perspective and to optimize them accordingly.
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4.
  • Kraxner, Florian, et al. (författare)
  • Planning the future forests: managing for wildlife in a climate constrained landscape
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: ; , s. 655-
  • Konferensbidrag (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Multipurpose functionality is a paradigm when it comes to forest management. This includes sustainability, resilience, stand stability, wildlife management, recreation, clean water and air, or healthy soils - to name a few. The world is aiming at a maximum global warming of 2-deg by 2100, but cumulative emissions are still rising. Higher temperatures are associated with higher risks of extreme events such as storm, flood, droughts, pests and fires etc. - and at the same time, forest systems are key for any mitigation activity to avoid such dangerous climate change. But how will a managed forest look like in the future? How can we understand the underlying dynamics and make our forests fit for the increased need for carbon storage, biomass for energy and sustainable wood and non-wood forest products like game, while maintaining biodiversity, recreational and protected areas. Moreover, we need to address all challenges on limited land and establish action from policy development allthe way to their implementation within a short time frame. Based on Sweden's forests, traditionally considered a role model for successfully bridging a multitude of demands, we present a modeling approach that should serve as a planning tool for enhancing forests' risk resilience and capacity of integrating diverse demands and different ecosystem-services. Guided by the expertise of Sweden's Environmental Protection Agency, national forest and habitat shift models from SLU and KTH will be linked with global land use models and engineering tools from IIASA. Hereby, special emphasis will be put on ecosystem services from wildlife, different scenarios of forest intensification and the optimization of biomass for bioenergy production. First estimates show that spatially explicit modeling can substantially support decision making by optimizing multipurpose use of both managed and protected areas and steering habitat shift for maintaining biodiversity and improving wildlife (game)management.
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5.
  • Lappalainen, Hanna K., et al. (författare)
  • Pan-Eurasian Experiment (PEEX) : towards a holistic understanding of the feedbacks and interactions in the land-atmosphere-ocean-society continuum in the northern Eurasian region
  • 2016
  • Ingår i: Atmospheric Chemistry And Physics. - 1680-7316 .- 1680-7324. ; 16:22, s. 14421-14461
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The northern Eurasian regions and Arctic Ocean will very likely undergo substantial changes during the next decades. The Arctic-boreal natural environments play a crucial role in the global climate via albedo change, carbon sources and sinks as well as atmospheric aerosol production from biogenic volatile organic compounds. Furthermore, it is expected that global trade activities, demographic movement, and use of natural resources will be increasing in the Arctic regions. There is a need for a novel research approach, which not only identifies and tackles the relevant multi-disciplinary research questions, but also is able to make a holistic system analysis of the expected feedbacks. In this paper, we introduce the research agenda of the Pan-Eurasian Experiment (PEEX), a multi-scale, multi-disciplinary and international program started in 2012 (https://www.atm.helsinki.fi/peex/). PEEX sets a research approach by which large-scale research topics are investigated from a system perspective and which aims to fill the key gaps in our understanding of the feedbacks and interactions between the land-atmosphereaquatic-society continuum in the northern Eurasian region. We introduce here the state of the art for the key topics in the PEEX research agenda and present the future prospects of the research, which we see relevant in this context.
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6.
  • Santoro, Maurizio, et al. (författare)
  • Estimates of Forest Growing Stock Volume for Sweden, Central Siberia, and Quebec Using Envisat Advanced Synthetic Aperture Radar Backscatter Data
  • 2013
  • Ingår i: Remote Sensing. - : MDPI. - 2072-4292 .- 2072-4292. ; 5:9, s. 4503-4532
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • A study was undertaken to assess Envisat Advanced Synthetic Aperture Radar (ASAR) ScanSAR data for quantifying forest growing stock volume (GSV) across three boreal regions with varying forest types, composition, and structure (Sweden, Central Siberia, and Quebec). Estimates of GSV were obtained using hyper-temporal observations of the radar backscatter acquired by Envisat ASAR with the BIOMASAR algorithm. In total, 5.310(6) km(2) were mapped with a 0.01 degrees pixel size to obtain estimates representative for the year of 2005. Comparing the SAR-based estimates to spatially explicit datasets of GSV, generated from forest field inventory and/or Earth Observation data, revealed similar spatial distributions of GSV. Nonetheless, the weak sensitivity of C-band backscatter to forest structural parameters introduced significant uncertainty to the estimated GSV at full resolution. Further discrepancies were observed in the case of different scales of the ASAR and the reference GSV and in areas of fragmented landscapes. Aggregation to 0.1 degrees and 0.5 degrees was then undertaken to generate coarse scale estimates of GSV. The agreement between ASAR and the reference GSV datasets improved; the relative difference at 0.5 degrees was consistently within a magnitude of 20-30%. The results indicate an improvement of the characterization of forest GSV in the boreal zone with respect to currently available information.
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7.
  • Santoro, Maurizio, et al. (författare)
  • Forest growing stock volume of the northern hemisphere : Spatially explicit estimates for 2010 derived from Envisat ASAR
  • 2015
  • Ingår i: Remote Sensing of Environment. - : Elsevier. - 0034-4257 .- 1879-0704. ; 168, s. 316-334
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • This paper presents and assesses spatially explicit estimates of forest growing stock volume (GSV) of the northern hemisphere (north of 10 degrees N) from hyper-temporal observations of Envisat Advanced Synthetic Aperture Radar (ASAR) backscattered intensity using the BIOMASAR algorithm. Approximately 70,000 ASAR images at a pixel size of 0.01 degrees were used to estimate GSV representative for the year 2010. The spatial distribution of the GSV across four ecological zones (polar, boreal, temperate, subtropical) was well captured by the ASAR-based estimates. The uncertainty of the retrieved GSV was smallest in boreal and temperate forest (<30% for approximately 80% of the forest area) and largest in subtropical forest. ASAR-derived GSV averages at the level of administrative units were mostly in agreement with inventory-derived estimates. Underestimation occurred in regions of very high GSV (>300 m(3)/ha) and fragmented forest landscapes. For the major forested countries within the study region, the relative RMSE between ASAR-derived GSV averages at provincial level and corresponding values from National Forest Inventory was between 12% and 45% (average: 29%).
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8.
  • Thurner, Martin, et al. (författare)
  • Carbon stock and density of northern boreal and temperate forests
  • 2014
  • Ingår i: Global Ecology and Biogeography. - 1466-822X .- 1466-8238. ; 23:3, s. 297-310
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • AimTo infer a forest carbon density map at 0.01 degrees resolution from a radar remote sensing product for the estimation of carbon stocks in Northern Hemisphere boreal and temperate forests. LocationThe study area extends from 30 degrees N to 80 degrees N, covering three forest biomes - temperate broadleaf and mixed forests (TBMF), temperate conifer forests (TCF) and boreal forests (BFT) - over three continents (North America, Europe and Asia). MethodsThis study is based on a recently available growing stock volume (GSV) product retrieved from synthetic aperture radar data. Forest biomass and spatially explicit uncertainty estimates were derived from the GSV using existing databases of wood density and allometric relationships between biomass compartments (stem, branches, roots, foliage). We tested the resultant map against inventory-based biomass data from Russia, Europe and the USA prior to making intercontinent and interbiome carbon stock comparisons. ResultsOur derived carbon density map agrees well with inventory data at regional scales (r(2)=0.70-0.90). While 40.715.7 petagram of carbon (PgC) are stored in BFT, TBMF and TCF contain 24.5 +/- 9.4PgC and 14.5 +/- 4.8 PgC, respectively. In terms of carbon density, we found 6.21 +/- 2.07kgC m(-2) retained in TCF and 5.80 +/- 2.21kgC m(-2) in TBMF, whereas BFT have a mean carbon density of 4.00 +/- 1.54kgC m(-2). Indications of a higher carbon density in Europe compared with the other continents across each of the three biomes could not be proved to be significant. Main conclusionsThe presented carbon density and corresponding uncertainty map give an insight into the spatial patterns of biomass and stand as a new benchmark to improve carbon cycle models and carbon monitoring systems. In total, we found 79.8 +/- 29.9PgC stored in northern boreal and temperate forests, with Asian BFT accounting for 22.1 +/- 8.3PgC.
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